Ⅰ. Construction of forage area in dairy farm
The foraging area of a dairy farm is divided into concentrate storehouse, hay shed, and silage pit.
1. Concentrate storehouse
Concentrate storehouse area:
A dairy farm with 1000 cows, the average daily concentrate feed per mixed group is 7 kg. The stock of raw materials can meet the feeding requirement of two months, average stacking height of raw materials is 2 meters, and whole concentrate storage area of 600㎡ can meet the needs. The design needs 2.5 meters high partition wall to divide bulk corn, bran, wheat, and other raw materials into several areas.
Design of concentrate storehouse:
Generally designed as light steel structure, the eaves are 5-6 m high, the lower part of the wall is 50 cm brick-concrete structure, above which is a single layer of colored steel tile, with ventilation vents on both sides. The ground is concrete, 20 cm higher than the surrounding site.
2. Hay shed
The hay shed mainly plays the functions of rainproof, ventilation, moisture-proof and sunshine-proof. It should be located in a place with high terrain or good drainage conditions. At the same time, the ground inside the shed is higher than the surrounding ground to prevent rainwater irrigation, generally higher than the surrounding ground about 10-20 cm.
Design of hay shed:
In the northern area, the rainfall is less, and a shed-type structure can be built. The height of the hay shed should be 5-6 m, with ventilation vents left on both sides. To avoid severe weather such as gale, heavy rain, and snowfall which will cause the collapse and leakage of hay shed and cause unnecessary losses to dairy farms, the steel and color steel tiles used in the construction of hay shed must be made use of national standard products. The building area of hay shed should be determined by the number of dairy cows. Considering the amount of hay reserve for 6 months, it is generally 50 m long and 20 m wide, with an area of 1000 ㎡.
When hay is used, it should start from the middle of the shed, then go to both sides of the eaves to ensure the integrity of the wall built with hay. When it rains, the wall is just like wearing a raincoat. Rain only wets the surface and is soon dried by the wind. This can play a rainproof role. Hay depot should not be designed as a single or connected type. There should be a proper fire prevention interval between hay depots. Fire hydrants and fire fighting equipment should be allocated. Maintenance room, equipment depot, and gas station should keep a safe fire prevention interval with hay depot.
3. Silage pit
The silage pit can be located in the vicinity of the cowshed, where is convenient for transportation and access. The silage pit must be sturdy and durable to prevent sewage from cowsheds and sports fields and water seepage (flow) into the pit in rainy and cloudy days, resulting in grass pollution or silage pit collapse.
Design of silage pit:
The silage pit can be divided into three types: underground, semi-underground and overground. The best type is the rectangle, which is 15-20 m wide and 2.5-4 m deep. The length of the silage pit is determined by the number of livestock and feed. Brick the walls of the pit, paste the wall with cement, or pat and smear the edges around the pit to make it firm and smooth, and reserve drainage outlets at the bottom of the pit. The overground silage pit is suitable for areas with low groundwater level and solid soil. The distance between the bottom and the groundwater level should be kept at least 0.5 m to prevent water from seeping into the pit. A semi-underground silage pit should be used in high places. Generally, according to the level of groundwater, local habits and easy operation to decide which to use.
In large-scale dairy farms, silage pits with both sides of the ground wall are recommended: fast loading, easy compaction, easy access, and good drainage. The size of the silage pit (pond) should be determined according to the scale of cattle to ensure that the forage contained is enough for cattle to make full use of for one year. The volume of silage buildings can be estimated. Generally, silage pits (ponds) can hold 500-600 kilograms of silage per cubic meter. Dairy cows are fed an average of 15-20 kg a day.
There is a habit of growing carrots in the northern part of the pits. Carrots are high-quality roughage for dairy cows. Large-scale dairy farms should purchase and store them in large quantities. Carrots are generally stored in pits, which can be constructed at low groundwater levels in dairy farms. The depth of the pit can only be excavated to the ground without water. The area is determined by the number of carrots purchased. The general area is 200㎡.
II. Supporting Facilities
The feeding area of the dairy farms should be equipped with weighing and transportation facilities. For example, loadometer:
When choosing a loadometer, we should not only pay attention to the measurement range (maximum weighing) but also choose the length of the platform, because now the pulling wagon is very long. Large pastures should choose a loadometer with a measurement range of 100t and a platform length of 18 meters.
Feed raw grain warehouse should be ventilated, cool, dry, clean without mildew accumulation, stacking should be standardized, and should keep a certain distance from windows and walls, and haystack must be turned over regularly for ventilation if storage time is long.
Besides, dairy farms should also strengthen the training and management. Cow Pasture should purchase raw materials in strict accordance with international standards and enterprise standards. They should not buy raw materials contaminated by aflatoxin or possibly contaminated. They should not buy unqualified raw materials at low prices. Purchasers should strictly check the nutritional indicators and moisture content of raw materials. Especially the moisture content. Corn is the main raw material of the finished product, the moisture content of it directly affects the moisture content of the finished product.