Vaginal prolapse of dairy cows is an obstetric disease, which is caused by age, menstruation, physical weakness, poor feeding and lack of exercise, resulting in the decrease of tissue tension in the whole body. It causes excessive exertion of blame during childbirth, or fetal volume is too large and dystocia. Suddenly, it pulls the calf out of the vaginal part and all of it. Out of the vagina, hanging outside the vagina, fixing vaginal tissue too loose, excessive responsibility and high intra-abdominal pressure are the direct causes of the disease. In this paper, the causes, symptoms, and treatment of vaginal prolapse in dairy cows are discussed.
In dairy farms, vaginal detachment occurs mainly in dairy cows during the dry period, especially in those cows with trauma caused by overfatigue and anatomical structure during childbirth, as well as those with perineal and pelvic relaxation during the dry period. In the later stage of pregnancy, the estrogen level of dairy cows will increase significantly, which will cause the posterior part of the reproductive tract to be too relaxed. When the cow is in a low and high posture, it will cause the abdominal organs to push back the cervix and vagina, thus causing vaginal detachment. Besides, if the cow labia obesity, deformity, and laxity, it will cause vaginal detachment.
If vaginal detachment is found in dairy cows at the beginning of pregnancy, it should be suspected that it is caused by the presence of high levels of estrogen in the body. The occurrence of ovarian cysts in dairy cows and the feeding of diets containing high levels of estrogen can cause vaginal detachment. Also, the presence of mycotoxins and gibberellin ketone in raw maize can cause vaginal detachment. Also, when dairy cows feed mildewed corn or contaminated diets containing mycotoxins, other diseases can be caused, such as premature breast development, ovarian cysts, pudendal edema, etc. In a few cases, after dystocia, the pelvic nerve is damaged due to serious muscle injury and stretching, and finally, the obstinate and repeated vaginal detachment will occur. This special vaginal detachment will seriously affect the milk production and future fecundity of the cured cows.
When the vaginal part of the cow is prolapsed, it can be seen that the spherical vaginal wall is turned out outside the vaginal mouth. Especially when the pregnant cow is ill, when lying on the ground, it can be seen that the hemispherical vaginal folds of different sizes are prominent outside the vagina, such as large eggs, big fists, and sometimes even large leather balls. In the early stage, the mucosa became flushed and dark red in the later stage. When the symptoms of the sick cow are mild, it will only come out when lying down and retract quickly after standing up, usually without any systemic symptoms; when the symptoms are serious, it can not retract itself after standing up, so it needs manual help to push it back into the vagina and make it retract. Dairy cows suffer from vaginal prolapse. After lying down, the whole vagina turns out to be outside the vagina. It is spherical, sometimes up to the size of a volleyball, showing extreme pain and restlessness.
Treatment of partial vaginal prolapse. The diseased cattle were first cleaned with 0.2% potassium permanganate solution and then repositioned with the help of an assistant. If edema or bleeding occurs in the prolapsed vagina, it is necessary to apply a proper amount of 2% iodine tincture on the vagina, then use potassium permanganate to clean the vulva, then use 75% alcohol cotton to disinfect the inside of the vulva, and then use a syringe to extract 50 mL 95% alcohol and inject it into the inside of the vulva at different points. After about 3 minutes, the vulva will be filled. Blood, swelling, so that the vagina closed by itself.
Treatment of complete vaginal prolapse. The sick cattle are kept in a standing position, and if they cannot stand, their hindquarters should be raised. Then a certain amount of 2% procaine was injected into the epidural space of the first and second intervertebral space for anesthesia. The dosage was suitable to control when the diseased cattle could stand but could not be blamed. Then use 0.1% potassium permanganate solution or 1% alum water to clean the vagina, to ensure that all kinds of dirt clean. Before plastic surgery, use clean or disinfected gauze to wrap the vagina completely, to avoid the damage to vaginal mucosa during plastic surgery. At this time, the assistant uses his fist to assist the surgeon to push the vagina out into the pelvic cavity, usually from the top of the vagina or near the vagina. When the vagina is sent back to the pelvic cavity, it is necessary to ensure complete reduction and stay for some time before the hands and gauze can be withdrawn. After that, the vagina can be fixed to avoid prolapse, and three fixation methods can be adopted.
