Dairy Cow Breeding Technology in Summer
Dairy cows are cold-resistant and not heat-resistant livestock, and the suitable environment temperature for their growth is 10~20 ℃. Generally speaking, when the ambient temperature is 4~24 ℃ and the relative humidity is 60%~80%, the milk yield is less affected. When the ambient temperature rises above 25 ℃, the milk yield of dairy cows will be adversely affected, and the higher the milk yield, the greater the impact will be, and the milk yield will be reduced by 5~10 kg.
The high temperature in summer reduces the appetite and feed intake of dairy cows, which leads to insufficient nutrition and reduced milk production. According to the measurements, the intake of dairy cows began to decrease at 22～25℃ and decreased by 40% at 30 ℃. Therefore, in summer, we should focus on improving the appetite of dairy cows, and feed alfalfa hay, carrot shredded, beet shredded and other palatable and digestible feed. The dietary fat content can reach 5%~7% by adding the proper amount of calcium fatty acid and whole cottonseed to the diet. At the same time, the summer diet should be as small as possible, high concentration to meet individual nutritional needs.
2. Feeding method
Higher temperatures can easily lead to fermentation and rancidity of feed, so attention should be paid to feed less frequently. Dairy cows at the peak of lactation were fed concentrate 1~1.5 kg per 100 kg body weight per day in summer. Every day, 35~45 kg of green juicy feed was fed. Feed 4 times a day. Adding Yifuyuan animal edible fungus liquid to feed can enhance immunity, regulate the intestinal balance and promote growth and disease prevention.
The feed should be increased at night when the temperature is relatively low during the day. From 8:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. on the next day, the feeding amount can account for 60%~70% of the whole day's feeding amount, to ensure that dairy cows take enough nutrients every day and give full play to their milk production potential.
4. Drinking water
Dairy cows should be guaranteed to drink clean and sufficient cool water in summer, and the distance between drinking water troughs should be increased accordingly. The best water temperature is 10~15 ℃. Five additives in hot summer, due to increased breathing and perspiration, often lead to a mineral deficiency. Therefore, the contents of potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus and other minerals should be increased in the proper amount in the diet. Potassium can increase to 0.8%~1.3%, sodium 0.5%, magnesium 0.3% of the dry matter in the diet. Some experiments show that adding 5 mg potassium iodide to the daily diet of each cow in summer can greatly reduce the effect of heat stress on cows and increase the milk yield by 24%. Besides, methionine is known as the nutritional fortifier of feed protein. If 1~2 kg methionine is added to the feed of dairy cows per ton, the milk yield of dairy cows can be increased by 15%~24% and the feed conversion rate can be increased by more than 100%.
Prevention and Control of Four Common Diseases in Dairy Cows
It is mainly caused by a bacterial infection and not strictly milking by the rules of milking, resulting in nipple trauma.
First, do a good job of bovine body, breasts, nipples, and surrounding environmental hygiene.
Second, correct milking should be done. Do a good job of milking hygiene and breast washing water should be cleaned frequently. Bath the nipple after milking.
Third, dry milk correctly.
Eliminate pathogenic microorganisms, control the development of inflammation, improve the general condition and prevent septicemia.
(1) Local treatment: 1. External application of 10% ichthyolite ointment; 2. 400,000 units of penicillin and 50~1 million units of streptomycin, diluted with 50~100 ml distilled water once, twice a day, for 2~4 consecutive days. Puncture 8~10 cm at 3~4 points between the basal part of the breast and the abdominal wall, and inject 0.25%~0.5% procaine (adding 400,000 units of penicillin) 100~250 ml.
(2) Systemic treatment: 2-2.5 million units of penicillin, once the intramuscular injection, twice a day, or 2 million tetracyclines one-time intravenous injection (mixed with 5% glucose 1000 ml). According to the condition, intravenous injection of glucose and sodium bicarbonate.
(1) Improper midwifery and impaired birth canal; postpartum uterine flaccidity and accumulation of lochia: inappropriate management of placenta retention, uterine prolapse, vaginal and cervical inflammation, improper treatment, inadequate disinfection and bacterial infection of the uterus, causing endometritis.
(2) Infection is caused by not strictly carrying out mating procedures.
(3) Secondary infections, such as brucellosis.
During midwifery and mating, strict attention should be paid to disinfection and aseptic operation; scientific feeding can improve the body's resistance and reduce the occurrence of diseases such as retained placenta.
