Rabies is commonly known as mad dog disease. It is an acute contact zoonotic infectious disease caused by the rabies virus. Its main damage to the central nervous system, clinical manifestations are often nerve excitation and consciousness disorders, followed by local or systemic paralysis and death. In August 2006, a 5-month-old calf raised by a dairy farmer in Ningyang County showed an increase in body temperature. The cow died 7 days later after running wild, bumping against the wall and disturbing consciousness. On the fifth day after that, the cows fed by the cows suffered from the disease (the cows fed cow milk) and also showed obvious neurological symptoms, and died on the eighth day after the treatment was ineffective. According to the investigation and clinical symptoms, the infection of rabies in dairy cows was diagnosed. The following specific to understand: the differential diagnosis of dairy cow rabies diagnosis and prevention of dairy cow rabies.
Incidence: More than 500 dairy cows were raised in a village of Hangul River Town, Molidawa Autonomous Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In mid-November 2011, one adult cow developed the disease. In early May 2012, one adult cow developed the disease. In late July 2012, two young adult cows developed the disease. In mid-September 2012, one 10-month-old cow developed the disease. In early December 2012, one adult cow developed the disease. Disease. Similar symptoms, rapid death, sick cows regardless of age, can occur. During the period from onset to death, they were breathing or stargazing and chewing empty mouths. Six cases of diseased cattle showed a large number of salivation, filamentous. The body temperature of diseased animals is 39.5-40.o C, usually 5-7 days. The village is situated on the Bank of rivers and rivers. The grassland is vast. In the years of heavy rains and floods, the grassland is submerged by water, and the cows drink the river water all year-round. More than 100 villagers are living in the village, almost domesticated dogs.
Clinical symptoms: sudden onset, disease cattle do not eat, do not drink, depressed, isolated, indifferent external reaction. When the grass is put into the mouth or mouth, the sick cattle can not chew and swallow. Sometimes the mouth is inserted into the barrel, and they do not drink water. Occasionally, they swallow and rarely swallow. Most of them still flow out of the mouth corner, resulting in dehydration and haggard. According to cow breeders, in the course of the disease, a small number of Self-drinking water was found, but drinking water for a long time, swallowing less. Usually, there will be head shaking and mouth opening, and then body temperature gradually drops to 38.0-38.5 C. After the onset of disease, the sick cow will appear moaning, loud voice, intermittent whining, day and night. At the beginning of the disease, appetite decreased, rumen peristalsis sound was weak and the amplitude was short. After the application of enhanced ruminant-promoting drugs, rumen sound increased in a short time. Respiratory sounds are harsh, palpation throat is not sensitive, heart sounds are not abnormal, the heart rhythm is regular, there are no pathological heart sounds, the heart beats faster when excited, and the heartbeats slowly during the excitation interval. With the development and extension of the disease, the sensation of the tail end showed progressive paralysis toward the tail root. The urine was dripping and dripping, the tail and anus were relaxed and comatose. After 1-2 days, the patient died.
Pathological examination: Six dead cows were dead and blood coagulation was good. Two adult cows and one adult cow were dissected. A total of three cows were dissected, of which three calves were not dissected. Anatomical conditions were similar; there was no significant change in the gastrointestinal tract, and there was a small amount of lithotripsy in the second stomach of two adult cows. In the rumen of one adult cow, there were two iron wires 3-4 cm long and yellow mud sand accumulation. The throat showed catarrhal inflammation. Because of collecting disease materials and sawing cranial cavity, we found pia mater congestion and hemorrhage, cerebral and cerebellar superficial blood vessels thickening, congestion and hemorrhage. The brain tissue of dairy cows was sent to the relevant units in Qiqihar for examination: the cerebellum tissue was directly smeared and microscopically examined; the suspected inclusions with round and oval eosinophilic staining were found in the cytoplasm of nerve cells. Brain tissue section examination; Brain; Vascular congestion; Vascular endothelial cell swelling and rounding, perivascular edema, microglia proliferation, true and pseudophakic neurogenic cell phenomenon, some parts of neurogenic cell degeneration, cell concentration, nuclear disappearance. Cerebellum and meninges are hyperemias, parenchyma is hyperemia and hemorrhage.
