1. Lack of Attention to Dairy Cow Breeding
Many farmers raise cows to get rid of poverty. Some of them have a backward breeding level and poor breeding efficiency. They do not have enough funds to buy high-quality dairy cows that they can only buy ordinary dairy cows for raising. At the same time, in the process of dairy cows breeding, they do not know the importance of breeding. Most of them use cheap frozen semen. At present, the price and quality of bull frozen semen vary greatly. Some breeders charge fees according to the number of times of breeding, so they try to use cheap frozen semen.
Most of the cheap frozen semen comes from bulls with low breeding value, unstable genetic performance, and poor improvement effect, or low fertility rate and poor semen quality. The use of frozen semen will affect the quality of offspring cows, leading to a vicious circle of economic decline. Dairy cows breeders do not choose to breed all their offspring, as long as it is the female’s stay, which is also an important reason for the low quality of dairy cows. Due to the small number of innate superior dairy cows, the lack of breeding measures and the lagging concept, the indirect result is that the quality of dairy cow breeds is not high, the yield per unit is low and the benefit is poor.
2. Lack of Attention to Data Recording
No dairy farmer attaches importance to data recording. At present, most dairy farmers manage their cows by their memory and the situation of the cows at that time. It is not easy to grasp the real state of the cows, to adjust the feeding amount and daily management according to the actual situation. To form the habit of recording. It can provide a scientific basis for reasonable feeding and management, such as when estrus, breeding, adding a feed, cutting feed, dry milk, production, etc. It can also provide reliable information for breeding improvement and prevention of close inbreeding of dairy cows.
3. Putting more emphasis on treatment than prevention of diseases
Some dairy farmers, based on their years of breeding experience, believe that cows are highly resistant to disease and need not be strictly disinfected, the hygiene of the cowshed and the farm was almost unhindered. Poor sanitation in cowsheds and sports fields does not pose a major problem. Poor sanitation often results in milk failing to meet sanitation requirements, and inadequate epidemic prevention may lead to disease or death in the dairy cow. Some dairy farmers cause a high incidence of dairy cows due to poor management of breeding. After the onset of the disease, they focus on treatment, often ignoring the causes of the disease. If efforts are made to prevent the disease and strengthen the management of feeding, some diseases can be prevented, such as obstetric diseases, nutritional and metabolic diseases, rumen disease and limb hoof disease which are the most harmful to dairy cows, can be reduced by strengthening feeding management.
Dairy cows breeders with poor feeding management have more mastitis and calves are prone to diarrhea. Excessive concentrate feeding is prone to limb hoof disease and rumen disease. Cows are susceptible to postpartum paralysis with unbalanced nutrition of dairy cows feed, imbalance of calcium and phosphorus ratio and vitamin D deficient. Uncontrolled nutritional supply before delivery and inadequate exercise can easily lead to overweight cows, frequently difficult birth, and uteritis due to the retention of the placenta. Cows to enter the peak period of lactation after delivery, especially those with high milk production, It is inevitable that energy is in a negative equilibrium state. At this time, if the energy and protein in the diet are insufficient, the function of uterus and ovary will be restored slowly, thus affecting estrus and conception.
4. No hay or poor hay quality
Many dairy farmers feed grass when there is grass, hay when there is no grass, straw when there is no hay or even straw, even only concentrate, which is like raising pigs. In this way, dairy cows will become acidic in the alkaline rumen environment when they are seriously inadequate in roughage and eat a large amount of concentrate, resulting in indigestion, acidosis and even death in severe cases.
The situation will be worse when a few dairy farmers only use Jiaotong as silage crude material instead of hay. It will directly lead to the reduction of milk production and the decrease in milk fat rate, further lead to rumen acidosis, abomasum displacement, limb hoof disease, ketosis, postpartum paralysis, and other diseases, resulting in the shorter utilization period of dairy cows and the increase of mortality. The economic benefit is low. It is suggested that for lactating dairy cows, 3-5 kg of high-quality hay per head per day can effectively improve the acid environment of the rumen and milk fat content. Besides, 100-150 g of sodium bicarbonate and 30 g of magnesium oxide can be added to the diet.
