The purpose of disinfection is to kill pathogenic microorganisms on the media, to make them harmless, to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in livestock and poultry, and to cut off the transmission of infectious diseases.
Breeders should change their clothes in time when they enter the production area. Ultraviolet disinfection lasts for 3-5 minutes. Workwear should not be worn out of the production area. Outsiders should be avoided as far as possible. Visitors should thoroughly disinfect and replace work clothes and shoes when they visit the production area. Work clothes or shoes should be disinfected regularly with a certain concentration of organic iodine mixture or coal phenol soap aqueous solution.
The surrounding environment of the cowshed (including the playground) is disinfected with 2% caustic soda or sprayed with quicklime once every 1-2 weeks. The sewage pool, excrement pit and sewer outlet around and inside the site are disinfected once a month with bleaching powder. Disinfection pools should be set up at the entrance of the gate and cowshed. 2% pyroalkali or coal phenol soap solution should be used, and the disinfectant in the pools should be replaced frequently.
The cowshed should be thoroughly cleaned after each trough, regularly washed with high-pressure water guns, and sprinkled lime around the cowshed, under the delivery bed, and the cow bed, or with 2% fire alkali for spray disinfection.
The disinfection of appliances should be carried out regularly on feeding utensils, feed tanks, and feed trucks. Disinfection can be carried out by 0.2% to 0.5% peracetic acid. Daily appliances, milking equipment, milk tank cars, veterinary instruments, and mating devices must be spotless and sterilized before and after use. When vehicles enter the area, they should be sprayed sterilized. The milking machine pipes should be cleaned and cleaned with 35 to 46℃ of warm water and 70 to 75 ℃ hot alkali water to remove residual substances in the pipeline and prevent the breeding of microorganisms.
Before milking, midwifery, mating, injection therapy and any contact with dairy cows, bovine body disinfection should first wipe the relevant parts of cows, such as breasts, nipples, vaginal orifice, and hindquarters, to prevent man-made transmission of diseases. Dairy cows were sprayed with 4% copper sulfate solution regularly to reduce the incidence of hoof disease and ensure the health of cow's hoof. Regular disinfection of cow environment with 0.3% peracetic acid or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite not only eliminates the microorganisms on the surface of cows, shackles, and troughs but also avoids the infection of microorganisms among cows.
Ensuring that the optimum ambient temperature for cows at room temperature is 8 ~16 ℃, the metabolic rate and calorific output of cows are at the lowest level, the consumption of feed is low, and the incidence of disease is low. If the temperature of the cowshed is below 0 ℃, the cow body emits a lot of energy to maintain its body temperature. In autumn, when the climate is changeable, the West and North doors, windows and walls of the cowshed should be closed to prevent wind from attacking, and the doors and windows facing the sun should be hung with straw curtains. In addition, dairy cows should not spend more than 6 hours in the playground during the day, preferably 3 hours in the morning and afternoon.
After adjusting humidity, dairy cows should remove feces and urine in time, keep the shed clean and dry, and ensure good ventilation in it. Relative humidity should not exceed 55%. Excessive humidity will cause strong external stimulation to the cows, which will affect milk production, and seriously infect some fungal diseases.
The main factor determining the milk yield of dairy cows by adjusting dietary composition is the content of crude fiber in feed. Feed proportion should be adjusted in time to diversify. Crude fiber affects milk fat, and milk fat is the key to milk production. If milk fat increases, milk production will be higher. Roughage is best to feed silage, micro-silage or brewer's grains to replace the green juicy feed for dairy cows in summer. Therefore, farmers should first choose suitable feed for dairy cows, such as sweet sorghum stalk, or adding a little baking soda in the feed, which can appetize and promote the digestion of crude fiber, or feed the cows a night supper. Dairy cows producing more than 32 kilograms of milk per day should be fed with silage in autumn, which should be controlled at 17-22 kilograms per day. When concentrate feed is supplied, protein feed remains unchanged, and maize supply will increase by 20%-50%.
Improving nutritional level.
Farmers can feed dairy cows with high-quality forage, feed more concentrate or high-fat substances to improve dietary energy. In autumn, 1%-1.5% legume or animal fat can be added every day to increase the protein content in the complete ration, so that its content is about 18%.
Increasing the palatability of feed.
Farmers can increase the appetite of dairy cows by making complete ration with good palatability. The porridge can be boiled with 140 kg of feed and 600 kg of water every day, and 9 kg of brown sugar can be poured on the leftovers three times so that all the leftovers can be eaten up. Some additives can be added to the silage process to improve the quality and palatability of silage. The commonly used additives are non-protein nitrogen, enzymes, bacterial inoculants, and preservatives. In recent years, green juice fermentation broth, as a pure natural inoculant of lactic acid bacteria, can make wild lactic acid bacteria multiply in large quantities under anaerobic conditions. Adding formic acid preservatives can significantly improve the degradation efficiency of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibers and acid detergent fibers in alfalfa silage.
Balance amino acid.
