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How To Start Dairy Farming Business?

Posted on: August 6, 2019, by Eleanor

The Farm Site Selection

Dairy Cows Selection

1  Des Paulanis Red and White Flower Cattle

2  Milking Shorthorn

3  Guernsey

4  Angorn cattle

5  Ayrshire

6  Swedish Red Bull

7  Brown swiss

8  Costa Roman cattle

9  Norwegian Red

10  Holstein cows

The Common Dairy Cow Diseases and Prevention

Medical diseases

1. Gastric volvulus

2. Abomasal displacement

3.  Gastric ulcer

4. Rumen acidosis

5. Ketosis

Obstetric diseases

1. Mastitis

2. Uteritis

3. Postpartum estrus

4. Postpartum uterine abscission

Infectious Diseases

1. Paratuberculosis

2. Anthrax

3. Brucellosis

Surgical diseases

1. Foot diseases

2. Hoofflitis

Parasitic diseases

1. Benoisporidiosis

2. Toxoplasmosis

3. Piriformis

farm
How to run a dairy farm?

With the improvement of living standards, people's demand for dairy products is also growing. In response to this growing demand, many people have the idea of raising cows. However, before entering the industry of dairy farming, we must lay a good foundation. We all need to understand the various issues of dairy farming. The following will provide you with a detailed guide to dairy farming.

The Farm Site Selection

 The construction of dairy farms and houses is the basis of cattle raising. The construction scale of dairy farms and houses should be determined according to the number of cows to be raised according to the plan. The following aspects should be taken into account in the selection of cattle farm location:

  Terrain:

 The terrain should be dry, the ground flat or slightly sloping, but usually can not be built on hillsides or highlands, otherwise, winter is easy to cause the invasion of cold wind, and is not conducive to transportation.

  Soil quality:

 Soil quality has a great influence on the health, management and production performance of cattle. Generally, the soil is required to have good permeability, good air permeability, low moisture absorption, low thermal conductivity, and good thermal insulation. The most suitable is sandy loam, which will not be muddy after rain and will be easy to keep dry. If it is clay, it will cause water accumulation, mud, poor bovine hygiene and high incidence of foot rot. Therefore, in the construction of dairy farms in clay areas, the stadium should be high in the middle, low around and have drainage ditches. It is better to lay sand on the stadium or build rain shelters.

  Source of water:

 Dairy farms consume a lot of water every day. In general, the daily water requirement of 100 dairy cows, including drinking water and cleaning utensils, washing cowshed beds and cattle bodies, requires at least 25-30 tons of water. Therefore, the dairy farm should choose the place with sufficient and good water source to ensure the convenience of water use all the year-round, and pay attention to the trace element composition and content in the water. Usually, the groundwater quality of well water, spring water, and other groundwater are better.

  Transportation and epidemic prevention:

 The cattle farm has a large amount of milk, feed, and excrement in and out every day. Therefore, the location of cattle farms should be close to the feed production base and grazing place and convenient transportation, but not too close to the main roads, factories, and residential areas, to facilitate epidemic prevention and environmental sanitation. Generally, cattle farms should be more than 300 meters away from the main road and 500 meters away from residential areas. At the same time, cattle farms should be located in the downwind direction of residential areas to prevent harmful gases and sewage from polluting residential areas.

Dairy Cows Selection

  At present, people's demand for meat, eggs, and milk has increased gradually, which has also led to a considerable increase in the proportion of some traditional animal husbandry industries in the agricultural industrial structure. Dairy cows have the characteristics of both meat and milk, which is naturally welcomed by most farmers. According to statistics, the total number of cattle breeds in all parts of the world is more than 800, and not all cattle can be used to produce dairy cows. Now let's get to know about the varieties of dairy cows.

1  Des Paulanis Red and White Flower Cattle

   Milk yield: 6900 kg per year

   Place of Origin: France

   Characteristics: Meat quality and yield are better than Holstein cows

   Height: 138 cm

   Weight: 700 kg

Des Paulanis Red and White Flower Cattle
Des Paulanis Red and White Flower Cattle

2  Milking Shorthorn

  Milk output: 7000 kg per year

  Alias: Short-horned Cows

  Origin: UK

  Difference: This cattle breed is all red, red and white flowers, all white, red and mottled.

  Height: 140 cm

  Weight: 680 kg

Milking Shorthorn
Milking Shorthorn

3  Guernsey

  Milk production: 7363 kg per year

  Origin: Guernsey Island, UK

  Difference: A2 milk accounts for the highest proportion of all dairy breeds.

Guernsey
Guernsey

4  Angorn cattle

  Milk production: 7570 kg

  Origin: Angorn, Germany

  Difference: : Known for its high fat content in milk

Angorn cattle
Angorn cattle

5  Ayrshire

  Milk production: 7,831 kg per year

  Other name: Dunlop cattle

  Origin: Elsha County, UK

  Weight: 600 kg

Ayrshire
Ayrshire

6  Swedish Red Bull

  Milk production: 8000 kg per year

  Alias: Swedish Red and White Cattle

  Origin: Sweden

  Characteristics: This kind of cattle is famous for its strong body and long life.

  Height: 140 cm

  Weight: 600 kg

 Swedish Red Bull
Swedish Red Bull

7   Brown swiss

  Milk production: 9,000 kg per year

  Origin: Switzerland

  Difference: Swiss brown cow milk is well known as a raw material for cheese production.

Brown swiss
Brown swiss

8  Costa Roman Cattle

  Milk production: 10,000 kg per year

  Origin: Costa Roma, Russia

  Features: Life span up to 25 years.

Costa Roman cattle
Costa Roman cattle

9  Norwegian Red

  Milk production: 10,000 kg per year

  Alias: NRF

  Origin: Norway

  Characteristic: This strong cow is famous for its rich milk production.

  Weight: 600 kg

Norwegian Red
Norwegian Red

10  Holstein cows

  Milk production: 11,800 kg per year

  Alias: Holstein-Frislan or Frislan

  Origin: North Holland and West Friesland in the north of the Netherlands

  Luminous point: with the highest milk production in the world

Holstein cows
Holstein cows

This is a few common dairy cow breeds in dairy farming. You can choose the breeds according to your economic purposes and the above characteristics of dairy cows.

Medical diseases

● Gastric volvulus

   Pathogeny

Gastric volvulus, also known as the right transposition of the true stomach, refers to the torsion of the true stomach around its longitudinal axis of 180-270 degrees, which is clockwise torsion of the true stomach (the right direction of the true stomach) between the liver and the right abdominal wall. With the increasing demand for milk, dairy farmers blindly pursue milk production, depending too much on concentrate feed to improve milk production of dairy cows, without paying attention to the improvement of feeding and management conditions, and raising scientifically. At the same time, due to the unreasonable feed mix, leading to a nutritional imbalance of dairy cows, which makes the digestive system of dairy cows have problems.

   Clinical symptoms

Most of the cattle suffer from abdominal pain, loss of appetite, even complete abolition, stop rumination, significantly weaken the rumen function, resulting in ketosis and anterior gastric retardation. When the symptoms are serious, the diseased cattle will show mental malaise, physical exhaustion, refusal to walk, obvious depression of eyeballs, body temperature of 38-39.5 C, respiration of 20-50 times/min, heart rate of 60-120 times/min, pulse increase, a small amount of exercise will lead to tachycardia, arrhythmia, shortness of breath.

The crisp steel pipe sound can be heard by tapping and auscultation at the intersection of the horizontal line of the shoulder joint of the diseased cow and the right 8-13 ribs. The right abdomen of diseased cattle is dilated. Most of them are in the rear edge of the right rib because of gas accumulation and water accumulation. The true stomach will bulge in bundles. The tapping sound can be heard when the fist is impacted on the lower part of the right rib. The puncture and microscopic examination showed that there were no ciliates and the pH value ranged from 3.0 to 6.0.

Rectal examination at the posterior edge of the rib arch on the right side of the diseased cattle can often detect the posterior edge of the true stomach, which is dislocated from the anterior and inferior part of the left kidney. Like the hemisphere, pressing has elasticity. It feels that the true stomach contains a lot of liquid and gas, and has a clear boundary with the rumen so that the two can be separated and the rumen backpack has obviously bulged. There were no abnormalities in other intestinal segments.

   Diagnosis

The disease is mainly differentiated from the left displacement of the true stomach. If the right side of the true stomach moves or twists, cows often show acute symptoms, such as obvious abdominal pain, frequent kicking of the abdomen, back depression, and the odor of excreta, etc., and the right side of the abdomen can be heard between the walls of the auscultation jingle or water sound. If the true stomach moves to the left of the cow, the sound of tapping on the 11-12 ribs of the cow's abdomen will be like tapping on a metal pipe, and the true stomach sound will also be heard through auscultation. If the intercostal tapping in the abdomen of a cow produces a sound like tapping metal, but the true stomach sound cannot be heard during auscultation, it needs to be carefully distinguished. This phenomenon may be due to the obvious sagging of the rumen caused by the prolonged cessation of feeding in the cow, resulting in excessive emptiness of the abdominal cavity.

   Prevention and cure

Western medicine treatment. Mainly restore the stomach power of diseased cattle and alleviate metabolic alkalosis. Diseased dairy cows should be fasting and only provide a small amount of drinking water to prevent the aggravation of the disease. The diseased cattle can be intravenously injected with a mixed solution consisting of 1 bottle of 500 ml 10% glucose solution, 2 bottles of 500 ml 5% glucose solution, 2 bottles of 500 ml compound saline, 2 bottles of 500 ml sugar saline, 6 bottles of 200,000 IU gentamicin, 3 10 ml vitamin C and 2 pieces of 10 ml compound vitamin B, twice a day for one course of treatment for 1 to 2 days. Intravenous injection of 400 ml 10% glucose injection, 20-30 ml vitamin C, or 300 ml 5% glucose sodium chloride injection, 10-20 ml gastric motility (compound vitamin B), or 300 ml 5% glucose sodium chloride injection, 100-200 ml calcium gluconate, or 500 ml 5% glucose sodium chloride injection, 3-4 g ampicillin sodium can also be given. At the same time, with a subcutaneous injection of 10-20 ml Bethanechol injection.

  Physical therapy. After using the medicine, there is still too much gas in the true stomach of diseased cattle, and the appearance is expanded. It is necessary to use a vertical puncture needle to deflate at the most obvious place where the exterior is bulging and steel pipe sound occurs. In the right abdomen, it is necessary to vibrate the true stomach with hand, that is, to massage the true stomach with the fist in hand, and to promote the whole body from small to large. The abdomen will vibrate without damaging the body so that it can be repositioned as soon as possible.

