1. Preparation of pre-procurement
Before purchasing, relevant investigations should be done, such as the investigation of the origin like cattle highland or not, or distribution area of feeder cattle, the structure of breeds like Angus cattle, Dexter cattle, Hereford cattle, etc. And the quantities, age and sex, and the investigation of the proportion of bulls, cows, calves and feeder cattle in cattle herds. Only by grasping and making full use of the trading rules of feeder cattle, can we reduce the feeding period, control the cost of cattle raising, increase the quality of feeding, obtain high-priced beef cattle and reduce the sick and disabled cattle.
2. Avoid weight loss during transportation
The weight of feeder cattle will change slightly before and after transportation. The main factors that make weight change include the following. The first is the transportation distance, the second is the vehicle equipment, the third is the road quality, the fourth is the driving technology, the fifth is forage and drinking water for beef cattle before boarding, and the sixth is the loading capacity. When beef cattle eat more forage and drink more water before boarding, they will lose part of their weight after getting off the carrier. Therefore, this factor should be taken into account in calculating the cattle feed prices.
3.The protein level in the feed
In the fattening stage, protein feed should be supplemented in an appropriate amount, and the protein feed quantity of beef cattle in different periods should be scientifically controlled. Too much or too little will produce adverse effects. When the protein feed is overfed, beef cattle like Hereford cattle will not be able to absorb all the protein feed, resulting in waste and increase of feed costs, but also will increase the burden of the gastrointestinal tract, prone to some diseases. When the protein feed is too little, it will not meet the protein content required for the normal growth and development of beef cattle, which will have a certain impact on the fattening effect.
Cow baby grows fast before 3 months of age, so they need more protein, which accounts for about 1/5 of the diet. Because the development of rumen is not perfect at this time, some essential amino acids can not be synthesized in the body, so it can be combined with feeding some different protein feed. When calves grow to 6～12 months and weigh 150～200 kg, the protein content in the diet can be reduced to 15%. After that, the protein content decreased gradually to 12% with the increase of calf weight.
When the feeder cattle are fattened in the cattle shed and weigh about 300 kg, the proportion of protein feed in the diet should be controlled between 10% and 13%. With the increase in body weight, the content of protein feed can be gradually reduced. At the later stage of fattening, the protein feed content should account for 10% of the diet. In fattening old cattle, the content of protein feed should be 10% in the diet, during which plenty of energy feeds such as corn, sorghum, and dehydrated sweet potatoes can be fed. To produce high-grade beef, the content of protein feed in the diet should be slightly increased by 2%～3% if high-quality beef cattle are fattened intensively.
4. Feeding of beef cattle in the fattening period
Feed collocation and mixing. During the feeding process, concentrate, dregs, silage, and hay feed should be fed separately, or feed after mixing evenly. During the mixed feeding period, the appropriate proportions should be adopted for scientific feeding. To ensure the uniformity of feed mixing, mechanical mixing should be used for at least 3 minutes. When stirring by hand, at least three stirring operations should be carried out so that no feed layers can be found in the feed.
Dry and wet mixture. During the feeding period, not only dry mixture but also wet mixture can be used. It is better to use whole corn silage or dregs feed for feeding. Before starting feeding, each feed should be weighed proportionally and stirred at the same time. It is advisable to control the water content of the feed at 40% to 50%. During feeding, dry powder feed should not be taken. The amount of each mixing should meet its feed intake of 4～6 hours. After eating, the mixing can be continued and the mixing feed should be spread out in a shady place.
The replacement of feed. With the increasing weight of cattle, the feed proportion should be adjusted properly. Therefore, during the feeding period of fattening cattle, the feed should be replaced step by step, and no big changes should be made suddenly, to avoid affecting the feeding habits of cattle. After the transition period of 3～5 days, the cattle can adapt gradually.
Drinking water. The free drinking water method should be adopted during feeding. Installation of a device that allows cattle to drink water at will should be done in the cattle pen, preferably on one side or above the fecal and urinary ditch of cattle pen, so that the outflow of water will quickly enter the fecal and urinary ditch and avoid wetting the cattle pen.
5. Management of beef cattle in the fattening period
Cattle fattening is best in autumn, but also in winter and spring. When the temperature is above 30 ℃ in summer, beef cattle's metabolic rate will increase, and the feed conversion ratio is low, so the corresponding work of heat prevention and cooling should be done in advance. Bulls fattening before the age of 2 will accelerate growth and have a higher lean meat rate, the feed conversion ratio is also high. Before fattening, cattle rancher should do well the insect repellent work, and cattle shed should be cleaned and disinfected seriously.
Cattle company should as far as possible to control its activity time, to avoid numerous nutrients consumption, reducing the fattening effect. It is better to tie the cattle to a single stake or enclosed in a resting pen after each feeding and control their range of movement. The length of the reins should be as long as the cattle can lie down. Brushing the cattle body can promote blood circulation and increase feed intake. Therefore, brushing the cattle body should be done at least once or twice a day.