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How to prevent perinatal diseases in dairy cows?

Posted on: July 25, 2019, by Eleanor
How to prevent perinatal diseases in dairy cows?
How to prevent perinatal diseases in dairy cows?

During the perinatal period, cows are affected by the stress of childbirth, which results in a decrease of body resistance and the occurrence of diseases closely related to childbirth. The occurrence of these diseases often results in the decline of reproductive performance and milk production of dairy cows, even forced to be eliminated, causing serious economic losses to dairy farming.

NO.1 Endometritis


Endometriosis is one of the most common diseases in the reproductive system of dairy cows, and it is also the main cause of infertility in dairy cows. The main pathogens causing endometriosis are Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenic, Brucella, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Proteus leishmania, and Trichomonas. The main causes of perinatal endometriosis in dairy cows are inadequate disinfection during childbirth or midwifery and improper postpartum nursing, which cause pathogen infection. When dairy cows are malnourished, lack of vitamin E, vitamin A and trace elements selenium and iodine in feed, lack of calcium and phosphorus or inappropriate proportion, and inadequate protein intake after delivery, the incidence of endometriosis in dairy cows will increase.


Attention should be paid to the feeding and management of pregnant dairy cows. Nutrition should be comprehensive and balanced, and exercise should be adequate. During labor and postpartum, disinfect cowshed, combed, and vagina in time; pay attention to the disinfection of operators'arms and instruments during midwifery, strictly implement operating rules, and avoid mechanical damage as far as possible.


The clinical commonly used drugs for endometritis are antibiotics, anti-inflammatory hormones, and antiseptics. 0.1-0.3% potassium permanganate 200-300 ml, heated to about 40 degrees Celsius to wash the uterus, while massaging the uterus through the rectum to wash the uterus clean. After washing, 1.6 million international units of penicillin and 1 million international units of streptomycin were dissolved in 100 ml of sterile water, once injected into the uterus, or 2 grams of oxytetracycline were injected into the uterus. For chronic endometritis with the long course, hypertrophic uterine wall and purulent secretion, 20 ml of ethylene-stilbestrol can be injected intramuscularly to promote uterine contraction.

NO.2 Ketosis

Dairy cow ketosis is also called ketonemia and ketonuria.

The disease mostly occurs in high-yielding dairy cows and cattle with poor feeding and management. The incidence of the disease is higher in cattle of 3 weeks to 2 months and 3 to 6 parities after delivery, and higher in winter than in summer.

1.Etiology and pathogenesis

When dairy cows are lactating, there is a negative balance of energy when the feed intake can not meet the energy needs of lactation. The cows need to use their body fat and protein to degrade them to meet the energy needs and produce excessive acetic acid and butyric acid (a ketone body) during the conversion of fat protein into energy, which leads to ketosis. 。 Overweight cows during calving are the cause of ketosis. Insufficient vitamin B12 (lack of drilling) promotes the occurrence of ketosis. Over-secretion of oxytocin due to lactation after childbirth leads to an imbalance of insulin and thyroid function.

2. Symptom

Ketosis can be divided into digestive, neurological and paralytic types:

(1)Digestive type: normal or slightly low body temperature, superficial breathing (acidosis), hyperactivity of heart sound, pungent odor of ketone in exhaled gas and urine and milk, depression, rapid and marked emaciation, limp gait, rapid decline in lactation, initial consumption of hay or grass, finally refusal to eat, rumination stopped, flaccid forestomach, initial stool Secret, most of them discharged odorous feces, liver percussion voice boundary enlarged, can exceed the thirteenth rib, and sensitive to pain.

(2)Nervous type: In addition to the main symptoms of digestive type in varying degrees, there are a series of neurological symptoms such as agitation, roaring, empty chewing and frequent tongue rotation, aimless circle rotation and abnormal gait, headwall or trough, pillar, loss of vision in some cattle, sensory allergy, somatic muscle and nystagmus, and some of them are excited. It can alternate with depression.

(3)Paralysis type: In addition to many symptoms similar to production paralysis, there are also some main symptoms of ketosis, such as loss of appetite or refusal to eat, digestive symptoms such as flaccidity of the anterior stomach and allergies to stimulation, muscle tremor, spasm, sudden decline in lactation, etc., such as concurrent with production paralysis, and the effect of calcium is not good.


This disease mostly occurs in the postpartum lactation period, which is characterized by emaciation, significant reduction of milk production, lack of appetite, anterior gastric flaccidity and neurological symptoms, enlargement of liver percussion diagnosis area, ketone odor in urine, milk and exhaled gas, and diagnosis can be made.

It should be distinguished from other diseases such as paralysis, traumatic reticulum-peritonitis-pericarditis, dyspepsia, uteritis, and abomasum metastasis.


Pregnant cows should not be over fattened, especially those with multiple parties in the dry milk period. The digestive function should be adjusted well before delivery. For example, the concentrate should be added gradually 3-4 weeks before delivery to make cows adapt to milk feeding after calving, but concentrate towel protein should not be too high, generally not more than 16%. Do not feed moldy, spoiled, inferior hay and silage of poor quality, do not suddenly change the feed, feed should contain enough vitamins and trace elements.