  Surgical treatment. The sick cattle should be fasting for 3 hours before the operation, and then stand in a six-column fence. Choose the right gown fossa as the surgical site. After shearing and sterilizing, draw a line about 20 cm in length with a knife handle at the surgical site, and then perform local multi-layer infiltration anesthesia at multiple points on both sides of the site. The surgeon cuts the skin with a knife and immediately clamps the blood vessels with hemostatic forceps, then bluntly separates the external oblique muscle, the internal oblique muscle, the rectus abdominis, and the transverse abdominal muscle once; then opens the peritoneum, exposes the abdominal cavity, extends the left hand, pulls out a small amount of omentum, finds the true stomach along the right abdominal wall, and then along the true stomach. Find the place where the torsion occurs and determine the direction of the torsion. The true stomach is restored by holding it in the opposite direction of the torsion until it becomes a smooth curve. If the true stomach expands considerably, the needle No. 20 (with duct) can be used to puncture the stomach before the operation, and the gas or liquid in the true stomach can be discharged, then the operation can be carried out. After the position of the true stomach returns to normal, attention should be paid to avoiding the vessels passing through the fixed silk thread at the base of the greater omentum, then fixing it on the abdominal wall muscles to control the appropriate tightness, then intraperitoneally injecting appropriate amount of intraperitoneal injection, and sequentially suturing the peritoneum, rectus abdominis, oblique abdominis and oblique abdominis abdominis, finally the skin. For nodule suture, it is better to spray 2 dry penicillin powder with 1.6 million IU  on each layer after sewing, and repair the wound, apply appropriate Iodophor for disinfection, cover the bandage to avoid infection. Afterward, sick cattle need to be fed with 1500-2000 mL vegetable oil.

  • Abomasal displacement

  Pathogeny

 To improve the production of dairy cows, some farmers gradually increase the input of concentrate on dairy cow feeding. The relative imbalance of concentrate and crude ratio causes a series of diseases of forestomach and abomasum of dairy cows. Abdominal displacement occurs to varying degrees in cattle raised by large-scale farms and individual farmers.

  Clinical symptoms

 Abdominal dislocation usually occurs after delivery in dairy cows and may occur at the end of pregnancy in some cases. The left side of the abomasum is dislocated, and the symptoms of flaccidity of the anterior stomach often occur in the early stage of diseased cattle. The main symptoms are good or bad appetite, occasional rumination, normal rumination, and sometimes reduced rumination or stopped completely. Some cases of diarrhea, some cases of constipation and fecal output decrease significantly with the aggravation of symptoms. The left abdominal circumference will be significantly increased. The sound of a steel pipe can be heard in combination with percussion and auscultation. Vibration sound can also be heard in the impact palpation. The puncture fluid at this place is taken to detect the pH value. If it is 1-4, the diagnosis can be confirmed. When the symptoms are obvious, even the abdominal circumference of the corresponding left ventral wall penultimate 1-4 ribs protrudes outwards, and the gown fossa collapses.

   Diagnosis

  The right side of the abomasum can be divided into two types: clockwise and counterclockwise torsion. Clockwise torsion is often acute, and the duration of the disease is short. The diseased cattle show abdominal pain symptoms of varying degrees in the initial stage. The amount of defecation is reduced. With the aggravation of the symptoms, defecation will gradually stop, and the body will rapidly develop seriously. In dehydration, the right ventral circumference is increased, especially between the penultimate 1-4 intercostals. Combined with percussion and auscultation, steel pipe sounds can be heard. Vibrating water sounds can be heard by impact palpation. The pH value of the puncture fluid is 1-4. If there is a large amount of fluid accumulated in the rumen, the clinical symptoms of counterclockwise torsion are similar. On the left side of the abomasum, the difference is that the steel pipe sound is produced on the right abdominal wall, and the position is relatively forward, generally in the reciprocal 3-4 intercostal space.

   Prevention and cure

  Drug reduction. The diseased cattle first regulate the rumen pH value, then inhibit rumen fermentation; then lightly diarrhea and strengthen the stomach, accelerate rumen gas discharge; then close the abdominal cavity, alleviate intestinal spasm, promote rumen floating; finally, inject the appropriate amount of smooth muscle stimulant to restore the abomasum to its original position. The diseased cattle could be fed with 100 g baking soda and 1000 g water, 200 g, 20 g active yeast, 300 g magnesium sulfate and 2000 ml water after one hour, and 2000 ml normal saline and 100 ml procaine by intraperitoneal injection, then 20 ml Bethanechol by intramuscular injection.

  Rolling reduction method. The diseased cattle should be fed with the appropriate amount of medicine before rolling. The diseased cattle can be given an intramuscular injection of 1-2 ml Jing Song Ling for general anesthesia and intramuscular injection of 20 ml atropine for inhibiting salivary secretion. Then the diseased cattle were poured into the sand by double cramps. The hooves of the limbs were fixed on a 2-meter-long rafter. Then the assistant lifted the rafter to make its abdomen upward and swayed from side to side continuously. At this time, the operator used a 20-cm-wide wooden board at the rump to push and squeeze it. After 15 minutes of shaking, the rafter made the animal sway. Its abdominal upward posture was still for 10 minutes, which prompted the abomasum gas to be discharged through the intestinal canal. The diseased cattle are usually rolled down four times and then intraperitoneally injected with 0.25% procaine saline of 2000 mL and 20 ml Bethanechol. It should be noted that when the diseased cattle are treated by the rolling method, they should fasting for several days and control drinking water. This is because the smaller the rumen volume, the better the therapeutic effect. Sick cattle swaying left and right in lying position can make rumen contents sink to the back continuously, and the abomasum accumulated a large amount of gas can rise to the ventral floor space during the swaying, and continue to move to the right side to reset.

  Surgical treatment. The main process is Baoding, cutting off the coat of the surgical department and sterilizing, then opening the surgical pathway, that is, cutting the skin, muscle, and peritoneum in turn, and taking appropriate treatment according to the actual situation. After the reduction and fixation of the abomasum, the surgical pathway is closed layer by layer, and then strengthening the post-operative nursing. Clinically, there are three different surgical pathways. The first is the left surgical approach, which is the most commonly used method. Opening the incision under the left costal arch can ease the pressure of the abomasum and pull it back to the right abdominal cavity. It is also easier to deal with other situations besides the displacement of the abomasum. But it is difficult to fix the abomasum, especially when the body is large. The second is the right surgical approach, that is, to make an incision at the slightly lower and anterior position of the right gown. This disease is easy to fix the abomasum, but it can not reduce the pressure of the abomasum, and it is difficult to pull it back to the right abdominal cavity, especially when adhesion occurs, it can not pull it back completely. The third method is the bilateral approach, that is, to make an incision in the anterior and inferior part of the right gown and the middle part of the left gown. This method can make up for the shortcomings of unilateral operation, but to make two incisions will have a greater impact on the body, especially the weakened cows can not bear it at all, so it is not used in the clinic. Five methods can be used for abomasum fixation, namely, left abdominal abomasum fixation, right peritoneum fixation, right median abdominal abomasum fixation, lasso needle abomasum fixation, and blind needle abomasum fixation. Paramedian abdominal incision through subcutaneous fixation of the abomasum is the latest method, which does not require abdominal wall muscle incision. It only takes 15 to 20 minutes for the operation, and the cost of treatment is low. That is, the diseased cattle were fixed in the dorsal lying posture. The position of the rump was determined by auscultation and percussion. Then, the nonabsorbable needle with nylon material was inserted subcutaneously into the rump with a length of 12-14 cm and a curvature of 3/8 to make it fixed in the normal position. When adopting this method, it is necessary to ensure that the rump has been restored to the correct position when the cow is lying on the back. This method is simple but easy to cause peritonitis. The treatment and nursing of diseased cattle should be strengthened after the operation, and the proper amount of penicillin and streptomycin can be injected intramuscularly every day within 7 days after operation; if dehydration occurs, the intravenous fluid infusion can be adopted, and acid-base imbalance can be adjusted. Oral rehydration salts are generally chosen and used daily. Besides, a small amount of stomach-strengthening drugs, sodium bicarbonate and paraffin oil can be taken orally to promote the excretion of corrupt contents accumulated in the gastrointestinal tract, stimulate gastrointestinal peristalsis and improve digestive function.

  •  Gastric ulcer

  Pathogeny

 The occurrence of true stomach ulcers in most dairy cows is related to intensive feeding and high-concentrate diet. When the diet contains a large amount of wet corn or corn silage, cattle suffer from different degrees of rumen acidosis, which often causes the disease. Calving stress can induce genuine gastric ulcer, which is determined by the metabolic characteristics of perinatal dairy cattle. Transport stress is also one of the inducing factors. Many imported cattle suffer from large-scale outbreaks in isolation farms. Besides, high-yielding dairy cows are prone to genuine gastric ulcer, because the increase of cardiac output to the breast may cause relatively low perfusion flow of abdominal viscera, which is prone to genuine gastric ulcer.

   Clinical symptoms

  According to the bleeding and perforation of diseased cattle and the severity of the disease, the genuine gastric ulcer can generally be divided into three types. Ulcer and mild bleeding. Several erosions or superficial ulcers occurred in the true stomach of diseased cattle, with or without slight bleeding. The symptoms of genuine gastric ulcer with a small amount of bleeding are not obvious, and it is difficult to diagnose in the clinic. The collection of fecal samples should avoid rectal examination to prevent false-positive occult blood. (2) Hemorrhagic ulcer. According to the obvious black feces of dairy cows, the first diagnosis can be made. Diseased cattle with normal feces can be diagnosed by reference to hematocrit, serum total protein, fecal occult blood and dehydration status. (3) Perforating ulcer. The perforated gastric ulcer can be seen in calves, young adults and adult cows at any stage, and it is most common in dairy cows 1-6 weeks after delivery. According to the size and degree of perforation, the clinical manifestations vary greatly. Calves with perforated true gastric ulcer are more likely to develop diffuse peritonitis than adult cows. The pain location in acute cases is easy to diagnose, but it is difficult to locate the pain in subacute or chronic cases, and it is difficult to distinguish it from traumatic gastroenteritis. If the dairy cow is in the mid-late lactation stage, the possibility of genuine gastric ulcer is less.

  When diffuse peritonitis occurs in adult cattle and calves, the symptoms begin to be a severe and present septic shock. Fecal occult blood test, hematocrit, and total ascites protein are important diagnostic indicators for suspected hemorrhagic gastric ulcer. Serum albumin and total protein decreased as a result of large amounts of protein entering the abdominal cavity. When diffuse peritonitis secondary to true gastric perforation occurs in dairy cows, the peritoneal puncture can confirm the diagnosis: total solids and total protein in ascites increase, but white blood cells in some acute cases are quite low.

   Diagnosis

  Dairy cows' genuine gastric ulcer (erosion) is usually caused by genuine gastric obstruction, genuine gastritis, and genuine gastric ulcer. The diagnosis of genuine gastric ulcer is mainly based on physical examination, exclusion and abdominal puncture. It is usually difficult to diagnose a sick cow before it dies. The diagnosis of hemorrhagic genuine gastric ulcer is based on pale mucosa, high heart rate, black feces, low PCV and hypoproteinemia. B-mode ultrasonography is very helpful in the diagnosis of diffuse peritonitis in calves and adult cattle.

