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The banned furaltadone

Posted on: November 16, 2020, edit by Jason
furaltadone
furaltadone

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  1. What is furaltadone?
  2. Uses of furaltadone
  3. Hazards of furaltadone
  4. Conclusion

What is furaltadone?   

Nitrofuran drugs are broad-spectrum antibiotics that can kill most gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi, protozoa and other pathogens. They act on the microbial enzyme system, inhibit acetyl-CoA, interfere with the metabolism of microbial carbohydrates, and play a bacteriostatic effect. Nitrofurans have been widely used in livestock, poultry and aquaculture industries to treat enteritis, scabies, red fin disease, ulcer disease caused by E. coli or Salmonella.

  • Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by scabies mites in the epidermis of human skin. It can spread among families and contacts. The clinical manifestations are characterized by papules, blisters and tunnels in the tender skin, pruritic nodules in the scrotum, and increased itching at night. Scabies mites often parasitize in the thin and soft skin areas, such as the finger joints and their sides, wrist flexion, elbows, armpits, around the umbilicus, waist, lower abdomen, genitals, groin, and upper thigh. The head and face are usually not affected, except for children.

    The skin lesions are pinpoint-sized papules and herpes. A tunnel dug by scabies can often be found at the finger joints, and a needle can be used to pick out females at the tunnel entrance. This is a characteristic symptom of scabies, accompanied by severe itching at night. If the skin lesions do not heal for a long time, secondary changes often occur, such as scratches, blood scabs, punctate pigmentation, eczema-like changes and pustules. In some patients, light or reddish brown Inflammatory hard nodules in hemisphere from mung bean to soybean may appear in the scrotum, penis, and other places, with severe itching. Another rare type is Norwegian scabies, which is a severe form of scabies, which mostly occurs in people who are weak. This type of rash is widespread and has a smell.
  • Red fin disease is the name of a disease, which is mainly manifested as hemorrhage of the anal and pectoral fins, red and swollen anus, and intestinal congestion. It is generally believed that the disease is caused by Aeromonas bacterium. The bases of the dorsal, pectoral, and anal fins of the sick fish are red, the anus is dilated and red, the abdomen is hyperemic and inflamed, and the scales are loose and easy to fall off. The bowel is inflamed, the abdomen is enlarged and there is ascites. Fish with this disease swim slowly, often staying at the edge of the pool, and die soon.
  • Red fin disease is the name of a disease, which is mainly manifested as hemorrhage of the anal and pectoral fins, red and swollen anus, and intestinal congestion. It is generally believed that the disease is caused by Aeromonas bacterium. The bases of the dorsal, pectoral, and anal fins of the sick fish are red, the anus is dilated and red, the abdomen is hyperemic and inflamed, and the scales are loose and easy to fall off. The bowel is inflamed, the abdomen is enlarged and there is ascites. Fish with this disease swim slowly, often staying at the edge of the pool, and die soon.

Furaltadone have a broad antibacterial spectrum, and have antibacterial effects on most Gram-positive and negative bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, etc. Furaltadone is not easily absorbed in the intestines after oral administration, so it is mainly used for intestinal infections, and can also be used for the treatment of coccidiosis and turkey blackhead. The commonly used furan drugs are mainly furazolidone preparations.

Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease that damages the intestines of poultry. Coccidiosis is a disease feared by many commercial poultry farmers in the United States. Tolls more than 20% are very common. Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease that can cause severe loss of poultry meat and egg production. Parasites multiply in the small intestine and cause tissue damage, reduce feed intake and nutrient absorption rate in feed, dehydration and blood loss. Coccidiosis is caused by a single-celled parasite Eimeria. The life cycle of Eimeria is approximately 4-7 days. Eimeria's life begins when the active oocysts are eaten by the chicken. An "oocyst" is a capsule with a thick protective layer to protect the parasites. They are "spores" or non-infectious, but if the humidity, temperature, or oxygen are right, they start to grow. After the chicken eats the oocysts, the coccidia implants in the intestinal tract, and then multiplies among the intestinal cells, damaging the tissue.

Chicken blackhead is also known as cecal hepatitis. Its pathogen is a small protozoan- Turkey tissue trichomonas. It has weak flagella that parasitizes in the cecum and liver of chickens and can be excreted with intestinal contents. Chicks are highly susceptible. Adult chickens can also be infected, most of which are recessive infections that can spread and carry pathogens. The incubation period is 8-20 days. Sick chickens are lack of energy with poor appetite, loose feathers, drooping wings, lethargy, diarrhea, and yellowish or light green stools. The skin of the sick chicken's head is dark blue and purple, so it is called blackhead. If not treated in time, it will die in about 10 days.

