The dairy fluffy cow can be infected by four kinds of lipid mites (scabies, foot mites, itchy mites, Demodex), six kinds of lice, skin worms, maggots (spiral maggots) and various flies. Parasitic dermatosis is most common in dairy cows fed in winter. Many skin diseases can not be differentiated according to clinical symptoms but must be examined in the laboratory. Often several diseases coexist, such as mites, tinea, and lice, which can coexist in malnourished cows and the cow baby. The following specific to understand: Dairy cattle common several parasitic skin disease preventions and control and treatment.
(1)Scabies mite disease. Typical injuries are caused by scabies mites in the head, neck, and hindquarters; hair loss and severe skin thickening in affected cattle; and secondary injuries caused by friction in white areas. Severe cases may cause almost all hair loss. Close observation showed skin thickening, drying and scabbing.
(2) Foot mites. Foot mites are one of the most common mites in cattle. The wrinkles of the skin around the tail are the typical parasitic site of bovine foot mites. The lesion area was wet and exuded with liquid. Thick crusts formed on the lesion area and itched severely. In more severe cases, the lesion can be seen spreading from the tail to the perineum, with reddish skin and pustular formation.
(3) Itchy mites. Ayrshire cattle have thicker skin from the pudenda to the breast, and their coats fall off. Sometimes the disease can spread from the neck to the whole body. The obvious symptom is itching. Itchy mites (Ovine Itchy Mites) are more common in North America, where the eradication program for Itchy Mites has been implemented for several years. Another type of mite causing itchy mite is Nata itchy mite.
(4) Demodex (follicular mite). Small papules can be seen on the white skin of the Holstein cow, which contains large amounts of white, sticky waxy substances of mites. If the illness is mild, it can often be cured in vain. Extensive hair loss is rare.
Control of mite disease: It takes 2 weeks to hatch mite eggs, so it needs 2 to 3 weeks interval. Mitrazine (25%) is diluted at 1:800 for two spraying treatments of ivermectin is used for two injections. Dolan can also be used for treatment alone, but this drug is highly resistant.
The activity of sucking lice is slower than that of biting lice. In addition to itching, sucking lice can cause severe anemia, malnutrition, and even death. The most common occurrence of lice disease is in winter when the back coat is separated, small brown lice can be seen with the naked eye. It is easier to find lice on the hairless skin of the groin. It is necessary to pay attention to the differences in their sizes. The clinical symptoms of diseased cattle include friction, biting, rubbing and skin thickening. In some cases, the calf's tongue is protruded and its head is extended to one side.
This is a typical scratching posture. In early cases, small longitudinal folds of the coat can be seen in the neck, and small hairless areas with white skin can be seen by gnawing. In more serious cases, the facial skin became thicker and the small longitudinal folds of the neck became thicker. Some calves may experience growth arrest and anemia.
Treatment: The use of organophosphorus preparations is very effective, but is prohibited in some countries. It takes 2 to 3 weeks for eggs to hatch, and the two treatments (2 weeks interval) are effective. For example, the use of imipenem or Kuma drops or powder, or the use of pyridine and piperine butyl ether, the use of tibolone spray or spray. Dolan spraying alone is also effective. Severely infected cattle can be treated with multiple vitamins.
Four kinds of cutaneous helminthiasis
(1) Cutaneous Coronaria. When the horn flies bite in the midline of the abdomen, it can transmit the microfilariae of Coronaria Skrjabini to the body of Charolais cattle, resulting in large-scale dermatitis of the skin at the bite site, and the diseased area is round. The newly damaged skin is moist with blood or fluid exudation; the affected area of old cases is depilated and hyperkeratosis.
(2) Coronary otitis (parasitic otitis). Caused by Coronaria sandhill. Parasitic otitis is most common in older cattle in the wet season. There were cases of painful red inflammation in the inner ear of diseased cows. Coronary dermatitis. The disease is transmitted by flies, and Coronaria Assam can cause irritant dermatitis. Milk production and working ability of diseased cows decreased, and skin damage occurred, and the milk nutrients will be influenced. Foreign varieties are often more susceptible to disease than native varieties.
(3) Parafilariasis: Parafilariasis is common in parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe and is transmitted by flies of the genus Musca. Parafilaria Bovis can cause painful damage to subcutaneous tissues, which can lead to a decline in the production performance of serviced cattle, but more importantly, the disease can reduce the weight of beef cattle at slaughter, leading to serious economic losses for the cattle rancher. Female Parafilaria perforates the host's skin and lays eggs in the outflow of blood. Typical bleeding spots were found on the chest wall of bulls. The fly sucks the blood from the infected cow's eggs containing microfilariae and bleeds for hours on end.
The main points of prevention and control of skin helminthiasis are mainly to control flies and to take measures such as ear subcutaneous implantation of drugs.
Bernosporidium bailey of the family Sarcosporidae can cause systemic symptoms such as fever, diarrhea, and lymphadenopathy, or dry sclerosing dermatosis in animals. The skin of cattle is extremely thicker (similar to elephant skin) and the skin coat of the affected area is completely lost. Serious cases chapped skin, easy to secondary bacterial infections or myiasis, and lead to weight loss.
The disease is rarely fatal and has been reported in southern Europe, Africa, Asia, and South America. Fly bites can mechanically transmit Bernoulli sporozoites. The initial symptoms may be only a few cysts at the scleral margin. The initial symptoms were fever, painful abdominal swelling (systemic edema), sclera, conjunctiva, and nasal mucosal capsule formation, followed by Sclerodermatitis. Half-moon-shaped bradyzoites can be seen in the skin or conjunctival scrapes.
Treatment: Isolate diseased animals and give systemic treatment; reduce the bites of various blood-sucking insects; and, if possible, immunize them with attenuated vaccine cultured in living tissues, and increase the immune systems' ability.