(1) Intrauterine injection:
First, dissolved 1 million units of penicillin in 250~300 ml of distilled water, once into the uterus, every other day, until the secretion is clear.
Second, for cows with a long course of the disease and purulent secretions, 80~100 grams of pure fish fat can be taken and dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water to form 8~10% solution, which is injected into the uterus once every other day, usually 1-3 times.
(2) Other therapies:
①. Intramuscular injection of diethylstilbestrol 15~25 ml at a time.
②.According to the general condition, sugar, salt, and alkali can be supplemented, and antibiotics can be used.
Ⅲ. Tuberculosis and Brucellosis
Tuberculosis and Brucellosis are chronic infectious diseases of both humans and animals. People can be infected by air, drinking the milk of diseased cows, feeding and management operations and contact with diseased cows. Because cows are the most susceptible animals to tuberculosis and brucellosis, the prevention and control of tuberculosis and brucellosis (commonly known as "two diseases") in dairy cows is of great significance in public health. The following principles should be followed in the prevention of the two diseases.
1. To accept the supervision of animal epidemic prevention departments, at least once a year for tuberculosis (tuberculin allergy test) and brucellosis (blood collection and inspection - Tiger red plate agglutination test or test tube agglutination test).
2. Under the supervision of the local animal epidemic prevention department, cows with positive brucellosis should be eliminated immediately; cows with tuberculosis should be isolated and purified, and cows with unconditional isolation and purification should be eliminated; eliminated sick cows should be treated harmlessly.
3. The introduction of dairy cows must be aware of the epidemic situation in the producing areas and prohibit the introduction of dairy cows from the "two diseases" epidemic areas. The introduction of dairy cows from non-epidemic areas requires a quarantine certificate from the local animal epidemic prevention department within nearly a month. After returning, they should be quarantined for at least three months. After quarantine again, the negative ones can be transferred to large groups of feeding.
4. Regular health check-ups are carried out for staff on the farm once or twice a year. Patients with "two diseases" should be promptly transferred out and given treatment, and cows should be thoroughly examined at the same time.
5. Keep the environment in the cow's farm sanitary and disinfect regularly.
1. Causes and symptoms:
Footrot is a common hoof disease in dairy cows. Improper feeding and management or inadequate exercise of cows are the causes. Owing to the uneven laying of cows beds and livestock farms, excessive wear and tear of the soles of the hoofs, they are easily stabbed by foreign bodies and infected by bacillus necrophrrous and pyogenic bacteria. Besides, the hoofs are often immersed in fecal and urinary sewage, which makes them more susceptible to infection.
This disease occurs mostly in two hind hoofs. If only one foot is sick, cows often lift the affected hoofs and jump to walk with strong hoofs, affecting food intake and reducing milk production. If two hind hoofs are sick, cows are reluctant to move and stand, affecting milk production and reproduction, and are often forced to be eliminated.
Mild footrot is limited to the shallow layer, which is coated with 3%~5% of potassium permanganate lanolin ointment; when the foot is swollen and lame, 1% of potassium permanganate liquid warm foot bath therapy is applied; if the soul is rotten and has pus and necrotic tissue, the foot can be washed with disinfectant, and the necrotic tissue can be thoroughly removed with scissors or sharp spoon, and then 5%of concentrated iodine tincture is used. Sprinkle antimicrobial agents on the cotton stopper with formalin pine distillate oil for external use, wrap up the bandage, then wrap the hoof with waterproof plastic cloth, change the dressing once every 2~3 days.
In addition to the above diseases, the common diseases of dairy cows are calf diarrhea, stomach displacement, and placenta retention. Although these diseases are relatively common, their harm to dairy cows breeding can not be ignored. Moreover, as the number of dairy cows continues to increase, the impact of these diseases may also increase, which will cause trouble to work.
In the current situation of rapid development, the prevention and treatment of common diseases of dairy cows obviously can not do without drug treatment. With the impact of various diseases on dairy cow production becoming worse and worse, corresponding disease prevention and control vaccines have emerged as the times require.
Dairy cows are vaccinated regularly in daily feeding management to improve their resistance. At the same time, when bovine inflammation occurs, besides adjusting the feeding management, the necessary drug injection and drug cooperation must also be used rationally. Moreover, it is also feasible and desirable to prevent and cure diseases by adding corresponding drugs to the feed of dairy cows, which not only ensures the nutritional balance of the body but also alleviates the work of disease prevention and control to a certain extent.