(1) Vaginal suture, i.e. the trigonal suture needle with double strands of suture No. 18 was inserted 2-3 cm outside the vaginal fissure, and the needle was removed from the opposite symmetrical position. Button suture can be used to avoid strangulation of the vagina by suture. Usually, 2 stitches can be seen, the lower 1/3 of the vagina is not sewn, for urination. (2) Pudendal pressure fixator, even with a pudendal pressure fixator, or according to the size of the pudenda with thick lead wire or a certain thickness of rope bending into a fixator, and the fixator is connected with two ropes above and below, respectively, from both sides of the root of the hind limb and the tail root forward to the chest and neck. (3) the lateral wall of the vagina is usually immobilized, which is usually easy to take out repeatedly. The cow is fixed by this method, that is, injecting 95% alcohol on both sides of the vagina to promote connective tissue between the vaginal wall and pelvis, or to sew the muscles of the vaginal wall and buttocks, to fix the porcine lateral wall and pelvis. Finally, the operation Department was disinfected with iodine tincture, and the thread was removed after a week.
If complete vaginal prolapse occurs in cows before delivery, it is often due to the failure to eliminate the cause after partial vaginal prolapse, or inflammation of the vaginal wall, or stimulation to promote the body's continuous responsibility. Therefore, vaginal prolapse should be treated as early as possible. When vaginal prolapse does not occur completely, it can be fixed by plastic surgery and preventive treatment to avoid further aggravation.
In the process of restoration, the vagina must be thoroughly cleaned with 0.1% potassium permanganate solution and the necrotic tissue removed; if there is a large wound, the suture should be taken, and appropriate anti-inflammatory agents should be applied. If serious edema occurs in the mucosa, cold compress with a towel dipped in 2% alum water and press continuously for 15 to 30 minutes. It can also be broken by needling at the site of mucosal edema. The liquid inside can be discharged by extrusion, and then applied with an appropriate amount of hydrogen peroxide to reduce mucosal wrinkles and edema. After reduction and fixation, in order to inhibit the intensity of the disease, 20-40 ml alcohol can be injected into deep tissues on both sides of the vagina to promote inflammation and swelling of the tissues, thus causing pressure on the vagina, thereby preventing the vagina from prolapsing again and improving the success rate of surgical treatment.
Partial or total prolapse of the vaginal wall outside the vagina is called vaginal prolapse. The former is called incomplete prolapse, and the latter is called complete prolapse. The disease mainly occurs in the late pregnancy of dairy cows, especially in the midwifery cattle, the old cattle, and the weak cattle. The author introduced the causes, preventive measures and simple treatment methods of cow vaginal prolapse for cow farmers'reference.
The amount of estrogen is high because this disease is more common in ovarian cysts before and after childbirth and during estrus. Therefore, it is generally believed that estrogen is closely related to the secretion of estrogen during this period, resulting in vaginal and perivaginal tissue relaxation, thus occurring vaginal prolapse. Excessive intra-abdominal pressure, old and weak dairy cows, malnutrition, constipation or diarrhea, during pregnancy due to increased fetal, abdominal pressure and rumen flatulence can cause the disease. Poor feeding management, a small amount of exercise, single feed, feeding moldy feed, the toxin produced by vaginal swelling, follicular cysts, leading to vaginal exfoliation. When dairy cows suffer from dystocia, due to improper midwifery and excessive exertion, the vagina is pulled and the vagina is pulled out.