   Prevention and cure

  Unless dairy cows suffer from genuine gastric metastasis, it is generally believed that drug therapy is the best treatment for perforating ulcers without considering surgical suture. The treatment and nursing of perforating genuine gastric ulcer with secondary focal peritonitis include dietary adjustment and drug treatment. Silage and high humidity maize should be stopped in dairy cow diet for 1-2 weeks, and fiber components such as high-quality hay should be increased in dairy cow diet. If ketosis occurs due to low dietary energy, high starch diets such as cereals can be given appropriately. Drug therapy included the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics for 7 to 14 days to control peritonitis. Coping with other complications, such as hypocalcemia or ketosis, occurs during cow illness. Corticosteroid hormones and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prohibited to prevent the aggravation of ulcer formation. Most cases need 5 to 14 days to recover, and dietary adjustment should continue until complete recovery of sick animals. A small amount of bleeding ulcer of the true stomach, according to the above treatment of perforating ulcer method to adjust the diet, and give acid-fast protectant or astringent, can generally be cured. Patients with concurrent inflammatory or metabolic diseases should be treated accordingly.

  Real gastric ulcer causing massive hemorrhage in dairy cows can lead to death. Drug treatment and timely dietary adjustments are needed. The method of dietary adjustment and oral antacid protectant is the same as the above. The key to treatment is to determine whether a blood transfusion is needed. If the visible mucosa is pale, the heart rate exceeds 100 beats per minute and the breathing rate is accelerated, blood transfusion is usually needed to start the compensatory function and heal the ulcer. Healthy bovine blood of 4-6L should be transfused in general cases. There are 11 blood group systems in cattle, which usually do not cause transfusion reaction, and cross-matching tests can be omitted. The ideal blood donors should be cows with negative bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Usually, a single blood transfusion is enough to stabilize the condition, while also gaining time for adjusting diet, medication and ulcer healing. Individual diseased animals may need two or more transfusions.

  • Rumen acidosis

  Pathogeny

 Ruminal acidosis is common in dairy cows fed with a large number of concentrates. These carbohydrate-rich concentrates ferment abnormally in the rumen of dairy cows, which reduces the activity of microbial flora in the rumen, resulting in excessive lactic acid being absorbed into the blood, thus causing acidosis.

  Clinical symptoms

 The acute cases were 4~8h after the excessive intake of dairy cows (grains, high acid silage, etc.). The sick cows were depressed, supine, followed by diarrhea, rapidly sunken, rapidly dehydrated, and the individual cows showed high excitement. They made loud calls, groans, mouth opening, nystagmus, nostril bleeding, red foam, and died within 3~5 hours.

  Overeating grain feed has a slow onset and mild symptoms. Overeating crushed concentrate and batter has a rapid onset. When cattle drink water after eating grain, the grain ferments quickly in the rumen, produces acid and produces gas, which destroys the rumen environment. At the beginning of the disease, appetite was absent, rumination and belching were reduced or stopped. When the rumen was full, the cattle were agitated and restless. They sometimes got up, kicked abdomen with the hind hoof, dry nose, purple conjunctiva, and sunken eye socket. The rumen was drummed and pressed like hard dough. The organic acid in rumen rises sharply. After absorption, the affected cattle show unstable gait, accelerated heart rate, shallow and fast breathing, and increased body temperature. When the pH value of rumen drops below 6.0, cattle often lie down, moan their molars, stop peristalsis in the rumen, and the contents of the rumen are mostly pasty; purple-red nose and eye rims, blood concentration, sunken eyeballs, sticky mouth, dark red, head and neck tilted to one side or head backward, like postpartum paralysis; some of them are blind, feces stopped, and feces are few. Urine or anuria; some cattle excrete a small amount of dilute dung with mucus and undigested feed particles, which smells sour and stinky.

   Diagnosis

  Poisoning usually occurs in dairy cows after childbirth, manifested as irregular fur, muscle tremor, diarrhea feces first water sample, then yellow-brown, dark-black mucus sample (then dried and then asphalt-like). The sick cows were unable to lie on the ground. Their body temperature did not change significantly, and some of them decreased slightly. Groaning, excitement, some breathing faster, some breathing weaker. The long course of the disease is manifested by flaccid rumen, loss of appetite, accompanied by hoof leaf inflammation, strong gait, and difficulty in standing. The diseased cattle suffer from severe dehydration, tight skin, sunken eyeballs, blood concentration and reduced urine volume, which may eventually be accompanied by hoofs and rumen inflammation.

   Prevention and cure

  Stop rumen fermentation and reduce acidosis. First, the stomach is guided and lavaged. The 2.0-2.5 cm rubber tube is inserted into the rumen through the mouth, and the liquid content is discharged. Then the stomach is fully lavaged and guided with 50 kg of 1% sodium chloride solution until the rumen juice is clear or alkaline by the test paper. Correct body fluid pH value, replenish alkali storage, alleviate acidosis with 5% sodium bicarbonate 1.0 ~ 1.5L, twice a day intravenous injection, severe cases can be used for 2 days. Later, it will be decided by the situation or by the change of blood carbon dioxide binding capacity. Promote gastrointestinal peristalsis and restore digestive function, and prevent gastrointestinal tract infection. When the condition is alleviated, it can be used with gastric stimulants, stomach-strengthening drugs, and gastrointestinal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  Scientific feeding, rational supply of concentrate, 1%~2% baking soda and 0.5% magnesium oxide can be added to the diet. When the intake of dairy cows drops rapidly, the pH value of urine, ketone body and digestive tract diseases should be detected in time. First of all, we need to control the nutritional level during the dry milk period. The nutritional level of dairy cows in the dry milk period should not be too high. It is forbidden to adopt the method of increasing concentrate to achieve the purpose of fattening and lactation. Concentrate feeding should not exceed 4 kg per day, at the same time, a variety of feed should be rationally allocated to prevent the feeding of simple and inferior concentrates. Secondly, feeding management should be strengthened and feed should be rationally allocated. Rather than simply feeding high-priced fermentable carbohydrate feed and high acidity silage and dregs, it should be guaranteed to supply cows with 4-5 kg of hay every day, and adequate drinking water and proper exercise. Besides, the management of concentrate stacking and storage should be strengthened to prevent cows from stealing concentrate. 2% sodium bicarbonate and 0.9% magnesium oxide can be added to the diet to promote the normal digestive function of the rumen and prevent acidosis.

  Ruminal acidosis of dairy cows often occurs after calving. Because of the excessive feed, the cows ferment and produce acid in the rumen, resulting in acidosis. Therefore, to prevent this disease, we should pay attention to the fact that dairy cows can not be fed too much concentrate or a large amount of silage during the postpartum recovery period. It is better to feed a certain amount of dry yeast or sodium bicarbonate tablets every day to control the pH value in the rumen. The key to the treatment of this disease is to adjust the pH value of body fluids. It is found that the sick cattle must be transfused as early as possible to alleviate acidosis, and at the same time to strengthen the heart and rehydration so that the cattle can recover as soon as possible. The prevention of this disease mainly lies in strengthening the feeding management. The proportion of daily amount and nutrition should be reasonable, the feed should be piled up in places where cattle are not easy to reach, and the cattle should be kept in strict captivity to prevent cattle from running around and stealing vegetables or crops.

  • Ketosis

  Pathogeny

 When dairy cows are lactating, there is a negative balance of energy when the feed intake can not meet the energy needs of lactation. The cows need to use their body fat and protein to degrade them to meet the energy needs and produce excessive acetic acid and butyric acid (a ketone body) during the conversion of fat protein into energy, which leads to ketosis.  Overweight cows during calving are the cause of ketosis. Vitamin B12 deficiency (cobalt deficiency) promotes the occurrence of ketosis. The overproduction of oxytocin by lactation after childbirth leads to an imbalance of insulin and thyroid function.

  Clinical symptoms

 The light type of lack of obvious clinical symptoms, only the decline in milk production, mild loss of appetite, progressive weight loss is their characteristics when the weight is quite thin, the milk production is significantly reduced, the course of the disease can last 1 to 2 months. Ketoacids can be generally divided into three types: digestive, neurological and sputum (paralysis). The third type is more common in digestive type, and the incidence is high. The light type only needs to strengthen feeding management and adjust the feed (reducing protein feed). With the treatment, the prognosis is good, the condition is delayed, secondary enteritis, body dehydration, severe acidosis, poor prognosis.

  Diagnosis

 This disease mostly occurs in the postpartum lactation period, which is characterized by emaciation, significant reduction of milk production, lack of appetite, anterior gastric flaccidity and neurological symptoms, enlargement of liver percussion diagnosis area, ketone odor in urine, milk and exhaled gas, and diagnosis can be made. It should be distinguished from other diseases such as paralysis, traumatic reticulum-peritonitis-pericarditis, dyspepsia, uteritis, and abomasum metastasis.

  Prevention and cure

 Sugar supplement and sugar-derived substances: 500-1000 ml of glucose intravenously, 3-4 times a day, preferably long-term intravenous infusion, take Duo Wei Jian orally 1000 ml/time, twice a day, after 2 days of continuous dosage.

 Hormone therapy: Corticosteroids such as cortisone acetate, hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and flumethasone also have good effects.

 Intravenous injection of glucose and appropriate use of small doses of insulin can promote the utilization of sugar.

 Relieving acidosis: 50% sodium bicarbonate is injected intravenously, preferably in combination with the determination of plasma carbon dioxide binding capacity. Sodium lactate is also a drug to correct acidosis.

 Other symptomatic treatment: appropriate use of sedatives with neurological symptoms such as ambroxol, chlorpromazine, coenzyme A or cysteine, calcium gluconate, B vitamins, vitamins, vitamins, VE.

dairy cattle
dairy cattle

Obstetric diseases

  1. Mastitis

   Pathogeny

Dairy cow mastitis is infectious. It is affected by high or low temperature and humidity in the cowshed. Mastitis can be transmitted directly between cowhouses or between cows and cows. It can cause bacterial growth if the cowshed is not ventilated well and there is dust in the cowshed, also, it is not disinfected regularly. What’s more, when milking, the milk on the ground is not cleaned in time, the viscera and excrement of cowshed are not cleaned in time, and the plastic is not replaced in time, resulting in bacterial breeding. Especially in summer, site hygiene is poor, flies and mosquitoes increase, biting cows can induce mastitis.

In management, many farmers do not pay attention to standardized operation, do not pay attention to observe the health of dairy cows, do not wash hands and milking equipment, do not scrub breasts. In operation, milking equipment and breasts do not match, milking force is too strong, suction time is too long, this kind of non-standard operation will lead to damage around the nipple, such as long-term improper operation and unclean cleaning will cause mastitis. At the same time, in the process of feeding, improper nutritional mix and unreasonable nutritional composition of feed will lead to low immunity of dairy cows, and bacteria invade dairy cows without resistance, resulting in the increase of bacteria in the breast, causing mastitis. Feeders pay too much attention to cow milk production, concentrate overuse, although supplemented with high energy and protein, but will increase the burden of the breast, if not timely supplementation of crude feed and increase the content of vitamins and minerals in feed, mastitis will also occur.

