In recent years, with the development of the dairy industry in Miyun County, Beijing, pear parasitic diseases have occurred in all dairy farms, especially in mountainous and semi-mountainous areas. Several dairy farms with a severe infection of pear parasitic diseases closed down because of high mortality and low milk production. To understand and master the infection and morbidity of a pyriform parasite, the author carried out a follow-up survey for nearly two years in a dairy farm seriously infected with the pyriform parasite. 96 samples were detected by laboratory microscopy and 62 positive samples were detected with the pyriform parasite. The average positive rate was 64.6%. An epidemiological investigation was caused by the pyriform parasite. The mortality rate was 6.7% and the elimination rate was 26.8%. Milk production decreased by 80% during the onset of the disease. The disease recurred and was difficult to cure. It lasted for up to half a year, which seriously threatened the healthy development of the dairy industry. The following specific to understand: the clinical symptoms of piriformis in dairy cows, diagnosis and prevention of piriformis in dairy cows.
The body temperature of diseased cattle is increased, usually reaching 40-41 degrees C, a few even reaching about 42 degrees C, presenting a missed fever. Most of the body temperature in winter can reach 39.5-40.O degrees C. Sometimes, although blood tests show that the infected cows are seriously infected with Pyromorpha pyriformis, they do not show an increase in body temperature, which is often due to the good physical condition of the cows; some cows show a decrease in body temperature, usually due to poor physical condition, or in the late stage of disease, and poor prognosis. Mental depression, individual manifestations of neurological symptoms, dizziness, confusion, blurred vision, head against the wall motionless, molars, salivation. The conjunctiva of some diseased cattle will congest in the early stage, bleed pale or yellow in the later stage, shed tears and cough 2-3 times. With the increase of body temperature, breathing will be quickened, pulmonary alveolar sounds will be rough, and some will flow out of nasal juice and moan. Loss of appetite or cessation of feeding is often due to a small amount of hay, but refusal to eat essential materials, pale or yellow oral mucosa.
Besides, diseased cattle usually have flaccid forestomach, slow or stop rumen peristalsis, weak or stop rumination, reduced heating, and often repeated bloating. Because of enteritis and indigestion, diseased cattle often discharge rough viscous feces and emit sour odor. Sometimes diarrhea occurs, excretion of mixed blood silk or mucosal droppings will emit a foul odor. Some of them excrete a small number of dry feces, and the surface is black and bright. Thin body, poor growth, and development, often lying on the ground, refused to stand, walking weakness, some even show that when walking refused to walk in the center but like to walk in the sand roadside, there is a slight limp, elbow or shoulder muscles obvious tremor. Diseased cattle often sweat a lot, mainly in the growing period of about 1-year-old cows are more obvious, after a small amount of exercise sweat will occur, part of local sweat, part of the body sweat, in serious cases can be seen at the tip of the hair. The urine is not smooth, the urine is yellow, smells fishy, and even excretes hemoglobinuria.
In the same way, the dead cattle are thin, thin and thin blood, poor coagulation, yellow liver swelling, swelling, and fragile texture, spleen enlarged, can reach 2-4 times the normal size, spleen marrow soft, yellow-red, brittle and fragile. However, two-bud Babesia and Babesia can lead to yellowing and infiltration of the subcutaneous tissues of diseased cattle mucosa; gallbladder enlargement, containing a large amount of yellowish-brown bile; increased cardiac cytoplasm and thickened cardiac membranes; emphysema and congestion of the diaphragm and apical lobes of the lung; enlargement of the kidney, bleeding spots of the kidney and bladder, and intrapelvic and bladder. Accumulation of red urine; intestinal wall congestion, gastric mucosa exfoliation. Ring Taylor's pyriform disease can lead to enlargement of lymph nodes on the surface of the body, subcapsular hemorrhage, wet and juicy profile; epicardial and endocardial hemorrhage; degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium; bleeding spots, yellowish-white nodules, and ulcers of different sizes in the true gastric mucosa.
Eperythrozoonosis of dairy cows. The fever of diseased cattle is obvious, showing a high missed fever. A few cattle will have a transient high fever, accompanied by diarrhea, and the body will gradually lose weight. In the early stage, the visible mucosa and conjunctiva were flushed; in the middle stage, the visible mucosa was yellow-stained and discharged green or yellow feces; in the later stage, the visible mucosa was pale, blood was thin and coagulation was poor.
