CAV is the most pathogenic virus in the mammalian adenovirus genus. There are two serotypes. Type Ⅰ can cause canine infectious hepatitis (acute sepsis infectious disease, which is characterized by hepatic lobular necrosis, hepatic parenchymal cells and cortical cell nuclear inclusions and prolonged bleeding time). It may also cause fox encephalitis. It is called fox encephalitis and canine infectious hepatitis. Type Ⅱ can cause infectious laryngotracheitis and enteritis in dogs.
Canine adenovirus transmission
The disease is widespread not only in domestic dogs and foxes in China and around the world, but also in wild foxes, bears, coyotes and raccoons. The disease can occur all year round and dogs and foxes of all genders, ages and breeds are susceptible to infection. However, weaned to one year old animals have the highest morbidity and mortality. This process is shorter than canine distemper, recovering or dying within about 2 weeks (sometimes within a few days). Mortality is higher if mixed with canine distemper infection. Sick and toxic dogs are a source of this disease. The disease is transmitted mainly through the digestive tract and can also be transmitted through the placenta. The disease can be caused by intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, oral and aerosol vaccination.
Diagnosis of canine adenovirus
Sudden attacks and prolonged bleeding and "blue eye" symptoms are usually signs of infectious hepatitis. Clinical symptoms can be concluded at the initial diagnosis and require a specific diagnosis to confirm. The main methods are virus isolation and culture, complement binding, hemagglutination inhibition test, fluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Differentiation: Unlike canine distemper: autopsy can reveal laryngeal bronchitis with respiratory symptoms, severe cough, low mortality, and sometimes adenoma-like lesions in the lungs. Respiratory canine distemper can easily develop into a neurological type with high mortality. The virus can be reliably identified by carrying out lung isolation or electron microscope observation. Difference from Leptospira: Changes in urine sediment and urea nitrogen are accompanied by kidney damage, while leukopenia and liver function remain unchanged. Difference from acetone-coumarin poisoning: symptoms are very similar to this disease, but there is no leukocytopenia and elevated body temperature.
Canine adenovirus type 1
Canine infectious hepatitis is a viral disease caused by canine adenovirus type 1, which is a DNA virus that causes upper respiratory tract infections. The virus targets the parenchymal (functional) parts of the organ, especially the liver, kidneys, eyes, and endothelial cells (cells that line the inner surface of blood vessels)
Canine hepatitis symptoms
Symptoms of fever, signs of the central nervous system, vascular atrophy, and coagulopathy (DIC) can occur in the superacute (very severe) stage. Deaths often occur within a few hours.
In the acute (severe) phase, fever, anorexia, drowsiness, vomiting, diarrhea, liver enlargement, abdominal pain, ascites, vasculitis (vasculitis), fine erythema, skin bruising (ecchymosis), DIC, swelling symptoms, swelling Swollen lymph nodes (swollen lymph nodes), rarely inflamed (non-purulent encephalitis).
Simple infections can cause symptoms such as lethargy, anorexia, transient fever, tonsillitis, vomiting, diarrhea, enlarged lymph nodes, hepatomegaly, and abdominal pain.
Advanced infections will cause 20% of cases to develop eye inflammation and corneal swelling four to six days after infection; usually recover within 21 days, but may develop into glaucoma and corneal ulcers.
Canine adenovirus type 1 latency
The incubation period of the disease is short, natural infection is 6-9 days, artificial intravenous vaccination is 2-3 days, subcutaneous vaccination is 3-4 days, and oral administration is 4-9 days.
Canine adenovirus type 2
Canine adenovirus type II can cause infectious laryngotracheitis and pneumonia in dogs. Clinical features include persistent high fever, cough, serous mucus rhinorrhea, tonsillitis, laryngotracheitis, and pneumonia. According to clinical incidence statistics, the disease is more common in puppies under 4 months. Puppies may have cough, and puppies may have cough, so the disease is often referred to as "kennel cough" based on clinical characteristics.
Canine adenovirus type 2 symptoms
Persistent fever (body temperature is about 39.5 ° C. The nasal fluid is discharged from the nasal cavity and watery nasal fluid is sprayed into the respiratory tract. It is manifested as paroxysmal dry cough for 6-7 days, followed by wet cough with sputum. The respiratory cough may be due to human Cough due to tracheal compression; auscultation with tracheal snoring or; oral and pharyngeal examinations show enlarged tonsils and swollen throat; continued development of the condition can cause necrotizing pneumonia; dogs can be frustrated, do not eat, vomit and vomit with diarrhea.
Canine adenovirus type 2 latency
The incubation period for canine adenovirus type 2 infection is 5-6 days.
Canine adenovirus treatment
During the initial fever, large doses of high-free serum against adenovirus infection or canine anti-disease immunoglobulin injection, interferon, cutting-edge anti-toxic injection, verin injection, and ribavirin injection should be inoculated. Viral drugs, specific treatments to inhibit viral transmission. The use of antibiotics to control secondary infections, combined with blood transfusion, infusion, sugar, liver protection drugs. Such as intravenous injection of 5% glucose saline injection, 10% glucose injection, liver Taylor, vitamins. Various vaccines can produce long-term immunity.
Canine adenovirus prevention
The fundamental measures to control the disease are immune prevention and isolation. Multiple vaccines are often used clinically for prevention. More suitable vaccines are seven vaccines against rabies, canine distemper, canine parvovirus, canine infectious hepatitis, canine parainfluenza, canine coronavirus and canine leptospira. Given the recovery of adenovirus infection in dogs, detoxification can be obtained from urine for 6 to 9 months, which has become an important source of infection for the disease. In order to completely control the disease, regular immunization and regular quarantine must be adhered to.
Canine adenovirus poses a great threat to dog health, and the mortality rate after onset is high. Appropriate prevention and detection measures can effectively reduce the incidence of disease.
The Canine Adenovirus Test (Ag) kit provided by BALLYA
can effectively detect whether dogs carry canine adenovirus. The kit is not only easy to operate, but also has a short test time and high accuracy, which enables veterinarians to keep abreast of dog health and take appropriate measures.