Frostbite of breast
Dairy cows have no hair and the skin is thin, a large area of contact with air, low temperature, strong wind, cold bed and lying on the ground, and improper use of non-winter nipple disinfectant can easily cause frostbite. Frostbite causes chapped breast (head) skin of dairy cows. It is easy to parasitize the pathogenic bacteria of mastitis and cause mastitis. Serious frostbite can cause nipple necrosis. Mild frostbite can be washed with 0.1% Rivanol (mainly lanolin and vaseline), then applied with frostbite ointment or iodine glycerin or erythromycin ointment, and nipple protective cover when necessary. If the frostbite of dairy cows is serious, antimicrobial therapy should be applied to prevent necrosis from causing bacterial infection, and symptomatic treatment should be carried out according to the degree of frostbite.
When breeding cows in cold areas in the north, the design of cowshed should give priority to cold protection and warmth preservation. In winter, we should pay attention to keeping warm. To improve the temperature of the cowshed in winter, we should close the windows and doors of the windward side of cowshed to prevent thieves from attacking. Lay mattress or mattress on the cattle bed, especially under the breast. Place a mattress in a certain area of the stadium to prevent frostbite caused by direct contact between the breast and the cold ground when the cattle lie down. In cold and windy weather, cattle should try their best to reduce outdoor exercise. When outdoor exercise, they can wear a frost-proof cover for their breasts. When taking nipple medicine bath in winter, we should choose winter-type nipple disinfectant, wipe the breasts and nipples dry after cleaning the breasts. After milking, we should let the cows stay in the milking hall for a longer period, so that the surface of the cows' breasts and nipples can be naturally dried.
This disease is common in winter. It is often caused by long-term feeding of crude forage and bran husk feed, no fresh forage, insufficient drinking water, resulting in insufficient secretion of bovine gastric juice, which stays in the feed of valvular stomach. After the water content is absorbed, it is difficult to descend into the valvular stomach, resulting in valvular stomach obstruction, which leads to the loss of the digestive function system of the valvular stomach.
The acute, febrile venereal disease can also be secondary to this disease, cow disease at the beginning of the mental depression, loss of appetite, dry mouth, feces less and dry in a spherical shape, with mucus on the surface, feces mixed with undigested feed. Later sick cow dung is small and hard, urine is small and yellow, appetite is abandoned, rumination stops, nasal glasses are dry, even cracked, walking is weak, lying more and standing less, often left neck bending, moaning, molars, tongue coating yellowing, body temperature increases, pulse increases, breathing accelerates, head sticks to the abdomen or the ground.
Cattle should be fed soft, digestible feed, such as bran water, rice soup and so on. Use peanut oil, vegetable oil, sesame oil 1 kg, eggs shelled 10 mixed mixings and filling. Or intravenous injection of 5% glucose saline 1 000-1 500 ml mixed with 10% Annaga 200 ml, or 25%-30% sodium sulfate solution 250-400 ml into the valve stomach. Or 100-2 000 ml of paraffin oil or soybean oil can be administered to lubricate the stomach, or 500-1 000 g of sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate and 5 000-10 000 ml of water can be administered. Chinese medicine treatment, rhubarb 60 grams, mirabilite 250 grams, immature fruits, hawthorn, Shenqu, Yuli Ren 60 grams, Raphanus, betel nut, green peel, Mutong, Angelica 30 grams each, all medicines into fine powder, boiling water brewing, waiting for temperature, add vegetable oil or lard 500 grams for oral administration.
Strengthen feeding management, reduce the amount of rough and hard feed, and avoid feeding single concentrate for a long time. In winter, it is not appropriate to feed too fine and dry forage. The silty forage should be limited appropriately. The forage should be as clean as possible. The dry forage with mud and sand should not be fed. The foreign bodies such as hair, rags and plastic bags in the forage should be removed. The drinking water supply should be adequate. Drink warm water in winter and spring as much as possible. It's best to add some salt to promote digestion and appetite. A certain amount of silage and juicy feed for cattle and proper exercise every day can effectively prevent the occurrence of this disease.
Winter diarrhea and vomiting is a serious acute intestinal infectious disease in cattle. It can occur in both dairy and beef cattle. The disease is prevalent in winter and spring. It has obvious seasonality. It is characterized by rapid transmission, high incidence, severe discharge of brown feces, hemorrhagic dysentery and a marked decrease in milk production. The occurrence time is from mid-October to the end of April of the second year, and the most occurs from January to February. Once winter dysentery breaks out in cattle, it will spread rapidly. The course of the disease is about one week.
The mortality rate of cattle infected with this disease is very low. It usually does not occur within 3 to 4 years after the disease. Diseased cattle have a rapid onset. Overnight, 20% to 30% of cattle in the shed suffer from water-like diarrhea. The diarrhea is brown and has a fishy odor. Some stools are mixed with blood or blood clots, and the milk production of cows declines sharply. The diseased cattle had abdominal pain symptoms such as wagging tail, kicking abdomen and lying up. Some cattle had severe cough and dehydration symptoms. More than 80% of cattle in the shed were infected after 2-3 days. The incidence of adult cattle was high, the symptoms were severe, the course of the disease was long, young cattle were late, the symptoms were mild, the course of the disease was short, and calves were fewer.
Protective and astringent agents can be taken orally to treat the disease. The mixture of pine distillate oil and clean is administered 30-50 grams each and repeated once 12 hours later. Those with severe dehydration should be rehydrated in time, such as 2 000-3 000 ml of glucose saline, 100 ml of vitamin C and 11% potassium chloride, once the intravenous injection. With the following Chinese medicine, treatment has a good effect, Codonopsis Pilosula, Poria cocos 60 grams, dried ginger, Atractylodes Macrocephala, aconite, Magnolia Officinalis, licorice 30 grams, Paeonia Lactiflora 20 grams, decoction, 2 to 3 doses.
At present, there is no effective vaccine, and comprehensive epidemic prevention measures are generally adopted. After the onset of the disease, isolate the sick cattle, strengthen disinfection, and dispose of feces and urine harmlessly. Raising and management should be strengthened in peacetime. The temperature in winter should not be too low, and the physical quality of cattle should be strengthened to enhance disease resistance.