Before and after delivery, the vagina is completely detached, because the cause of partial detachment is not relieved, or vaginal inflammation is stimulated, leading to constant blame. It can be seen that a large row of balls protrudes from the vagina, the surface is smooth, pink, the diseased cattle stand up, and the detached part does not retract. At the end of the prolapse, the cervical orifice can be seen, and at the front of the inferior wall, the urethral orifice can be seen, and the urination is not smooth. The prenatal part of the fetus can be seen in the capsule, and the fetal part may be touched outside. Postpartum prolapse is often not all prolapse, the prolapsed vaginal wall is thicker. Vaginal detachment for a long time can not retract, mucosa congestion, become purple-red, mucosal edema. In severe cases, the surface cracks, bleeding water, surface friction, and fecal contamination, often cause vaginal mucosa rupture, inflammation, erosion or necrosis, which can be caused by systemic infection or even death. In winter, frostbite occurs. When prenatal complete prolapse occurs, stimulation of the vagina and cervix can cause rectal prolapse, fetal death, and abortion. The diseased cattle are depressed, with fast and weak pulse, weak appetite, and common rumen rancidity.
Dairy cattle daily feeding management should be strengthened to supply full-price diets to meet the nutritional needs of dairy cows and ensure the health and strength of dairy cows. Appropriate control of concentrate and roughage feeding and the proportion of feeding in the third trimester of pregnancy, do not overfeed each time. Improve the quality of midwifery of veterinarians and midwives, and try to let cows give birth naturally, to reduce and prevent the obstetric tract injury caused by improper midwifery and excessive exertion.
The feed should be checked regularly and mildewed or deteriorated feed should be strictly prohibited. For cattle with mild vaginal prolapse and self-retracting after standing, no treatment is needed. The cattle can be raised on a low front and high back bed, so that the hind body is 8-10 cm higher than the forebody, to avoid lying on the ground for a long time. Keep the cattle bed clean and dry, change mattress frequently, increase exercise and grazing time every day, and feed digestible feed.
For cases of complete vaginal prolapse and partial prolapse which can not be reduced by itself, local cleaning and restoration and fixation should be performed. Dairy cows should be fixed on a specially designed cow bed with a low front and high back for restoration, to facilitate the restoration of the prolapsed vagina.
Local cleaning, the detached part is disinfected with normal saline or 0.1% potassium permanganate solution, and then cleaned with a 3% warm alum solution to make it shrink and soften. The damaged part should be sutured. Dairy cows with severe edema can apply hot towels for 10 to 20 minutes to reduce their size.
The vagina is lifted to the vagina by the assistant gauze and pushed into the vagina by the operator's palm when the cattle are not angry. After all, the vagina is pushed back to its original position with the fist. At this time, the arm stays in the vagina for some time, so as not to blame the vagina out again.
Fixed with double inverted suture fixation method, puncture was made on one side of the upper 1/3 of the cleft of the vagina, 3 cm from the cleft of the vagina, 0.5 cm from the cleft of the vagina, 0.5 cm from the cleft of the vagina on the opposite side, and 3 cm from the cleft of the vagina. Then the needle is sutured symmetrically about 2 to 3 centimeters below the pinhole, and a looper knot is made at the tightening end of the needle bundle from the opposite side so that it can be easily removed during labor. According to the length of a vaginal fissure, if necessary, suture 1-2 passages with the upper method, but pay attention to leaving the lower corner of the vagina for easy urination. Also, a thin rubber hose is put on the sutures exposed on both sides of the vagina and the sutures across the vagina to prevent strangulation of the tissues by sutures during intense anger. Also, there are bag mouth suture fixation methods, vaginal sidewall suture fixation method and so on. No matter which suture method, the suture should be firm, can withstand a great deal of pressure, and be removed before the cow delivers. After vaginal removal and repair, the vaginal pressure fixator can also be fixed on the vaginal fissure with a rope.
Postoperative care. The diseased cattle were raised on the bed with a low front and high back. To prevent further anger, some sedatives could be given and iodine glycerin or other antiseptics could be applied locally. If there are systemic symptoms, antibiotics should be injected for three consecutive days, and sutures should be removed after complete healing. The prescription of Buzhong Yiqi Decoction is 30 grams of Astragalus membranaceus, 30 grams of Atractylodes macrocephala, 30 grams of Codonopsis pilosula, 30 grams of cimicifuga, 25 grams of orange peel, 20 grams of Chaihu, 20 grams of Angelica Sinensis and 15 grams of licorice. It is fine, boiled water flushing after restoration, once filled, one dose a day for three days.