5. Improper Matching of Concentrates
Many dairy farmers do not attach importance to the use of dairy cow feed, adopt their way of mixing, or simply mix the manufacturer's formula feed with the raw grain they buy. The concentrate feed used is mainly composed of corn, bean, and cake, which results in unbalanced nutrition of feed, the inappropriate ratio of calcium and phosphorus to an amino acid,. Lack of minerals, trace elements, and vitamins lead to inadequate milk production performance of dairy cows.
There are also a few farmers who add lactogenic hormone and antibiotic additives to their feed. Although they can rapidly increase milk production in a short period and meet the dairy farmers' blind pursuit of milk production, they can not improve the overall production level, but also have many side effects on the health and production performance of dairy cows. The effect of increasing milk production can not last long, even lead to the unqualified production of milk. Therefore, when farmers choose to feed for dairy cows, they must choose the feed from the normal factory with a feed production license. When they mix feed by themselves, they should make the feed as diverse and nutritious as possible according to the forage resources in Chongqing. Things must not be added blindly.
6. Less exercise, no or little sunbathing
Most dairy farmers tie their cows to their head or neck in four seasons and rarely let them sunbathe and exercise, which seriously hinders bone metabolism and fetal growth and development. It can cause dairy cow dystocia, placenta retention, estrus is not obvious, poor physique, susceptible to limb hoof disease, etc. Generally, dairy cows are required to exercise at least 2 hours a day. Dairy cows in the dry milk period should also increase. If they are unable to provide farms due to the limitation of the venues, manual guidance should also be used for exercise and proper sunbathe, to maintain their strong appetite and normal functions, and to improve the body's resistance to pathogenic microorganisms.
7. Do not brush cows and pay attention to the work of preventing heat stroke and cooling
Many dairy farmers are not accustomed to brushing cows with brushes and combs every day. As a result, there is much dirt sticking to cows' bodies. They have to use body rubbing against walls, pillars and feeding troughs to relieve itching, which seriously affects the health of cows. Daily brushing of cows can not only maintain surface hygiene but also promote skin metabolism. And can also build up a good trust relationship with cows, which is beneficial to the health of cows and the production of qualified raw milk in line with hygienic standards. Dairy cows are cold-resistant and not heat-resistant animals. Extreme weather such as hot summer and humid autumn in Chongqing is common. If we do not attach great importance to the work of heat prevention and cooling, it will easily lead to heatstroke and sudden death of dairy cows.
8. Lack of Attention to Sterilization, Source Disinfection and Insecticidal and Mosquito Repelling Work
A lack of attention to disinfection is reflected in two aspects. First, there is little disinfection or no disinfection at all in breeding places. Lack of attention to the sanitation of cows farms. The environmental sanitation of cows farms is extremely poor. The transverse flow of feces and urine and the breeding of mosquitoes lead to the long-term immersion of cow's limbs and feet in feces and urine, leading to the occurrence of putrefaction, arthritis, and mosquitoes, which seriously affect cows rest. Cows are ruminants when they rest can ruminate and chew, once rest bad, of course, rumination and chew poor, and then indigestion and poor nutrition, affecting milk production.
Second, when milking without changing water, very dirty pads are still used for breast washing, leading to mastitis in one cow and infection in other cows. Cows farmers are not as good as pig farmers. Pig farmers also know that they should do desensitization for pigs, but dairy farmers seldom know, which breed various parasites inside and outside the cow to suck up the nutrition of dairy cows, and seriously affect the health of cows. The correct way is to use insecticide once every half year.
Dairy farmers must pay attention to the study and application of breeding technology, thoroughly change the traditional backward breeding habits and concepts, conscientiously improve the management of dairy cows breeding, from full to well-fed. Pay attention to epidemic prevention and disinfection, to reduce the occurrence of various diseases. Improve the level of breeding, and produce hygienic, safe and pollution-free raw milk. So it can better improve the economic efficiency and the ability to resist market risks.