 Clinical symptoms

Dairy cows suffering from mastitis mainly show mental depression, loss of appetite, elevated body temperature, redness, hyperemia, decreased elasticity of breast tissue, hardening, pain when touching, poor discharge of milk, yellowing and thickening of milk color, flocculent or milk coagulation, fishy odor of milk, large milk production. The decrease of the amplitude will cause permanent damage to the mammary gland tissue of dairy cows, thus losing its lactation function. Dairy cow mastitis is subdivided into acute mastitis, chronic mastitis, and recessive mastitis. Although cows with recessive mastitis have no inflammation symptoms and abnormal milk phenomena, the milk production of cows will be affected, and pathological tests will find that the number of pathogenic bacteria and white blood cells in the milk components increased sharply. It was found that the milk pH value of cows with mastitis was alkaline. The higher the alkalinity was, the more serious the disease was.

Prevention and cure

For the treatment of cow mastitis, the principles of early prevention, early appearance and early treatment should be adopted.

Reasonable massage therapy for dairy cows

Dairy cow breasts can be regularly and reasonably massaged, each milking time for about 30 minutes massage, to artificially accelerate the breast circulation, make the breast duct unobstructed, alleviate the pain caused by cow mastitis.

Reasonable hot compress treatment for dairy cows

After mixing hot water at about 50 C with vinegar in a certain proportion, soak it in a towel, wrench it out and cover the breast, once in the morning and once in the evening, about 30 minutes each time, to promote breast circulation and relieve symptoms.

Reasonable Infrared Irradiation Therapy for Dairy Cows

Dairy cow breasts can be regularly irradiated by infrared radiation to promote breast circulation.

Scientific immunization of dairy cows

Immunization of dairy cows to produce corresponding immune responses can enhance the immune memory of mammary gland cells to pathogens, enhance their immunity and reduce the risk of disease. For dairy cow mastitis, not only a single vaccine against a pathogen has been developed, such as a large number of anti-Staphylococcus aureus vaccines currently used, but also multiple vaccines against a variety of pathogens has been widely promoted.

Treatment of Dairy Cow Mastitis with Chinese Herbal Medicine

Recent studies have found that Chinese herbal medicines, based on their active substances and nutrients, can help to enhance the self-immunity of dairy cows on the one hand, on the other hand, they also have different degrees of anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory magic effect, and have little side effects, and are not easy to produce drug resistance, which is the focus of attention in the treatment of dairy cow mastitis at present.

The prevention and control of dairy cow mastitis should be paid great attention to, and prevention should be given priority to. First, the temperature and humidity in the cowshed should be controlled reasonably. Second, drinking water should be sufficient and clean. Third, the cowshed should be kept clean and hygienic, disinfected regularly and milking operation should be standardized.

  • Uteritis

   Pathogeny

In the early postpartum period of dairy cows, about 93% of the uterus bacterial contamination will occur, but most of the contamination can be automatically removed by the body. It is reported that the uterus infection rate of dairy cows can be reduced to about 39% after 46-60 days of postpartum. However, when dairy cows suffer from dystocia, uterine retardation, fetal placenta retention, and iatrogenic infection vaginitis, the possibility of uterine inflammation increases. When dairy cows have hydronephrosis or twins, the uterus expands obviously, or the obstetric tract undergoes physical damage due to dystocia, which leads to uterine inflammation. Due to the serious environmental pollution caused by the reuse of delivery rooms, or delivery in pens without roofs or dung ditches, as well as during forced captivity, which may aggravate environmental pollution, can promote the occurrence of hysteresis in dairy cows; poor management conditions of dairy cows, poor hygiene during midwifery, and artificial transfusion. Sperm without strict disinfection can also cause uterine inflammation. Besides, the incidence of uterine inflammation was significantly increased during the first few months of routine feeding in extremely hot, extremely cold and cold seasons in the north.

Clinical symptoms

  Acute endometritis: It is mainly caused by postpartum endometritis in dairy cows due to abortion or unequal placenta. It usually occurs 3-7 days after delivery. It can be divided into pyogenic, fibrinogenous and mucinous endometritis. With the increase of labor, the course of the disease will gradually worsen. The diseased cows show mental depression and body temperature. Increased appetite, loss of appetite or complete abolition, reduced lactation, frequent blame, arch back, often urination posture, and purulent or mucous secretions with gray or pink discharge from the vagina, and emit a foul odor.

  Chronic endometritis: usually caused by acute transformation or mild infection during dairy breeding. The name of the disease often does not have obvious systemic symptoms, but forms an irregular oestrus cycle, or does not show obvious oestrus symptoms, and when oestrus, mucus containing flocculent substances are discharged from the vagina, or contains purulent secretions of different sizes. When dairy cows have vaginitis, their vulva appears redness, swelling and valgus, and can not return to normal state after estrus. The cervix and one or both corners of the uterus are hardened and thicker, with poor elasticity, dull tactile response, reduced sensitivity, and repeated sterility.

   Diagnosis

  Diagnosis of the disease should be based on the onset time, clinical characteristics, course of disease and whether abortion occurred in cows, and combined with its history, judging from the degree of uterine inflammation, can also extract abortion fetus, placenta, uterine discharge for bacterial culture, according to the diagnosis results to determine treatment measures. A variety of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroides, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus hemolytic, Necrobacterium, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces pyogenes, Clostridium clostridia, Proteus and other anaerobic bacteria, can be isolated from the uterine effluent.

  Check the characteristics of secretions: When cows are in normal estrus, more secretions will flow out from the vagina, which is clear and transparent, and can be drawn into filaments. However, cows with uteritis may have more secretions from the vagina, but they are thinner, unable to pull into filaments, or more secretions, which are thick, but turbid and gray-yellow or gray-white.

  Vaginal examination: In the vagina of diseased cattle, different degrees of swelling and congestion can be seen at the cervical orifice, and when the cervix is not completely closed, inflammatory secretions of different shapes can be discharged. But when the cervix of the cow is completely closed, NO secretion will be discharged.

  Rectal examination: In diseased cattle, one or two enlarged uterine horns can be touched, the uterine wall is thicker and the contraction reaction is weak. Touching the uterus of diseased cattle sometimes feels pain and accumulates more secretions, which can cause obvious fluctuations.

 Prevention and cure

   Western medicine treatment: When cattle suffer from catarrhal and purulent endometritis, 40-60 mg estrogen is injected intramuscularly on the first day, the dose is halved on the second day, and 20-60 U oxytocin is injected intramuscularly at intervals of 4 hours for four consecutive times. On the third day, the uterus is washed with 0.1-0.2% saline or rival and then rinsed at 250-5%. Add 5-10g soluble anhydrotetracycline to 00mL normal saline and heat it to 40 C. All of them are perfused into uterus once a day, 4-8 times in a row. When suffering from chronic endometritis, 500 ml. In normal saline, 5.0 g of dysentery, 32 g of chloramphenicol, 40-80 mg of estradiol benzoate and 20-40 ml of paraffin oil or cod liver oil were added. After full mixing, they were heated and perfused into the uterus at about 40 C. Usually 50 ml was perfused into the uterus at intervals of 1 day for 3-8 consecutive times. Also, 160-3.2 million U penicillin and 2 million U streptomycin sulfate can be added to 100-250 ml normal saline. After mixing, they can be heated up to 40 C and injected into uterus 6-8 hours before or 10-18 hours after mating. Besides, when choosing perfusion drugs in the uterus, officials should be cleaned first, 50 ml should be used for serious patients, 30 ml for mild patients, once every day, 2-5 times in a row.

  • Postpartum estrus

   Pathogeny

  Excessive or insufficient energy intake during the perinatal period will result in postpartum estrus and lower conception rates. When dairy cows are fed a diet containing low levels of protein, their fecundity will decline, while higher levels of protein, i.e. more than 19%, will lead to postpartum estrus delay, resulting in lower fertility rate. When dairy cows absorb too much protein, the excess part will eventually enter the blood in the form of urea nitrogen, resulting in a higher level of urea nitrogen in blood and milk, thus causing a significant decrease in the pH value of the uterus, causing the occurrence of the disease in its liquid composition, and also poisoning the eggs, sperm and embryos. Besides, when the ratio of calcium to phosphorus is unbalanced, vitamin A and some trace elements are deficient in the diet of dairy cows, it will lead to postpartum estrus, unable to maintain regular estrus cycle, resulting in a significant decrease in the fertility rate.

  Prevention and cure

The bull induction method is to release human bulls in dairy herds, stimulate them to produce luteinizing hormone secretion pulses, make them appear luteinizing hormone peak before ovulation, and stimulate ovulation. Besides, if dairy cows are exposed to bulls after parturition, it can shorten the period of postpartum estrus and stimulate ovulation, but attention should be paid to the proportion of bulls, season, delivery condition and which stage of postpartum exposure in bulls.

Cattle suffering from estrus caused by ovarian motility or atrophy must first improve the level of feeding management, and cooperate with hormone therapy. The diseased cattle can be injected with 50 Um2 per muscle once a day for 3 consecutive days, or 10 mL vitamin AD3 injection (containing 50 000 01U vitamin A and 50 000 1U vitamin D3 per milliliter, and then 20 mLI type (the main component is vitamin E) after 3 days. If the ovarian function of diseased cattle is still due to lactation, 100 mg progesterone can be injected intramuscularly once a day for a week. Dairy cows after hormone treatment, if estrus occurs within 10 days, can not be mating, to wait until the next estrus. After hormone treatment, if no cow has oestrus, the cow should be examined again on the tenth day. If the corpus luteum is found, it is effective; otherwise, it is ineffective, and the treatment should be continued. In addition, the diseased cattle can also cooperate with the use of traditional Chinese medicine Huoxue powder, that is, 40 g Angelica Sinensis, 30 g Morinda Officinalis, 30 g Cistanche deserticola, 50 g actinolite, 100 g Epimedium, 45 g Codonopsis pilosula, 50 g yam, 15 g liquorice, 30 g horse placenta, 120 g Leonurus japonicus, after boiling, continuous use of three agents to promote oestrus, pay attention to the first occurrence of oestrus can not be. Formating, the second oestrus occurs before mating.

If dairy cows suffer from estrus due to persistent corpus luteum, they can inject 20 ml of estradiol benzoate into their muscles or 200 um of cloprostenol into their uterus to accelerate corpus luteum lysis and promote follicular development.

When dairy cows suffer from estrus caused by an ovarian cyst, proper vitamin A, D3 and E can be added to concentrate to improve feeding management. At the same time, 20 mL of type I and type II can be injected into their muscles respectively. It should be noted that when estrus occurs for the first time after medication, they cannot be mated, and when estrus occurs for the second time, they can be mated. Intramuscular injection of 0.6 mg cloprostenol was given once, once again after 5 days without estrus, and intramuscular injection of 15 mg dexamethasone. In addition, 100 mg progesterone was injected into the muscles of diseased cattle every time, and another injection was given every other day for two consecutive times to treat ovarian cysts

When dairy cows suffer from cervicitis, endometritis, and salpingitis leading to estrus, if the inflammation is mild, 6.4 million IU penicillin and 2 million IU streptomycin can be injected into their muscles every time for 3 consecutive days. When estrus occurs in diseased cattle, 5% glucose injection of 1.6 million IU penicillin and 1 million IU streptomycin is injected into the uterus once; if inflammation is serious or pus accumulates, the uterus can be cleaned, and the uterus can be washed with 500 mL adding 6 g oxytetracycline and 10% saline at 30-40 C, once a day, continuously for three days.