There is also an imbalance of amino acids in the small intestine of dairy cows, mainly that lysine and methionine can not meet the needs of dairy cows. By changing the amino acid pattern in the small intestine, the production performance and protein utilization rate of ruminants can be improved. The digestible amino acids in the small intestine of dairy cows with 1 kg milk (containing 3%-3.3% crude protein) ranged from 41 to 45 grams, and the lowest requirement of lysine and methionine for high-yielding dairy cows with 30 kg milk per day are 6.5% and 2% of the total digestible amino acids in the small intestine respectively. Because of the degradation of amino acids by rumen microorganisms, the protected products must be selected to supplement amino acids to dairy cows.
Adequate supplementation of calcium, phosphorus, and salt can add the appropriate amount of calcium and phosphorus to the feed of dairy cows, generally 5-15 grams per day. Dietary supplementation of urea with protein, usually calves over 6 months old are fed 30-60 grams a day, feeder cattle 70-90 grams a day and adult cows 150 grams a day. However, urea has poor palatability. It can be mixed with concentrate at 1% and fed with grass. It is not suitable to drink water within half an hour after feeding, and 50-100 grams of salt can be supplied daily according to the body weight and milk yield of dairy cows.
Increasing milk yield
There are many factors affecting milk yield of dairy cows, but there are three most common factors: breed, feeding, and management. The milk yield of cows with bad breeds is not high no matter how they are raised. Therefore, farmers should choose good breeds of cows to ensure the nutrients they need and correct feeding methods. In daily management, farmers should do a good job of environmental hygiene, pay attention to dietary hygiene and the hygiene of dairy cows themselves, especially pay attention to breast hygiene, prevent breast inflammation and other diseases.
Dairy cows usually have about 3% fat content in their diets. If the fat content in the diet is 5%-6%, the cows have the highest utilization rate of nutrients. A certain amount of rapeseed or protective fatty acid can be added to the diet, which can effectively improve the milk fat rate, but the amount should not be too high. A dry period of dairy cows is a stage in which the fetus needs more nutrition for rapid growth and development. Improving the nutritional status of cows is also beneficial to the next lactation period and prolongs the production period.
At the same time, breast secretion stopped during the dry period, which is the necessary preparation stage for normal secretion of secretory epithelial cells during lactation under renewal. Therefore, the milk fat rate of cows can be effectively improved by providing adequate nutrition and scientific feeding management, such as strengthening breast massage in the middle and late stages of dry milk.
Correct massage and milking operation can enhance the reflex of milk excretion, increase milk yield and milk fat rate. To standardize and improve the milking technology, try to make the breast intracellular milk as clean as possible during each milking. It can not only increase the milk yield (increase by 10%-20%) but also increase the milk fat rate by 0.2-0.4 percentage points. Master the milking speed and finish in 5 minutes as far as possible.
Dairy cows fed in cowshed have less exercise. If given proper exercise, they can not only exercise their physique, strengthen their metabolism and build up their body, but also increase milk production and milk fat rate. In general, dairy cows should exercise freely for no less than 6 hours a day. Dairy cows drove 3 kilometers a day can effectively improve milk production and milk fat rate, but exercise should not be intense, time should not be too long. It should be based on the physiological and nutritional status of cows.
Epidemic prevention measures
The disease of dairy cows is mainly prevented and supplemented by treatment. It is necessary to disinfect cowshed and playground regularly and to inject vaccines according to epidemic prevention procedures. Find diseases and treat them early, to ensure cows' health and milk production. Brushing cows twice every morning and evening for 3 to 6 minutes at a time can not only keep the surface clean but also promote the skin blood circulation and metabolism, help regulate body temperature and enhance disease resistance.
The occurrence of cow mastitis is closely related to the temperature and humidity of the cowshed. The higher the temperature and humidity of the shed, the physiological function of the cow are disordered, resulting in low resistance. In the high temperature and humidity environment, it is easy to cause the breeding and reproduction of bacteria and microorganisms, leading to an increase in the morbidity.
In general, dairy cows should not use antibiotics if they are not seriously ill. If antibiotics must be used, it is best to administer them by injection and avoid taking them orally as much as possible. Cows are polygastric animals. When given orally, antibiotics kill some beneficial microorganisms in the rumen of dairy cows, resulting in the imbalance of the microbial communities in the rumen of dairy cows. Before the establishment of the rumen microbial community, calves can be fed with antibiotics in an appropriate amount to prevent disease and promote growth, but they should not be fed after 7 to 8 months.
Dairy cows are timid and very sensitive. The stimulation of injection will affect the milk yield of dairy cows. Therefore, the number of injections of antibiotics to dairy cows should be as low as possible. If the cow disease is not very serious, it is better to wait until after the cessation of delivery for treatment, to avoid affecting milk production. At the same time, farmers should strengthen the feeding management within 2 months after the cessation of production and strive to keep the cows well during the cessation period, so that the cows can put into the next round of production in a healthy condition.