Esophageal obstruction: manifested salivation, dysphagia, and rumen gas, but no nervous rage symptoms, palpation, and the esophageal probe can be used to detect the obstruction site when the obstruction removed, symptoms can be immediately alleviated or healed.
Pseudorabies: severe local itching, excitement, roaring, convulsion, paralysis, and death 2-3 days later.
Neurotypical acetone hepatopathy: 2-6 weeks after delivery, there are excitement and irritability symptoms but occurs in high-yield and lactation peak, there is ketone odor in exhaled breath, milk, urine, ketone test showed a strong positive reaction, with glucose, propylene glycol, sodium bicarbonate and other treatment, symptoms reduced to recovery. Histopathological examination showed that there were no eosinophilic inclusions in Pujinyu cells.
Listeriosis: Cattle aged 6-24 months mainly occur, rarely violent, aggressive, often showing unilateral facial paralysis, head tilts to one side, circular movement, a long course of the disease, from the brainstem can isolate Listeriosis monocytogenes.
The disease cattle suddenly fell ill, regardless of age, and the course of the disease lasted about one week, all of which ended with death. Nerve excitation and disturbance of consciousness, difficulty in swallowing and chewing, salivation and roaring, local and total paralysis occurred in the later period. Dairy cows rarely attacked humans and animals. The tail feels dull and becomes more and more serious with the development of the disease. In the cerebellum section, there are round and oval eosinophilic inclusions in the cytoplasm of Purkinje cells.
Treatment: There is no special effective drug in the treatment of this disease, only strengthening prevention. If a cow is bitten by rabies, the wound should be expanded in time, the blood of the bitten part should be squeezed out as far as possible, then the wound should be cleaned and disinfected with 20% soft soap water or 5% iodine liquor solution, and the rabies vaccine should be injected urgently. The best dose is 20-30 mL within 24 hours after the bite. The interval of 5-7 days was injected once again, which had a certain preventive effect.
Treatment: There is no special effective drug in the treatment of this disease, only strengthening prevention. If a cow is bitten by rabies, the wound should be expanded in time, the blood of the bitten part should be squeezed out as far as possible, then the wound should be cleaned and disinfected with 20% soft soap water or 5% iodine liquor solution, and the rabies vaccine should be injected urgently. The best dose is 20-30 ml within 24 hours after the bite. The interval of 5-7 days was injected once again, which had a certain preventive effect.
Prevention and Treatment of Dairy Cattle Rabies
The dead cattle lost weight, congestion or erosion of oral mucosa, the emptiness of the gastrointestinal tract, congestion of mucosa, and no obvious pathological changes of other viscera. Several punctate hemorrhages occurred in the meninges after craniotomy. Subarachnoid area has a lot of yellowish mucus, obvious edema of PIA mater, obvious congestion of sulcus and gyrus, hyperemia of the brain parenchyma and a few bleeding spots. The coronary sulcus of the heart showed peptone-like infiltration.
1. According to the characteristics of the disease, cattle have a history of being bitten directly or indirectly by dogs.
2. According to the clinical manifestations, the cattle suffered from nervous excitation and disturbance of consciousness, difficulty in swallowing and chewing, salivation and roaring, and local or systemic paralysis in the later stage.
Laboratory microscopy: Bovine cerebellum tissue was dissected, pathological sections were made, H.E. staining microscopy showed that there were changes of non-suppurative encephalitis and eosinophilic inclusions in the cytoplasm of neurons in the cerebellum and hippocampal horn.
1.Strengthening dog management
The dogs raised in rural areas were regularly vaccinated with the rabies vaccine. The dogs were found to be killed immediately, and the corpses were burned or carefully treated without going through the scene.
2.Strengthen the management of dairy cows
Cows and calves must be kept and managed separately. It is strictly forbidden for calves to eat cow's milk directly. At the same time, special care should be given during grazing to prevent bites by dogs.
3. Cattle bitten should be dealt with in time
Dairy cows bitten by dogs should quickly extrude poisonous blood, wash with soapy water, or treat wounds with 7% iodine tincture. Within 72 hours after being bitten, rabies high immune serum (HIS) was injected, weighing 0.5 ml per kilogram. At the same time, a 25-50 ml rabies vaccine was injected subcutaneously.