  • Postpartum uterine abscission

  Pathogeny

 Nutritional level. Due to the inappropriate or lack of calcium and phosphorus in the diet of dairy cows, the uterus of dairy cows falls off after delivery, or the uterus of some dairy cows shrinks weakly due to the excessive obesity of dairy cows, resulting in the excessive anger and blame of dairy cows after delivery, resulting in the uterus falling off.

The slope of the stadium is too steep. For the convenience of drainage in summer, the gradient of some dairy farms is more than 10 degrees. During the period of lying in the nest, the vagina is below the gradient, and the uterus moves backward for a long time, resulting in uterus detachment after delivery. The gradient of the dairy farm is 3-5 degrees.

Feeding management. Imported Australian cattle have a strong postpartum stress response due to their wild nature. To prevent workers from injuring calves, the uterus did not recover and then moved too early, leading to uterus prolapse after delivery.

 Prevention and cure

Rational ratios of calcium and phosphorus are allocated to ensure that the feed formulation is different in each period. The dry milk period is more than 60 days, to ensure that the dairy cows have enough finishing period, and to strengthen the feeding management during the dry milk period.

Strengthen exercise before calving. Every day, exercise should be about 2 kilometers. Dairy pedometers can be installed in some cattle farms which can afford it. The artificial daily drive can also be carried out.

The gradient of the dairy stadium should be 3-5 degrees. The stadium should be paved with vertical yellow bricks, averaging 110 pieces per square meter. The gradient should not be too large.

Anesthesia: Use the nerve block conduction anesthesia. Deep anesthesia is carried out between the 1st and 2nd segments of the tail vertebra. There is a concave point at the lateral joint of the tail raised by hand, that is, the central point, which is the injection point of anesthesia.

Injection anesthetics: 2% procaine 10-15 ml, 45-65 degree with syringe, oblique forward puncture, penetration depth of 2-4 cm, penetration through the intervertebral arch ligament, there is a sense of penetration of paper, no resistance at injection is the correct operation, 5-15 minutes to start anesthesia, anesthesia time is generally 60-90 minutes.

Clean the uterus. The uterus was cleaned with warm water at about 35 C, the placenta was removed, the finger belly was peeled off, and the uterus was gently handled as far as possible. Then the uterus was cleaned with a 1% potassium permanganate solution at about 35 C for 2 to 3 times.

Uterine reduction. Veterinary surgeons force their hands along the cervical mouth to deliver to the cow's vagina. The assistant pulls the uterus aside to prevent contamination and delivers the uterus to the uterus until it is about the length of an adult's arm. After uterine reduction, 5 to 8 liters of potassium permanganate solution was injected into the uterus for further uterine reduction.

Traction fixation. Prepare a 6-meter-long hemp rope and a large O-ring. Fix the rope on both sides of the O-ring and fasten it to the vagina. The other end of the rope is tied to the cow's neck. If necessary, sew 3-5 stitches on the vagina by spiral suture to prevent the excessive uterus from coming out again.

Medication. Ceftiofur sodium was dissolved in 10% saline by intravenous drip with 180 units of Cephalosporin Pioneer (the main ingredient is Ceftiofur Sodium) for 7 consecutive days. Vitamin K50ml was injected intramuscularly for 3 consecutive days. At the same time, the energy-supplementing mixture was injected intravenously for 7 consecutive days. At the same time, dairy cows were fed 10 liters of postpartum soup, namely 500 grams of brown sugar, 1-1.5 kg of bran, 10 kg of warm water, one-time drinking.

  1. Paratuberculosis

   Pathogeny

Dairy cow mastitis is infectious. It is affected by high or low temperature and humidity in the cowshed. Mastitis can be transmitted directly between cowhouses or between cows and cows. It can cause bacterial growth if the cowshed is not ventilated well and there is dust in the cowshed, also, it is not disinfected regularly. What’s more, when milking, the milk on the ground is not cleaned in time, the viscera and excrement of cowshed are not cleaned in time, and the plastic is not replaced in time, resulting in bacterial breeding. Especially in summer, site hygiene is poor, flies and mosquitoes increase, biting cows can induce mastitis.

In management, many farmers do not pay attention to standardized operation, do not pay attention to observe the health of dairy cows, do not wash hands and milking equipment, do not scrub breasts. In operation, milking equipment and breasts do not match, milking force is too strong, suction time is too long, this kind of non-standard operation will lead to damage around the nipple, such as long-term improper operation and unclean cleaning will cause mastitis. At the same time, in the process of feeding, improper nutritional mix and unreasonable nutritional composition of feed will lead to low immunity of dairy cows, and bacteria invade dairy cows without resistance, resulting in the increase of bacteria in the breast, causing mastitis. Feeders pay too much attention to cow milk production, concentrate overuse, although supplemented with high energy and protein, but will increase the burden of the breast, if not timely supplementation of crude feed and increase the content of vitamins and minerals in feed, mastitis will also occur.

 Clinical symptoms

Dairy cows suffering from mastitis mainly show mental depression, loss of appetite, elevated body temperature, redness, hyperemia, decreased elasticity of breast tissue, hardening, pain when touching, poor discharge of milk, yellowing and thickening of milk color, flocculent or milk coagulation, fishy odor of milk, large milk production. The decrease of the amplitude will cause permanent damage to the mammary gland tissue of dairy cows, thus losing its lactation function. Dairy cow mastitis is subdivided into acute mastitis, chronic mastitis, and recessive mastitis. Although cows with recessive mastitis have no inflammation symptoms and abnormal milk phenomena, the milk production of cows will be affected, and pathological tests will find that the number of pathogenic bacteria and white blood cells in the milk components increased sharply. It was found that the milk pH value of cows with mastitis was alkaline. The higher the alkalinity was, the more serious the disease was.

Prevention and cure

For the treatment of cow mastitis, the principles of early prevention, early appearance and early treatment should be adopted.

Reasonable massage therapy for dairy cows

Dairy cow breasts can be regularly and reasonably massaged, each milking time for about 30 minutes massage, to artificially accelerate the breast circulation, make the breast duct unobstructed, alleviate the pain caused by cow mastitis.

Reasonable hot compress treatment for dairy cows

After mixing hot water at about 50 C with vinegar in a certain proportion, soak it in a towel, wrench it out and cover the breast, once in the morning and once in the evening, about 30 minutes each time, to promote breast circulation and relieve symptoms.

Reasonable Infrared Irradiation Therapy for Dairy Cows

Dairy cow breasts can be regularly irradiated by infrared radiation to promote breast circulation.

Scientific immunization of dairy cows

Immunization of dairy cows to produce corresponding immune responses can enhance the immune memory of mammary gland cells to pathogens, enhance their immunity and reduce the risk of disease. For dairy cow mastitis, not only a single vaccine against a pathogen has been developed, such as a large number of anti-Staphylococcus aureus vaccines currently used, but also multiple vaccines against a variety of pathogens has been widely promoted.

Treatment of Dairy Cow Mastitis with Chinese Herbal Medicine

Recent studies have found that Chinese herbal medicines, based on their active substances and nutrients, can help to enhance the self-immunity of dairy cows on the one hand, on the other hand, they also have different degrees of anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory magic effect, and have little side effects, and are not easy to produce drug resistance, which is the focus of attention in the treatment of dairy cow mastitis at present.

The prevention and control of dairy cow mastitis should be paid great attention to, and prevention should be given priority to. First, the temperature and humidity in the cowshed should be controlled reasonably. Second, drinking water should be sufficient and clean. Third, the cowshed should be kept clean and hygienic, disinfected regularly and milking operation should be standardized.

  • Uteritis

   Pathogeny

In the early postpartum period of dairy cows, about 93% of the uterus bacterial contamination will occur, but most of the contamination can be automatically removed by the body. It is reported that the uterus infection rate of dairy cows can be reduced to about 39% after 46-60 days of postpartum. However, when dairy cows suffer from dystocia, uterine retardation, fetal placenta retention, and iatrogenic infection vaginitis, the possibility of uterine inflammation increases. When dairy cows have hydronephrosis or twins, the uterus expands obviously, or the obstetric tract undergoes physical damage due to dystocia, which leads to uterine inflammation. Due to the serious environmental pollution caused by the reuse of delivery rooms, or delivery in pens without roofs or dung ditches, as well as during forced captivity, which may aggravate environmental pollution, can promote the occurrence of hysteresis in dairy cows; poor management conditions of dairy cows, poor hygiene during midwifery, and artificial transfusion. Sperm without strict disinfection can also cause uterine inflammation. Besides, the incidence of uterine inflammation was significantly increased during the first few months of routine feeding in extremely hot, extremely cold and cold seasons in the north.

Clinical symptoms

  Acute endometritis: It is mainly caused by postpartum endometritis in dairy cows due to abortion or unequal placenta. It usually occurs 3-7 days after delivery. It can be divided into pyogenic, fibrinogenous and mucinous endometritis. With the increase of labor, the course of the disease will gradually worsen. The diseased cows show mental depression and body temperature. Increased appetite, loss of appetite or complete abolition, reduced lactation, frequent blame, arch back, often urination posture, and purulent or mucous secretions with gray or pink discharge from the vagina, and emit a foul odor.

  Chronic endometritis: usually caused by acute transformation or mild infection during dairy breeding. The name of the disease often does not have obvious systemic symptoms, but forms an irregular oestrus cycle, or does not show obvious oestrus symptoms, and when oestrus, mucus containing flocculent substances are discharged from the vagina, or contains purulent secretions of different sizes. When dairy cows have vaginitis, their vulva appears redness, swelling and valgus, and can not return to normal state after estrus. The cervix and one or both corners of the uterus are hardened and thicker, with poor elasticity, dull tactile response, reduced sensitivity, and repeated sterility.

   Diagnosis

  Diagnosis of the disease should be based on the onset time, clinical characteristics, course of disease and whether abortion occurred in cows, and combined with its history, judging from the degree of uterine inflammation, can also extract abortion fetus, placenta, uterine discharge for bacterial culture, according to the diagnosis results to determine treatment measures. A variety of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroides, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus hemolytic, Necrobacterium, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces pyogenes, Clostridium clostridia, Proteus and other anaerobic bacteria, can be isolated from the uterine effluent.

  Check the characteristics of secretions: When cows are in normal estrus, more secretions will flow out from the vagina, which is clear and transparent, and can be drawn into filaments. However, cows with uteritis may have more secretions from the vagina, but they are thinner, unable to pull into filaments, or more secretions, which are thick, but turbid and gray-yellow or gray-white.