Western medicine treatment. If the clinical symptoms of the diseased cattle are serious, 3.5 mg/kg Benel can be used according to the body weight and 7% water solution can be prepared for intravenous injection once a day for 3 days. At the same time, support and symptomatic treatment were carried out with intravenous injection of 500 mL 25% glucose, 2000 mL 5% glucose saline, 8 mL sodium caffeine, 16 million IU penicillin and 40-60 mL vitamin C once a day. If the symptoms of diseased cattle are mild, but the body temperature rises, we can use 3.5 mg/kg Benel according to the body weight, and then inject 5% solution into muscle point by point, once a day, for 3 consecutive days. Besides, for cows without the disease, Benel should be used for prevention, that is, 3 mg/kg of body weight, divided into two doses. The symptoms of some diseased cattle were alleviated after treatment, but because there were still a small number of worms in red blood cells that were not killed, the disease could recur after some time. Therefore, within a few days after the treatment of the diseased cattle and the relief of symptoms, we should continue to use drugs for 1 to 2 courses of treatment to completely kill the worms.
Kill ticks in time. The planned killing of ticks should be adopted in the feeding environment and cattle, and 0.2% pest enemies, 0.2% phoxim, 1% malathion or 0.2% fenitrothion are often used to kill ticks. When killing ticks in cattle, 500 mL liquid is sprayed on the body surface of each cow, once every three weeks. After using the medicine, it is necessary to ensure that the coat is dry before feeding and drinking water, to avoid poisoning caused by dropping the liquid into feeding utensils and being mistakenly taken by the body. Besides, if a drug is used for a long time, it will lead to the formation of resistance of ticks. Therefore, different insecticides should be used alternately or alternately to ensure that the effect of killing ticks is good and to avoid the formation of resistance.
Investigation on the Causes of Pear Formosa Disease
According to the follow-up survey of farmers infected with pyriform worms, 298 cows were kept on a farm in August 2012. Because of the reconstruction of the cowshed, one was demolished and one was built. After the improvement, the cows were moved back. At that time, the Cow-raising environment was poor, and the people and construction vehicles were noisy every day. At that time, epidemiological investigation and laboratory tests were carried out on 21 dairy cows, 18 of which were positive; 3 were negative. At that time, the appetite of cattle was normal, only the urine of individual cows was red; in October, some cows had mastitis. The average milk yield per cow was 20 kg/day. The average milk yield after illness decreased by 15-10 kg/day. The price of milk was 3.6 yuan/kg. After illness, it decreased by 0.9 yuan/kg. The cows were treated according to mastitis. In November, the cows had a rough coat and a bad appetite. At that time, they thought that the quality of the forage they purchased was not good because of replacing the forage. By the end of December, 20 cows died, with a mortality rate of 6.7%, and 80 cows were eliminated, with an elimination rate of 26.8%.
In January 2013, the county epidemic control center confirmed the diagnosis of piriformis by clinical observation, auscultation and laboratory testing. It proposed that cows with clinical symptoms of piriformis should be treated, and cows suspected of being healthy should be prevented from piriformis. From January to March 2013, 5 cows died and 10 cows were eliminated. After 2 to 3 courses of treatment, the disease was treated. The disease was gradually controlled and the cattle recovered.
Pre-fever for about 3 days, mental depression, loss of appetite, not eating concentrate, and then not eating forage, not eating forage is a slow process, about 10 days, there is a decline in milk production, milk thinning, daily reduction of 1/3 of milk until no milk, sometimes milking normal in the morning, suddenly no milk in the afternoon, abdominal stone-like hard. Hard. One-fifth of the cows had white conjunctiva, white body, yellowing fundus, lip and breast, prominent eyeball, edema between skin and flesh, edema of the maxilla, and iron deficiency. One-tenth of the cows had weakness in the neck (head drooping on the feeding trough). Urine blood, the stool is black-red, (intestinal diffuse bleeding, resulting in feces are all blood) thin, prominent eyes, thin, thin blood.
Heart sounds were enhanced during auscultation, and the temperature of hand-touched skin was increased in severely ill dairy cows.
1. Detection methods. The first drop of blood (or venous blood) from the ear tip was taken to make a smear. After natural drying, the smear was fixed with methanol and put into 50x diluted Giemsa stain solution for overnight microscopic examination.
2. Statistics of test results.
3. Analysis of microscopic results of pyriform parasites. In the past year, 96 samples were detected and 62 positive samples were detected by laboratory microscopy. The average positive rate was 64.6%. The samples were analyzed.