(1)Sugar supplementation and sugar-derived substances: 40-50% glucose 500-1000 ml intravenous infusion, 3-4 times a day, preferably long time intravenous infusion, sodium propionate 110-225 g twice with water, propylene glycol or glycerol 225 g with water, twice a day, two consecutive days after the dosage of discretion.

(2)Hormone therapy: Corticosteroids such as cortisone acetate, hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and flumethasone also have good effects.

(3)Relieving acidosis: 50% sodium bicarbonate is injected intravenously, preferably in combination with the determination of plasma carbon dioxide binding capacity. Sodium lactate is also a drug to correct acid towel poisoning.

NO.3 Dystocia


The causes of dairy cow dystocia are mostly due to fetal and maternal factors. Maternal manifestations are obstetric stricture and weakness of contraction. Fetal manifestations are fetal oversize, twins, abnormal fetal potential and so on.


Attention should be paid to nutritional management during dry milk period to avoid overweight or thinning of dairy cows. Dairy cows with a narrow pelvis and primipara usually do not have to mate with newborn bulls to avoid fetal dystocia due to excessive fetal size.


Dystocia dairy cows should be rescued in time. Fetal delivery is still absent after persistent pains. The midwives'hands are disinfected and put into the birth canal from above. After correcting the fetal position, the fetus should be pulled out slowly. If the fetus still does not come out, stop pulling, and choose the cesarean section or fetal amputation in time.

NO.4 Retention of placenta


Retention of the placenta is also called retention of the placenta. According to foreign reports, the rate of placenta retention of normal cows is 11-30%, and that of domestic cows is 20-38%. Most of the placenta retention is due to improper feeding and management in late pregnancy, which weakens the cow's physique, or the uterus contraction weakness and dysfunction of Qi and blood caused by the stimulation of adverse external factors during childbirth. The placenta inflammation and special placenta structure caused by the microbial invasion of the uterus are also the reasons for the frequent occurrence of placenta retention.


We should strengthen the feeding and management of dairy cows in late pregnancy and give them proper exercise. Keep a quiet and hygienic environment during delivery, try to let cows produce naturally, reduce adverse stimulating factors, midwifery should not be too early (30 minutes before breaking water), and do not blindly force midwifery. Sodium selenite, 0.5g of vitamin E powder or Leonurus herb soup after delivery can prevent the occurrence of placenta retention.


We should strengthen the feeding and management of dairy cows in late pregnancy and give them proper exercise. Keep a quiet and hygienic environment during delivery, try to let cows produce naturally, reduce adverse stimulating factors, midwifery should not be too early (30 minutes before breaking water), and do not blindly force midwifery. Sodium selenite, 0.5g of vitamin E powder or Leonurus herb soup after delivery can prevent the occurrence of placenta retention.

NO.5 Prolapse of the uterus


Malnutrition, inadequate exercise or aging during pregnancy can reduce uterine muscle tension, fetal oversize, fetal malformations, twins and excessive fetal fluid lead to excessive uterine dilation, premature midwifery, and midwifery. Strong pull out of the fetus, postpartum cows over-nurturing may cause uterine prolapse.


Strengthen the feeding and management of parturient dairy cows to avoid excessive leanness of their physique, and do a good job of nursing for older parturient dairy cows. Correct midwifery operation, implementation of operating procedures, reduce uterine prolapse caused by improper midwifery.


Dairy cows with a prolapsed uterus should strive for early treatment to prevent contamination caused by prolonged exposure of uterus. Once it is found that the uterus of dairy cows is prolapsed after delivery, it should be repaired in time. Oxytetracycline powder was applied to uterine mucosa to prevent infection. To prevent the uterus from prolapsing again, inject uterine contractile agents or temporarily suture the vagina.

NO. 6 Postpartum paralysis


Postpartum paralysis of dairy cows is closely related to the metabolism of calcium. The initiation of postpartum lactation and the excretion of large amounts of calcium from milk, at this time, the plasma calcium content must be supplemented by increasing gastrointestinal absorption and bone calcium precipitation. However, the gastrointestinal function of cows before and after childbirth is disordered, which reduces the absorption rate of calcium and increases the estrogen level of cows. Prevent the timely transfer of bone calcium to the blood, resulting in a negative balance of calcium, and ultimately lead to hypocalcemic paralysis.


Cows were fed low calcium and high phosphorus diet two weeks before delivery to activate parathyroid gland function and improve the body's ability to absorb calcium. Increase the calcium content in the diet (more than 1%) after delivery, and take at least one dose of calcium preparation orally. At the same time, feed some stomach-strengthening drugs to promote the digestion and absorption of calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. Do not rush to empty the milk after delivery. The first milking amount is 1/5 of the normal, and then gradually increase, reaching the normal milking amount after 4 days.


Intravenous injection of 10-20% calcium gluconate 200-400 ml, hydrocortisone 400-500 mg, 10% sodium coffee 20-40 ml and 5% saline 2000 ml was performed. At the same time, the paralyzed dairy cows were given immediate breast ventilation, which oppressed the mammary vessels and inhibited lactation, so as not to dramatically reduce the blood calcium content.

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