  Vaginal examination: In the vagina of diseased cattle, different degrees of swelling and congestion can be seen at the cervical orifice, and when the cervix is not completely closed, inflammatory secretions of different shapes can be discharged. But when the cervix of the cow is completely closed, NO secretion will be discharged.

  Rectal examination: In diseased cattle, one or two enlarged uterine horns can be touched, the uterine wall is thicker and the contraction reaction is weak. Touching the uterus of diseased cattle sometimes feels pain and accumulates more secretions, which can cause obvious fluctuations.

 Prevention and cure

   Western medicine treatment: When cattle suffer from catarrhal and purulent endometritis, 40-60 mg estrogen is injected intramuscularly on the first day, the dose is halved on the second day, and 20-60 U oxytocin is injected intramuscularly at intervals of 4 hours for four consecutive times. On the third day, the uterus is washed with 0.1-0.2% saline or rival and then rinsed at 250-5%. Add 5-10g soluble anhydrotetracycline to 00mL normal saline and heat it to 40 C. All of them are perfused into uterus once a day, 4-8 times in a row. When suffering from chronic endometritis, 500 ml. In normal saline, 5.0 g of dysentery, 32 g of chloramphenicol, 40-80 mg of estradiol benzoate and 20-40 ml of paraffin oil or cod liver oil were added. After full mixing, they were heated and perfused into the uterus at about 40 C. Usually 50 ml was perfused into the uterus at intervals of 1 day for 3-8 consecutive times. Also, 160-3.2 million U penicillin and 2 million U streptomycin sulfate can be added to 100-250 ml normal saline. After mixing, they can be heated up to 40 C and injected into uterus 6-8 hours before or 10-18 hours after mating. Besides, when choosing perfusion drugs in the uterus, officials should be cleaned first, 50 ml should be used for serious patients, 30 ml for mild patients, once every day, 2-5 times in a row.

  • Postpartum estrus

   Pathogeny

  Excessive or insufficient energy intake during the perinatal period will result in postpartum estrus and lower conception rates. When dairy cows are fed a diet containing low levels of protein, their fecundity will decline, while higher levels of protein, i.e. more than 19%, will lead to postpartum estrus delay, resulting in lower fertility rate. When dairy cows absorb too much protein, the excess part will eventually enter the blood in the form of urea nitrogen, resulting in a higher level of urea nitrogen in blood and milk, thus causing a significant decrease in the pH value of the uterus, causing the occurrence of the disease in its liquid composition, and also poisoning the eggs, sperm and embryos. Besides, when the ratio of calcium to phosphorus is unbalanced, vitamin A and some trace elements are deficient in the diet of dairy cows, it will lead to postpartum estrus, unable to maintain regular estrus cycle, resulting in a significant decrease in the fertility rate.

  Prevention and cure

The bull induction method is to release human bulls in dairy herds, stimulate them to produce luteinizing hormone secretion pulses, make them appear luteinizing hormone peak before ovulation, and stimulate ovulation. Besides, if dairy cows are exposed to bulls after parturition, it can shorten the period of postpartum estrus and stimulate ovulation, but attention should be paid to the proportion of bulls, season, delivery condition and which stage of postpartum exposure in bulls.

Cattle suffering from estrus caused by ovarian motility or atrophy must first improve the level of feeding management, and cooperate with hormone therapy. The diseased cattle can be injected with 50 Um2 per muscle once a day for 3 consecutive days, or 10 mL vitamin AD3 injection (containing 50 000 01U vitamin A and 50 000 1U vitamin D3 per milliliter, and then 20 mLI type (the main component is vitamin E) after 3 days. If the ovarian function of diseased cattle is still due to lactation, 100 mg progesterone can be injected intramuscularly once a day for a week. Dairy cows after hormone treatment, if estrus occurs within 10 days, can not be mating, to wait until the next estrus. After hormone treatment, if no cow has oestrus, the cow should be examined again on the tenth day. If the corpus luteum is found, it is effective; otherwise, it is ineffective, and the treatment should be continued. In addition, the diseased cattle can also cooperate with the use of traditional Chinese medicine Huoxue powder, that is, 40 g Angelica Sinensis, 30 g Morinda Officinalis, 30 g Cistanche deserticola, 50 g actinolite, 100 g Epimedium, 45 g Codonopsis pilosula, 50 g yam, 15 g liquorice, 30 g horse placenta, 120 g Leonurus japonicus, after boiling, continuous use of three agents to promote oestrus, pay attention to the first occurrence of oestrus can not be. Formating, the second oestrus occurs before mating.

If dairy cows suffer from estrus due to persistent corpus luteum, they can inject 20 ml of estradiol benzoate into their muscles or 200 um of cloprostenol into their uterus to accelerate corpus luteum lysis and promote follicular development.

When dairy cows suffer from estrus caused by an ovarian cyst, proper vitamin A, D3 and E can be added to concentrate to improve feeding management. At the same time, 20 mL of type I and type II can be injected into their muscles respectively. It should be noted that when estrus occurs for the first time after medication, they cannot be mated, and when estrus occurs for the second time, they can be mated. Intramuscular injection of 0.6 mg cloprostenol was given once, once again after 5 days without estrus, and intramuscular injection of 15 mg dexamethasone. In addition, 100 mg progesterone was injected into the muscles of diseased cattle every time, and another injection was given every other day for two consecutive times to treat ovarian cysts

When dairy cows suffer from cervicitis, endometritis, and salpingitis leading to estrus, if the inflammation is mild, 6.4 million IU penicillin and 2 million IU streptomycin can be injected into their muscles every time for 3 consecutive days. When estrus occurs in diseased cattle, 5% glucose injection of 1.6 million IU penicillin and 1 million IU streptomycin is injected into the uterus once; if inflammation is serious or pus accumulates, the uterus can be cleaned, and the uterus can be washed with 500 mL adding 6 g oxytetracycline and 10% saline at 30-40 C, once a day, continuously for three days.

  • Postpartum uterine abscission

  Pathogeny

 Nutritional level. Due to the inappropriate or lack of calcium and phosphorus in the diet of dairy cows, the uterus of dairy cows falls off after delivery, or the uterus of some dairy cows shrinks weakly due to the excessive obesity of dairy cows, resulting in the excessive anger and blame of dairy cows after delivery, resulting in the uterus falling off.

The slope of the stadium is too steep. For the convenience of drainage in summer, the gradient of some dairy farms is more than 10 degrees. During the period of lying in the nest, the vagina is below the gradient, and the uterus moves backward for a long time, resulting in uterus detachment after delivery. The gradient of the dairy farm is 3-5 degrees.

Feeding management. Imported Australian cattle have a strong postpartum stress response due to their wild nature. To prevent workers from injuring calves, the uterus did not recover and then moved too early, leading to uterus prolapse after delivery.

 Prevention and cure

Rational ratios of calcium and phosphorus are allocated to ensure that the feed formulation is different in each period. The dry milk period is more than 60 days, to ensure that the dairy cows have enough finishing period, and to strengthen the feeding management during the dry milk period.

Strengthen exercise before calving. Every day, exercise should be about 2 kilometers. Dairy pedometers can be installed in some cattle farms which can afford it. The artificial daily drive can also be carried out.

The gradient of the dairy stadium should be 3-5 degrees. The stadium should be paved with vertical yellow bricks, averaging 110 pieces per square meter. The gradient should not be too large.

Anesthesia: Use the nerve block conduction anesthesia. Deep anesthesia is carried out between the 1st and 2nd segments of the tail vertebra. There is a concave point at the lateral joint of the tail raised by hand, that is, the central point, which is the injection point of anesthesia.

Injection anesthetics: 2% procaine 10-15 ml, 45-65 degree with syringe, oblique forward puncture, penetration depth of 2-4 cm, penetration through the intervertebral arch ligament, there is a sense of penetration of paper, no resistance at injection is the correct operation, 5-15 minutes to start anesthesia, anesthesia time is generally 60-90 minutes.

Clean the uterus. The uterus was cleaned with warm water at about 35 C, the placenta was removed, the finger belly was peeled off, and the uterus was gently handled as far as possible. Then the uterus was cleaned with a 1% potassium permanganate solution at about 35 C for 2 to 3 times.

Uterine reduction. Veterinary surgeons force their hands along the cervical mouth to deliver to the cow's vagina. The assistant pulls the uterus aside to prevent contamination and delivers the uterus to the uterus until it is about the length of an adult's arm. After uterine reduction, 5 to 8 liters of potassium permanganate solution was injected into the uterus for further uterine reduction.

Traction fixation. Prepare a 6-meter-long hemp rope and a large O-ring. Fix the rope on both sides of the O-ring and fasten it to the vagina. The other end of the rope is tied to the cow's neck. If necessary, sew 3-5 stitches on the vagina by spiral suture to prevent the excessive uterus from coming out again.

Medication. Ceftiofur sodium was dissolved in 10% saline by intravenous drip with 180 units of Cephalosporin Pioneer (the main ingredient is Ceftiofur Sodium) for 7 consecutive days. Vitamin K50ml was injected intramuscularly for 3 consecutive days. At the same time, the energy-supplementing mixture was injected intravenously for 7 consecutive days. At the same time, dairy cows were fed 10 liters of postpartum soup, namely 500 grams of brown sugar, 1-1.5 kg of bran, 10 kg of warm water, one-time drinking.

cows on farm
cows on farm

Infectious Diseases

  1. Paratuberculosis

  Pathogeny

  The disease is much less common in bulls and castrates than in cows. The symptoms of high-yielding cows are more serious than those of low-yielding cows. The lack of inorganic salt in the feed may promote the development of the disease.

  Clinical symptoms

   The early symptoms of this disease are intermittent diarrhea with normal body temperature, which is difficult to distinguish from other diarrheal diseases in clinical symptoms. After symptomatic treatment or pregnancy, symptoms can be controlled for a short time, but when confronted with stress reactions such as calving, drastic climate change, and changes in forage feed, clinical symptoms will appear immediately and recur several times. After that, it became obstinate diarrhea. The intermittent diarrhea of 2-3 weeks quickly deteriorated into persistent diarrhea. The feces of diarrhea contained obvious blood, air bubbles, mucus, and foul odor. The severe cases were jet-like diarrhea and were no longer sensitive to drug treatment. Symptoms also gradually worsened, with hair discoloration and edema in the lower jaw and abdomen. Common edema in mandibular and thoracic lobes, hair loss, slow weight gain, and significant wasting, decreased lactation volume and milk quality or stopped lactation, prolonged empty period. Eyeball subsidence, a certain degree of appetite, loss of appetite, or even waste, do not like to eat concentrates, severe weight loss to "skin and bones", intermittent fever, muscle atrophy, tears, and blood potassium red blood, blood calcium, leukopenia, anemia and other symptoms. Finally, you can't stand without eating. The mortality rate of the infected population can reach 10% annually.

