I. Timely Breeding
Bred cows at the age of 14-18 months or weighing 350 kg can increase the reproductive rate and achieve greater economic benefits by timely mating 2-3 months after delivery. First, pay attention to observe the oestrus of cows. When in estrus, the appearance is exciting and the action is disturbed, often climbing across other cows, also accept other cows climb across, the vagina has a transparent mucous outflow. Secondly, inform the mating staff of the exact estrus time (ovulation occurs 10 to 12 hours after estrus is over, sperm survives for 24 hours in the reproductive tract and eggs for 6 to 12 hours) can effectively improve the fertility rate of artificial insemination. From the beginning of estrus, artificial insemination was carried out by hand-holding cervix around 24 hours.
2. Nutritional Balance
Nutritional balance is the material basis for keeping cows healthy and prolonging their useful life, which can maintain normal appetite, achieve good fatness and improve comprehensive milk production potential. It will not lead to poor nutrient absorption, waste of forage, obstruction of growth and development, disease and affecting normal production due to partial nutrient deficiency. Grass feeding follows the principle of eating less in more meals, and hay is fed with silage. The concentrate feeding quantity is determined by the milk yield and the quality of roughage.
3. Massage Breast
Massage breast is one of the effective measures to improve the milk production performance of dairy cows. It can cultivate mild habits of cows and promote the growth and development of mammary glands. Under the combined action of the nervous system and endocrine system, milking can be accepted smoothly, as far as possible, the milk in the breast can be drained out. Prevent mastitis caused by residual breast milk and increase the total milk production during lactation.
4. Add Water Frequently in Summer
Milk contains 86%-89% water, 11%-14% of protein, fat, lactose, minerals and vitamins. In the hot summer, cows need more water than the other three seasons. Adult cows need 1.5 kg of drinking water per 0.5 kg of dry matter and 1.5-2 kg of drinking water per 0.5 kg of milk. Adequate free drinking water is conducive to the normal synthesis of milk, reducing body temperature and diseases caused by hot summer weather. Therefore, to meet the drinking water demand of dairy cows, the cattle farm should set up an automatic water dispenser in the cowshed or livestock farm.
5. Feeding with warm water in winter
The results showed that the water consumption of cows were affected by dry matter intake, climatic conditions, dietary composition and physiological status of cows. Dairy cows in dry milk period need 35 kg of water per day, dairy cows with 15 kg of milk production per day need 50 kg of water per day, and dairy cows with 40 kg of milk production per day need 100 kg of water per day. The normal body temperature of dairy cows ranges from 38.5 to 39 ℃, and the drinking water temperature in winter and spring ranges from 10 to 19 ℃, which can meet the maximum drinking water requirement for dairy cow production, reduce stress reaction and feed consumption and increase milk production performance.
6. Shading in Summer
In summer, although the forage conditions are good in summer, the high temperature, hot air and poor appetite of dairy cows and acceleration of respiratory frequency affect lactation. It can reduce body temperature and prevent heatstroke by building a shed or shading on the roof of a cowshed or livestock farm. If necessary, it can be washed by cold water and spray water to reduce the body temperature of cows.
7. Sun exposure in winter
Calcium deficiency and imbalance of calcium and phosphorus ratio of cows in winter will directly or indirectly affect reproduction. Sun exposure can promote the synthesis of organic calcium, increase the absorption of phosphorus in feed and the fertility rate, prevent osteoporosis in adult cows, and reduce the occurrence of postpartum paralysis and retained placenta.
8. Brushing the Cow’s Body
Enhance the affinity between dairy cows and human beings and cultivate the mild habits of cows to facilitate feeding. Promote skin metabolism and blood circulation to prevent diseases from infecting each other, which is conducive to bovine health.
9. Exercise More
Each cow should have 20-30 square meters of the farm for free movement. It can not only exercise physical fitness, accelerate metabolism and improve health, but also increase appetite, promote feeding, increase milk yield and milk fat rate, to prevent dystocia and deformity of the body of dairy cows. Good health care of dairy cows can prolong the feeding life of high-yield dairy cows and increase milk production and the number of births. If there is no livestock farm, driving for 2 to 3 hours can also achieve the purpose of the exercise.
10. Focusing on Science
The factors affecting dairy cow production capacity are genetic, physiological and environmental, among which environmental factors have a greater impact. Among the external environmental factors, feeding management is an important factor affecting the production capacity of dairy cows. Scientific feeding management is the key to exert the production capacity of dairy cows. The same cow used different feeding and management methods, the difference of milk yield is 30%-60%. Therefore, according to its growth stage, body condition, weight, milk production, milk fat composition and other conditions, a reasonable supply of full-price forage for feeding, scientific management and a comfortable environment, can obtain the greatest economic benefits with the lowest investment.