On December 27, 2019, furaltadone was included in the list of drugs and other compounds banned for use in food animals.

Uses of furaltadone

Furaltadone is effective against avian mycoplasma, Salmonella septicaemia, typhimurium, etc. It has better effect than tylosin on avian mycoplasma (mycoplasma) disease.

Furaltadone can be used to treat avian Salmonella infections by mixed drinking at a concentration of 400ppm; for the treatment of avian mycoplasma disease, it can be administered by mixed drinking at 263ppm or mixed feeding at a concentration of 440ppm; treat bovine mastitis by infusing 500 mg per milk room after milking.

  • Avian salmonellosis is a general term for acute or chronic diseases of poultry caused by a Salmonella species belonging to the genus Salmonella. The disease caused by Salmonella pullorum is called pullorum, the disease caused by Salmonella gallisepticum becomes avian typhoid, and the poultry diseases caused by other Salmonella with flagella are collectively called avian paratyphoid. Avian salmonellosis is widespread all over the world and is very harmful to the poultry industry.
  • Avian mycoplasmosis occurs almost everywhere in the world and has become an important problem in chicken and turkey. There are reports about the disease in Canada (1953), the Netherlands (1950), the Philippines (1958), India (1961), Japan (1958), England (1960), Germany (1958), Switzerland (1958), Egypt (1956), France (1958), Australia (1956), South Africa (1940), Finland (1967) and the Czech Republic, while turkey disease are reported in England (1907), Australia (1940), Italy (1960), France (1958) and South Africa. In some areas, the mortality rate of the disease can generally reach 20%-30%, and the incidence rate can be as high as 90%.
  • Avian mycoplasmosis harms by more than 13% chickens, reducing their body weight by 38% and feed conversion rate by 21%. In broiler chickens, MG and other pathogenic bacteria can cause chronic respiratory disease CRD, which can lead to increased mortality, culling rate and discard rate during processing; in laying hens, the outbreak of MG causes increased mortality. The real harm is to cause a 5%-10% drop in egg production. In turkeys, MG can cause sinusitis, air sacculitis, and infectious sinusitis characterized by high mortality.
  • The symptoms of cow mastitis are inflammation of the parenchyma and interstitium of the udder. The etiology is mostly caused by mechanical irritation, pathogenic microorganism infiltration and chemical and physical damage. It can be divided into serous mastitis, fibrinous catarrhal mastitis, purulent mastitis, hemorrhagic mastitis, gangrenous mastitis and recessive mastitis. Inflammation is characterized by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and dysfunction. Clinical mastitis usually has these five characteristics. However, when certain diseases occur, only breast edema and milk changes show, but the treatment of mastitis cannot be effective. The mammary gland is a special organ without redness, swelling, heat, pain, etc., but the milk is flocculent, flaky or granular changes, and the secretory function of the mammary gland has changed.

Hazards of furaltadone

Nitrofuran spectral antibiotics (furaltadone, furazolidone, nitrofurantoin, nitrofurazone) mainly appear in animal foods. Prototype nitrofuran drugs metabolize rapidly in organisms, and their metabolites are AOZ, AMOZ, AHD, and SEM respectively, which are combined with proteins and stable. Therefore, the detection of metabolites is often used to reflect the residual situation of nitrofuran drugs.

They have a malignant impact on human health and are carcinogenic. Many countries including the United States, Canada and the European Union have banned their use in food. These countries have bans on all imported foods containing nitrofuran residues. For the safety of humans and animals, it is necessary to conduct antibiotic residue testing on water sources and food (such as meat).

The detection of furan drugs itself is difficult, because these drugs will be metabolized quickly after ingestion. But their metabolites will exist in the tissues for a long time. AMOZ is a metabolite of furaltadone, which is not easily decomposed in cooking, and can be released from tissues under mild acid conditions, so it can be tested. Furaltadone is not classified as a veterinary drug but only a chemical substance, but it is actually used in large quantities and hard to be regulated.

Conclusion

Furaltadone is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with a good effect on intestinal infections, and is mainly used for poultry and animal diseases. However, furaltadone is so toxic that has been banned by the state for the treatment of food animals.

BALLYA provides a ballya-furaltadone-test to tell you if there are furaltadone residues in chicken and honey.

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