Prevention and cure

  The focus of this disease is prevention. When importing dairy cows, the paratuberculosis quarantine should be carried out to confirm that it can be introduced after health. The infected cows should be detected in time, eliminated in time, and vaccinated newborn calves. All dairy cows need to be quarantined to eliminate infected cows in time. Early symptoms are not very obvious and easy to be confused with other diarrhea diseases. Therefore, laboratory diagnosis should be combined with clinical symptoms to make a timely diagnosis. To facilitate the detection of diseased animals, early disposal of them, so that the bacteria discharged from them do not infect other healthy cattle. Therefore, paratuberculosis immunization should be carried out at least twice a year for all dairy cows. At present, there are two main detection methods, bacteriological diagnosis, and allergic diagnosis. The most commonly used diagnosis method is the allergic diagnosis. If the possibility of tuberculosis infection is considered, the allergic reaction test of tuberculin can be done on the other side of the neck of the paratuberculosis allergic reaction. After 72 hours, the results show that the side of the allergic reaction with larger skin difference is the epidemic disease of diseased cattle, that is, the side of the neck of the paratuberculosis allergic reaction with larger skin difference is paratuberculosis. Once the paratuberculosis dairy cows are quarantined, they should be eliminated in time, and thorough sanitary disinfection should be carried out on the spot and the cow dung, cowshed, feeding trough, utensils, and sports ground.

  In addition to the above preventive measures, the following supplementary measures should be taken: strengthening feeding management, enhancing resistance, especially giving adequate nutrition to young cattle; carrying out fecal bacterial examination on suspected animals; cleaning up livestock houses in time; separating calves from diseased cows immediately after delivery and keeping them in isolation; and not feeding diseased cows'milk. Feed healthy milk or sterilized milk.

  • Anthrax

  Pathogeny

 Anthrax is a severe and acute infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. It can be infected by all kinds of animals, especially herbivores. Dairy cows can be infected with anthrax in any season of the year. The most common cause of anthrax is in summer, especially when there is more rain, washing dead cows' bodies and causing the disease in one year. Distribution or popularity within a specified range.

  Clinical symptoms

 The most acute type is characterized by a very short incubation period, usually after several minutes to several hours of infection will show symptoms, often in the grazing process of sudden fainting, dyspnea, and accompanied by natural hole bleeding and mucosal purple-blue symptoms, and then quickly fall to the ground to death. In acute type, the body temperature of diseased cattle is increased, which can exceed 41°C. In the initial stage, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, loss of appetite, slow reaction or no reaction. Rumen swelling occurs when symptoms are serious. If infected with pathogens in the neck, chest, and waist, it will cause excessive excitement, instability, and sway of the body. The course usually lasts for 1 to 2 days. Subacute type, cattle show local inflammatory edema in the skin, mouth or rectum, there is a certain degree of hard heat pain at the beginning, later will become cold, and no pain, and often appear anthrax carbuncle, the course of disease can last for several days, or even more than a week.

  Prevention and cure

 Immunoprophylaxis. The main measure to prevent anthrax in dairy cows is to immunize the cattle regularly. The non-toxic anthrax spore vaccine can be inoculated regularly every year. Dairy cows older than 1-year-old are inoculated with 1 ml of anthrax spore vaccine, while cows younger than 1-year-old are inoculated with 0.5 ml of anthrax spore vaccine. Or use anthrax spore vaccine No. 2 and inoculate 1 ml at any age.

 Emergency Management. For those areas where cattle are found dead or sick, the epidemic spot should be delimited immediately. Generally, the area extending 3000 m from the edge of the epidemic area is the epidemic area, while the area extending 5000 m from the epidemic area is the threatened area. Dead cattle and their contaminated bedding and feed must be treated harmlessly. The cow house contaminated by dead cattle should be used for 3 times of spraying and disinfecting with 5% formalin, or with 20% bleaching powder for spray disinfection. In general, 200ml is used for two hours per square meter.

 Medication. In the early stage of onset, 100-300 ml anti-anthrax serum can be injected intraperitoneally, subcutaneously or intravenously into adult diseased cattle, and the therapeutic effect is good. If the body temperature remains unchanged after injection, it can be injected once again after 12-24 hours. Sulfadiazine is the most effective sulfonamide in the treatment of anthrax. Cattle can be injected with 80-100 ml 20% sodium sulfadiazine twice a day, and continue to be injected for 1-2 days after hypothermia.

  • Brucellosis

  Pathogeny

 Diseased animals and carriers are the main sources of infection. Vaginal secretions and milk after abortion contain a large number of Brucella. The disease is mainly transmitted through the digestive tract, but the cutaneous infection is also infectious. If the skin is traumatic, it is more likely to be invaded by pathogens. Other routes, such as conjunctiva, mating, and blood-sucking insects, can also be transmitted.

   Clinical symptoms

The incubation period of the disease is 2 weeks to 6 months, with cow abortion as the main symptom. Abortion often occurs in 6 to 8 months after pregnancy. Several days before the abortion, it shows signs of childbirth, labia swelling, sagittal and rib subsidence, loss of appetite, vaginal discharge of gray or gray mucous secretion, abortion 2 to 3 days later, stillbirth or weak fetus. Weak fetuses often die from sepsis, and the placenta often stays after abortion, excluding brown-red lochia. After one week, the symptoms disappear and the pregnancy can be re-conceived. However, abortion may occur in the future. If the abortion happens again, the second abortion will occur later than the first abortion. If the placenta is not discharged and develops into chronic endometritis, it may lead to long-term infertility in cows, eventually losing feeding value, and some diseased cows may also have mastitis symptoms. Bulls often suffer from orchitis and epididymitis after infection, often accompanied by tenosynovitis, synovitis and other arthritis, and sometimes penis redness and swelling.

The pathological changes of uterus and fetal membranes of pregnant cows are prominent. The membranes are yellow peptone-like infiltration. Some parts of the surface are covered with fibrin floccules and pus. Some or all of the villi are pale yellow, some are covered with gray and yellow-green fibrin floccules, and some are covered with fat-like exudates. There are pyogenic necrosis foci in bull testis and epididymis. Fetal subcutaneous hemorrhagic serous infiltration, lymph nodes, spleen enlargement in varying degrees, some scattered inflammatory necrosis, pale yellow or white mucus in the true stomach, gastrointestinal tract, bladder serosa point or linear hemorrhage.

  Prevention and cure

 Cultivating healthy and stable dairy herds is not easy to introduce. If it is necessary to introduce cattle, we should know the basic situation of the introduced areas, whether brucellosis has occurred, and ensure the quality of imported cattle. After the introduction, the whole population should be observed in isolation for 2 months. After the isolation period expires, the results of two biological tests are negative, and then mixed breeding can be carried out. Scientific and reasonable feeding, giving full-price feed to meet the nutritional needs of dairy cows, can feed microbial preparations, can effectively improve the body's immunity and enhance the resistance of cattle to disease. At the same time, we should do a good job in environmental hygiene and epidemic prevention, disinfect the fetal clothes, secretions and contaminated mattress after delivery, bury them in deep and harmless way, disinfect the surroundings of contaminated pens, utensils and venues more than three times continuously, cut off the route of transmission, and avoid cross-infection. Regular quarantine surveillance should be persisted as an epidemic prevention system for a long time so that early prevention, early detection, and effective prevention and control measures can be taken at an early stage. In the process of monitoring and purifying, it is necessary not to miss detection and timely isolation and culling of cattle with positive brucellosis found in monitoring. Vaccination is an effective measure to control the disease. At present, live vaccines are widely used in the world. For cattle of different periods, the vaccines and immunization methods of corresponding periods were selected for immunization. Brucellosis is a zoonosis. All veterinarians and breeders working in cattle farms are high-risk groups vulnerable to infection. Therefore, the strict operation should be carried out in vaccination or treatment of diseased cattle, a strict protection system must be observed, and good disinfection work should be done to avoid infection.

beef cow farming
beef cow farming

Surgical diseases

  1. Foot diseases

   ❶ Foot rot

     Pathogeny

     Symmetrical swelling of the hoof and lameness of the cow were observed. Usually it is caused by injury of the skin between toes, acute, sudden onset, acute diffuse inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue between toes, and diffuse swelling of the hoof crown, department and bulbar joints, obvious local heat pain, obvious waveform, often accompanied by limited joint movement, and often forming one or more suppurative fistulas.

      Prevention and cure

      Treatment: Intramuscular injection of ceftiofur sodium or intramuscular injection of 50 ml EXCEDE, high body temperature patients with mental retardation with flunixin meglumine treatment.

      Local treatment: Press to check if there are any obvious pain spots on the sole of the hoof. If there are obvious pain spots and the corners of the sole become soft and discolored, the hoof should be repaired. Firstly, the sole of the hoof is disinfected with 5% iodine tincture, and the corneous discoloration and softening area of the sole are cut with disinfected shoe-digging knife. When the dermis of the hoof is reached, the odorous and purulent exudates can be discharged, and then washed with hydrogen peroxide saline oxytetracycline powder pure fish fat bandage is bandaged. If there is a pyogenic focus, it should be washed, remove necrotic tissue and concentrated juice, tamponade with Oxytetracycline powder and defatted cotton in the pyogenic cavity, and change medicine once every two days. At the same time, 4 million units of penicillin sodium, 30-40 ml of 0.5% procaine hydrochloride and 3-4 points above the swelling part were injected intramuscularly once a day for 5 days.

       ❷ Interphalangeal dermatitis

         Pathogeny

         Phalangeal dermatitis occurs mostly in a moist environment. According to the painless decay or ulcer of the skin between toes, the infection of diseased cattle with no obvious symptoms was judged. The foot is often moist and secretes white exudates with a distinctive odor, unlike foot rot. This will lead to skin hyperplasia and interdigital fibroma. Opening the toe gap is convenient for dairy cows to clean themselves and expose the damage to the air. If the infection extends to the heel, because the protease produced by Bacillus atheromatous digests the keratin of the foot tissue, corrodes the corneum of the heel to varying degrees, or causes transverse rupture of the junction between the heel and the sole. When the heel ruptures and excessive skin hyperplasia of the ampulla of the heel, the lameness caused by toe inflammation increases the weight-bearing pressure of the heel. Typically, symmetrical interdigital dermatitis occurs in both limbs.  

          Prevention and cure

         First, the diseased cattle were examined, and then the whole hoof was cleaned with clean water or 0.1% Bromogeramine disinfectant, and the excessive growth of cuticle and pus between toes was trimmed. Then disinfect the toes with 5% iodine tincture, and apply a piece of defatted asbestos and fish store grease to the toes. Copper sulfate is applied to the toes, and the bandages are wrapped up. After a week, the bandages are removed. When dealing with heel fracture, the skin flaps on the cuticle surface should be removed, and the closed part should be exposed to air.

         ❸ Foot arthritis

           Pathogeny

          This disease was once called polytrichotomy wart, strawberry hoof, verrucous dermatitis, interdigit papilloma, in fact, it is also a kind of interdigit dermatitis. The local redness of the cross-toe suture on the sole can be used to distinguish the initial lesion of toe-strawberry-like toe-like interdermatitis. The most striking feature of the injury is that the cows show pain, form a lingual protuberance between the two fingers (toes), increase and thicken continuously, extend between the two toes (toes) to the heels of the two feet, and the surface is rubbed by the ground. Break infection. Serious causes lameness. Verrucous dermatitis is a kind of tinea caused by fungi. The long white hair grows between the two hoofs, local skin inflammatory exudation, and then strawberry-like hyperplasia grows between the two hoofs. The exudates of local infection show coal tar color and stench. The last two hoofs atrophied and the hoofs were upright and severely lame.

