The purpose of dairy cows breeding is to maximize milk production. Only improving milk production and quality is the key to obtaining the best economic benefits. Therefore, the feeding management of dairy cows in lactation stage is very important to improve milk production and quality of dairy cows. Lactation level is also different if improper feeding and management are prone to a series of problems, which seriously affects the milk production performance of dairy cows, but also easy to lead to disease of dairy cows. Therefore, in the process of dairy cattle breeding, we should start from the actual situation of dairy cattle, formulate appropriate measures, scientific management in stages, rational feeding, strengthen the feeding management of dairy cattle in lactation period, make full use of its production potential, improve the milk yield and quality of dairy cattle, and avoid the emergence of a series due to improper feeding method. The production performance of dairy cows is affected by a series of problems. Next, let's look at the problems that dairy cows are prone to occur during lactation and the countermeasures to solve them.
Milk production of dairy cows declined at the early stage of lactation. At the beginning of lactation, about 10 days after delivery, the appetite of dairy cows is poor, the digestive system has not yet recovered completely, their physique is weak and their intake is low. Also, physiological edema occurs in different degrees in the breast, and the mammary glands have not completely returned to normal. At the same time, there is a lot of lochias from the reproductive tract at this stage. The stage of discharge. The fetal growth and development of dairy cows are rapid in the late pregnancy, and at this time the dairy cows enter the dry milk period, and the milk production begins to decline sharply until the lactation stops. If the milk yield does not reach a certain standard at the early stage of lactation, it will inevitably affect the milk yield and milk quality at the peak of lactation, thus affecting the milk yield during the whole lactation period.
The nutritional supply is unbalanced in the middle lactation stage. After dairy cows enter the mid-lactation stage, the digestive system has returned to normal, appetite has increased, the intake of dry matter has gradually increased, and reached the highest value. Dairy cows enter the peak lactation stage and can last for 2-3 months. The increase in milk production in this stage is the key period to improve production. However, the feeding intake of dairy cows will decrease obviously after reaching the peak, and the milk production will begin to decrease after the peak lactation period, but the decrease of milk production is much larger than the decrease in feeding intake.
The direct result of this is the unbalanced supply of nutrition so that the nutrition of dairy cows will not be obtained. It can maintain the demand for milk production and decrease the milk production of mid-lactation dairy cows. This is not only not conducive to the economic benefits of dairy farming, but also affects the health of dairy cows. Therefore, appropriate feeding plans should be formulated according to the actual milk production and physical condition of dairy cows, and appropriate nutrition should be provided to keep the dairy cows in proper condition. And after the peak lactation period, the milk production decreased slowly.
The weight loss of dairy cows is serious in the late lactation stage. Dairy cows enter the late lactation period after the mid-lactation period, and their weight will drop dramatically. This is because the cows are in the gestation period before the dry-milk period, have a poor appetite and fewer intake. Also, if the feeding of the cows at this stage is unreasonable, the feed or feed additives used are unreasonable. It will lead to a serious decline in the health of dairy cows, thus affecting health and production performance.
The milking quantity of dairy cows should be controlled at the early stage of lactation. Dairy cows should pay attention to the control of milking quantity within one week after delivery, and should not be over-milked too quickly. Because in the early stage of lactation, the calcium content in the body and blood will be excreted with milk. If the milk is excessive at this time, it will lead to excessive calcium loss and postpartum paralysis. This phenomenon is particularly obvious in high-yield dairy cows. Also, cows in the early lactation breast are still in different degrees of edema, excessive milking will aggravate edema, easy to lead to mastitis in dairy cows.
Dairy cows need to recover as soon as possible after delivery. Controlling milking volume at the early stage of lactation is helpful to the recovery of cow's physique and lay a good foundation for the peak lactation. In the early stage of lactation, to ensure the nutritional supply of dairy cows, the main way is to feed high-quality hay. With the recovery of appetite and digestive function of dairy cows, breast edema disappears, and juicy feed or silage can be gradually increased. When the body of dairy cows recovers completely, the normal feed and feeding amount can be restored after the breast edema is completely reduced. However, attention should be paid to the low energy, low protein, low calcium and phosphorus requirements of nutrition supply at this stage
Enhance feeding in the mid-lactation stage. Dairy cows enter the mid-lactation stage and gradually enter the peak period of lactation, which lasts for a long time, usually 2-3 months. This stage is the key to improve milk production. Therefore, when raising dairy cows, we should pay attention to the management of feeding at this stage and make adequate preparations to give full play to the performance of dairy cows. To achieve a high yield, the lactation peak period should be maintained for a long time. Because of the high milk yield in the peak lactation period, which can account for one-second of the whole lactation period, the diet at this time should be high-energy and high-protein. To ensure the maximum intake of dairy cows at this stage, we should not provide excessive juicy feed, otherwise, it will cause a decrease in dry matter intake of dairy cows, thus reducing milk production.