(1) Five dairy cows without clinical symptoms were examined by microscopy. One cow was detected to have pyriform worms. The number of pyriform worms was relatively small. There were four double-budded Babesia in 26 visual fields.
(2) Microscopic examination of 5 dairy cows with blood stool showed that 3 cows had pyriform worms. The number of pyriform worms was high. The most serious number of pyriform worms was 0964 cows. There were 10 bovines Babesia, 36 double-budded Babesia and 21 circular Taylor worms in 10 visual fields.
(3) No drug treatment was used, some of them had clinical symptoms. The first blood test included 29 samples, 22 samples of Pyromorpha pyriformis, and 0 721 dairy cows. There were 50 of Babesia Bovis, 35 of Babesia double-bud and 65 of T. annularis in 10 visual fields. 0112 dairy cattle, there are 78 Babesia bovis, 21 Babesia bi buds and 57 Taylor annulus in 10 visual fields.
At present, the main infections of pear parasitic diseases in the Miyun area are T. annularis, B. bi buds, and B. bovis. At the same time, we should pay attention to the problem of mixed infection with Eperythrozoon. Therefore, in the treatment of pear parasitic diseases, we should pay attention to the distinction of pathogens and the mixed infection of Eperythrozoon.
Piriform disease treatment: the main infection of T. annularis was treated with Beniel; the main infection of Babesia bovis or Babesia bi buds was treated with Beniel and yellow pigments; the mixed infection of Eperythrozoon was serious, which was treated alternately by Beniel and the enemy of worms.
1. Benel injection + infusion therapy: 25% glucose + Benel injection (7-9 g/kg) vitamin C (1-2 boxes) + camphor (2 branches)
Comprehensive prevention and control measures
(1) Cows with clinical symptoms of piriformis were first tested for blood, and were diagnosed as piriformis and treated symptomatically.
(2) After every day feeding grass, patrol observation, only eat grass without food, some in the feed seasoning, neck weakness drooping cattle head to the trough, lip arch cattle trough edge.
(3) In cattle farms with severe pyriform infection, cows suffer from postpartum diseases, and the positive rate of pyriform parasite detection is high. Therefore, both clinical symptoms and non-clinical symptoms are prevented by the injection of Benir for 2 courses.
(4) High-yielding dairy cows have the poor physique, increase high-protein feed + vitamin C + health factor (live bacterium preparation)
(5) Prevention. In dairy farms infected with Pyromorpha pyriformis, the whole group of suspected healthy dairy cows was injected once every 20 days.
(6) Deworming. Every spring and autumn, insect repellent is injected subcutaneously with carbendazim or ivermectin in vivo, and 3% trichlorfon is sprayed in vitro and environment (or other in vitro insecticides are used to kill vectors ticks). Every year from July to August, due to the active mosquito flies and ticks, it belongs to the high incidence season of pyriform insects. For cows and cows that do not produce milk, trichlorfon sprays are used. Vacant dairy cows should be prevented by regular use of Benel.
Exchange of experience
(1) Pay attention to distinguish pathogens in the microscopic examination of pyriform worms. Dairy cows with a severe infection of Babesia buds are prone to recurrence. After a course of treatment, they recover and relapse after some time. Therefore, personal experience in the treatment of double-bud Babes dairy cows should continue to use Benel and insect enemies alternately for four courses of treatment.
(2) In the suspected healthy state of large herds of dairy cows, the milk yield is prone to recurrence. Five cows tested positive for P. pyriformis and Eperythrozoon a month ago. After two courses of treatment, they ate and drank normally. After one month, they became thinner, feces bleeding, body white and did not eat. After treatment, the coat is rough, the abdomen is shriveled, and when eating grass, the rest of the forage is left, the body is white, and the eyeball is prominent.
(3) In the treatment of pyriform and eperythrozoon, 25% high sugar should be used in the transfusion of glucose.
(4) The heartbeat of cows infected with pyriformis increased, the infusion rate was not easy to be too fast, and low sugar and infusion too fast would lead to sudden death.
(5) Environmental changes and the introduction of dairy cows will lead to large-scale outbreaks of pyriform worms.
(6) In order not to affect the quality of fresh milk, the combination of production and treatment should be adopted for dairy farms with the pyriform disease. Detection and treatment were carried out in batches, and the cows with severe diseases were treated in advance.
(7) For cattle infected with Pyromorpha pyriformis, they should visit the cowshed every night to observe the rumination situation of cows one by one. Once no rumination occurs, they should take timely treatment measures.