         Prevention and cure

       For small hyperplasia, it can be corroded by potassium permanganate powder. For large value-added substances, 5% iodine tincture is used to disinfect them first, and then removed with a sterilized surgical knife. The wound surface is covered with pine distillate oil, foot tonic ointment or pure fish asbestos hoof bandage. After a week, the bandage is removed.

        ❹ Erosion of corneum of sole of hoof

          Pathogeny

        The keratin on the sole or heel turns black. After the keratin decays, it forms deep pits and gradually diffuses to the surrounding areas. The rotten areas are filled with soil and feces. However, there was no obvious lameness because it did not extend to the dermis.

          Prevention and cure

         Remove all rotten corners from the sole of the hoof with a shoe-cutter, and thoroughly dig out the stuffed soil and manure, so that the rotten corners of the sole can be removed to form fresh noodles. Where there is stratification of the corneum of the sole of the hoof, the keratin separated from the outer layer should be removed.

  • Hoofflitis

   Pathogeny

  There are many factors contributing to the occurrence of hoof leaf disease in dairy cows, not just one, but they are generally related to the production of a large number of histamine-like substances in the body to varying degrees, because histamine-like substances will have a certain impact on the normal regulatory function of vasomotor nerves, resulting in blood distribution disorders, peripheral blood. Tube dilatation, congestion, permeability enhancement, and exudation increase, which lead to acute serous inflammation of hoof dermis. Dairy cows suffer severe pain and show obvious lameness. In production, there are three common types: overeating hoof leaf disease, weight-bearing hoof leaf disease, and puerperal hoof leaf disease.

   Clinical symptoms

  Acute type cattle in clinical production can be seen in its body temperature significantly increased, even up to 39-40 degrees C, hypertonia, pulse and respiratory increase, loss of appetite, sweating, swelling and fever of hoof crown, footwall percussion pain, milk decline and so on.

  Chronic cattle are generally caused by other diseases secondary to acute cattle. The general symptoms of cattle with chronic cattle are mild, with deformed hooves, flexion of toe front, swelling of joints, arch back, lack of movement or inadequate movement. The toe tips are raised, the hoof wheels extend backward and downward and separate from each other. The gait is characterized by a uniquely strong and restrained gait, which is thin.

   Prevention and cure

  In the daily feeding process, we should strengthen the feeding and management measures of dairy herds. We should strictly control the supply of concentrate feed to avoid the overnutrition of cows. At the same time, we should ensure the supply of high-quality hay for dairy cows, and the fiber content in feed should exceed 18%. We should try our best to ensure that dairy cows feed and feed. The nutrition of the material is in balance. The feed should be stable to avoid sudden changes and adverse effects on dairy cows. Especially when dietary protein and carbohydrate content is increased, there should be a transition and gradual increase, usually 10 to 14 days, to ensure that the rumen environment maintains an appropriate period of adaptation, so that the rumen environment can be improved. Relative stability should be maintained to avoid the occurrence of digestive tract diseases in dairy cows. In the daily management process, feeders should try their best to ensure that the feed is fresh and choose suitable storage methods. If the feed is mildewed and deteriorated, they must not be able to feed the dairy cows. At the same time, they do not support the mildew treatment of the feed before feeding the dairy cows. They should eliminate mildew and deterioration as far as possible. In the process of raising dairy cows, breeders try their best to create a suitable enclosure environment for the survival of dairy cows, to ensure that the breeding grounds are clean and hygienic, and the sports fields of dairy cows should be soft and smooth, suitable for dairy cows to exercise properly. In daily clinical production, we should not only pay attention to the health care of dairy cows'hooves, but also regularly spray bath hooves with 4% copper sulfate solution, and require that the breeders should insist on the Hoove repair treatment for the whole group of dairy cows on time every year when feeding them. If cows are about to undergo long-distance transportation, hay and soil should be padded under their hooves to ensure that the cows'hooves can bear even weight.

dairy cows
dairy cows

Parasitic diseases

  1. Benoisporidiosis

  Pathogeny

 The final host of sporozoites Benois is a cat, and cattle are its intermediate host. When the final host eats meat containing the cyst of Benozoite sporozoites, it proliferates in the final host by merozoite reproduction and eventually forms oocysts which are discharged separately. The oocyst's sporulation in the external environment is called the oocyst of the infective stage and is infected by the intermediate host after feeding cattle.

  Clinical symptoms

  Visual examination and palpation were performed on affected cattle, such as skin, sclera, and joints. These cattle have some common clinical symptoms, including knee swelling, superficial lymph node swelling, needle-tip-sized papules in the sclera and conjunctiva, skin thickening and sclerosis, especially in the breast, elbow, shoulder, and neck. Besides, edema and erythema were more obvious in these areas, but the cattle did not feel any itching.

  Prevention and cure

  In view of the lack of specific drugs for the treatment of Benoriosporiasis, the prevention of this disease is particularly important. For the prevention of the disease, dairy farms should do the following. Firstly, a rapid and accurate diagnostic method for Beno Sporidiosis was established, which is the basis of prevention and control of Beno Sporidiosis in dairy cows. Secondly, it is necessary to establish and improve the evaluation system of Benozoite sporozoite in dairy cows. Once there are suspected cases, isolation or killing should be carried out immediately to eradicate the source of infection. Thirdly, because of the importance of insect transmission in cattle, insecticides are recommended to eliminate the source of transmission in the active period of insects in endemic areas.

  • Toxoplasmosis

  Pathogeny

 Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii parasitizing in nucleated cells of the human body. These include congenital toxoplasmosis and acquired toxoplasmosis.

  Clinical symptoms

 The calves showed mental depression, increased body temperature, cough, dyspnea, diarrhea, viscous feces discharged from mixed blood, weak constitution, and often died within 2 to 6 days. The cows showed different symptoms after illness, some of them only suffered from abortion; some showed dyspnea, fever, diarrhea, mastitis and neurological symptoms; some had no symptoms.

  Prevention and cure

 The diseased cattle can be treated by intramuscular injection of 20 mg/kg compound sulfonamide into methoxypyrimidine sodium injection according to their body weight. The first dosage should be doubled, 1-2 times a day for 2 weeks. It is also possible to inject 0.05 ml/kg "Set" (the main ingredients are anti-pathogen, Silver Ring snake venom and artemisinin) into the muscle according to the body weight, once a day for three days, and add appropriate B vitamins and vitamin C to the feed to improve the body's resistance and accelerate recovery. It should be noted that Toxoplasma encephalitis occurs at the end of the disease because the parasite invades the brain of the diseased cattle, causing it to fall into a coma and difficult to breathe. Especially when accompanied by subcutaneous emphysema, the effect of drug treatment will deteriorate and death will occur. Therefore, prevention and treatment should be carried out as soon as possible after the disease is discovered. Besides, the use of prednisone, cortisone, dexamethasone and other drugs can effectively alleviate symptoms, but can quickly cause Toxoplasma encephalitis and Toxoplasma sepsis, so the use of these drugs is not allowed.

  • Piriformis

  Pathogeny

 According to the investigation results of a cow suffering from pyriform disease, the occurrence of the disease can be attributed to the poor growth environment, noise pollution and excessive personnel entering and leaving the farm.

  Clinical symptoms

 Pre-fever for about 3 days, mental depression, loss of appetite, not eating concentrate, and then not eating forage, not eating forage is a slow process, about 10 days, there is a decline in milk production, milk thinning, daily reduction of 1/3 of milk until no milk, sometimes milking normal in the morning, suddenly no milk in the afternoon, abdominal stone-like hard. Hard. One-fifth of the cows had white conjunctiva, white body, yellowing fundus, lip and breast, prominent eyeball, edema between skin and flesh, edema of the maxilla, and iron deficiency. One-tenth of the cows had weakness in the neck (head drooping on the feeding trough). Urine blood, the stool is black-red, (intestinal diffuse bleeding, resulting in feces are all blood) thin, prominent eyes, thin, thin blood.

  Prevention and cure

 Western medicine treatment. If the clinical symptoms of the diseased cattle are serious, 3.5 mg/kg Diminazene Aceturate can be used according to the body weight and 7% water solution can be prepared for intravenous injection once a day for 3 days. At the same time, the cows were given intravenous injection of 500 mL 25% glucose, 2000 ml 5% glucose saline, 8 ml Caffeine, 16 million IU penicillin and 40-60 ml vitamin C once a day for support and symptomatic treatment. If the symptoms of diseased cattle are mild, but the body temperature rises, we can use 3.5mg/kg Diminazene Aceturate according to the body weight, and then inject a 5% solution into the muscles, once a day for three days. Besides, for cows without the disease, Diminazene Aceturate should be used for prevention, that is, 3 mg/kg according to body weight, divided into two doses. The symptoms of some diseased cattle were alleviated after treatment, but because there were still a small number of worms in red blood cells that were not killed, the disease could recur after some time. Therefore, within a few days after the treatment of the diseased cattle and the relief of symptoms, we should continue to use drugs for 1 to 2 courses of treatment to completely kill the worms.

 Kill ticks in time. The planned killing of ticks should be adopted in the feeding environment and cattle, and 0.2% pest enemies, 0.2% phoxim, 1% malathion or 0.2% fenitrothion are often used to kill ticks. When killing ticks in cattle, 500 mL liquid is sprayed on the body surface of each cow, once every three weeks. After using the medicine, it is necessary to ensure that the coat is dry before feeding and drinking water, to avoid poisoning caused by dropping the liquid into feeding utensils and being mistakenly taken by the body. Besides, if a drug is used for a long time, it will lead to the formation of resistance of ticks. Therefore, different insecticides should be used alternately or alternately to ensure that the effect of killing ticks is good and to avoid the formation of resistance.

Conclusion

Through the introduction of the above farms, cow breeds, and cow diseases, I believe that you have a preliminary understanding of cow breeding, cow breeding is not a simple job. After defining the breeding purpose, we can choose the breed and breeding place of dairy cows. Besides, we should pay attention to the prevention and treatment of various diseases in the process of breeding. Once the dairy cattle get sick, it will reduce product performance and even cause death. At the same time, it will lead to an increase in feeding costs and reduce the feeding of dairy cows. The economic benefit of the dairy industry and preventive health care measures of dairy cows are the key technologies to prevent diseases. Implementing scientific and effective preventive health measures can reduce or avoid the occurrence of various diseases, improve the production performance of dairy cows and increase the economic benefit of the dairy industry. What we should also pay attention to is the selection and training of aquaculture personnel. In the process of aquaculture, many problems need to be paid attention to. A little neglect will cause economic losses. Employing professional aquaculture personnel can avoid the occurrence of some erroneous aquaculture and reduce the cost of aquaculture at the source.

how to start dairy farming?
how to start dairy farming

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