Ractopamine is a synthetic Clembaam beta adrenal receptor agonist that can be used to treat congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy, grow muscle, reduce fat accumulation, and benefit the fetus and newborn. Ractopamine is being used by some pig farms as a new type of lean meat extract. The scope of application and safety of this drug in the aquaculture industry varies from country to country. The production and sale of ractopamine has been banned in China since December 5, 2011.
Ractopamine mechanism of action
Ractopamine is a synthetic beta-adrenergic agonist (commonly known as beta-stimulant
) class of compounds. It is a low-toxic, fast-metabolizing clenbuterol developed by the American pharmaceutical company and belongs to the second generation. Clenbuterol. Because of its role in regulating protein synthesis, it is also known abroad as a protein redistribution agent (Repartitioner). It is mainly used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, congestive heart failure, and muscular dystrophy.
Ractopamine side effects
Ractopamine is far less toxic than other lean extracts with the same function. Conventional doses of Clenbuterol can be metabolized and excreted in the body without causing harm to the body. However, excessive intake of ractopamine can cause different degrees of toxic reactions in the human body. The symptoms are similar to those of animal poisoning. Symptoms include muscle tremor, paralysis of the limbs, tachycardia, arrhythmia, abdominal pain, muscle pain, nausea and dizziness. Severe cases can cause hypertension, heart disease and even death.
Ractopamine is being used by some pig farms as a new type of lean meat extract. The scope of application and safety of this drug in the aquaculture industry varies from country to country. In 2002, the Ministry of Agriculture, the former Ministry of Health, and the former State Drug Administration jointly issued the "Catalogue of Drugs Prohibited in Feed and Animal Drinking Water" (Ministry of Agriculture Announcement No. 176) prohibiting the use of ractopamine in animal breeding. On December 5, 2011, the six ministries and commissions of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Commerce, the former Ministry of Health, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, and the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine issued a joint announcement (No. 41, 2011), which requires that they be in China today. Prohibit the production and sale of ractopamine.
Clenbuterol is a colorless microcrystalline powder, Chinese alias: Clenbuterol for Clenbuterol; scientific name: Clenbuterol hydrochloride; an asthma drug with molecular formula C12H18Cl2N2O and molecular weight of 277.19, Boiling point is 404.9 ± 40.0 °C (760 mmHg), melting point is 161 °C, soluble in water, ethanol, slightly soluble in acetone, insoluble in ether. This product is an adrenaline bronchial antispasmodic drug. It has good selectivity for the stimulation of bronchial smooth muscle β2 receptors, and the intensity of bronchodilator expansion is 100 times that of Shuchuanning. For the treatment of bronchial asthma, asthmatic bronchitis, etc.
Clenbuterol mechanism of action
Clenbuterol is a potent β2 receptor agonist. It is characterized by a small effective dose and long-lasting effect, and its bronchodilator effect is 100 times that of albuterol. Clenbuterol was taken orally 30 μg three times a day in asthma patients, compared with 5 mg orally terbutaline 3 times a day. They have similar effects on increasing FEV1 and maximum expiratory flow rate (FEF) and reducing airway resistance. It can be seen that the asthma effect of oral clenbuterol is 170 times stronger than that of terbutaline.
Clenbuterol side effects
Rarely, mild palpitations, finger tremors, dizziness, etc., can usually relieve themselves during medication. In recent years, it has been found that adding clenbuterol to feed can promote animal growth and increase the lean meat ratio of livestock and poultry, so it is called lean meat essence. Poisoning can be caused by consuming the internal organs or meat of animals that contain residual lean meat.
In recent years (2011), poisoning incidents caused by consumption of foods contaminated with clenbuterol have repeatedly occurred, with extremely serious consequences, which has drawn great attention from countries around the world. In order to ensure the quality and safety of livestock products and protect human health, many countries have banned the use of clenbuterol in the production of food-borne animals. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified clenbuterol in meat Residue is a mandatory inspection item, and the EU is strictly forbidden to add "lean extract" drugs to feed. Although China proposed to ban the use of clenbuterol drugs in 2000, the use of clenbuterol in animal husbandry is still banned.
Salbutamol, a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist, is used as an asthma drug, which can effectively inhibit the release of allergenic substances such as histamine and prevent bronchospasm. Adding a small amount of salbutamol to livestock feed can increase the lean meat amount, meat exchange rate and reduce fat of livestock, but its toxicity is much higher than that of ractopamine with the same function. For bronchial asthma, asthmatic bronchitis, bronchospasm, emphysema and other symptoms.
Salbutamol mechanism of action
It has high selectivity for airway smooth muscle β2 receptors, increased resistance to catechin oxygen methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase, prolonged action time, and has little excitatory effect on the heart. In vitro experiments, the comparison of equal strength concentrations required for airway smooth muscle and myocardial effects, the selectivity index of the drug was obtained, with salbutamol as high as 250, terbutaline as 138, and isoproterenol and adrenaline as 1.4. According to patient observation, comparing the changes in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and heart rate with intravenous albuterol and isoproterenol for 1 second, a small dose of albuterol at 0.1 μg / kg can increase FEV1 significantly. Fang accelerates heart rate, showing higher selectivity, and isoproterenol can increase heart rate when FEV1 dose is increased, and the selectivity is poor.
Salbutamol side effects
The bronchodilator effect of salbutamol is equal to that of isoproterenol, and the effect lasts longer; the effect of increasing heart rate is only 1/10 of isoproterenol. For the treatment of bronchospasm in patients with bronchial asthma, asthmatic bronchitis and emphysema, oral or aerosol inhalation. Oral bioavailability is about 30%, which takes effect for 15 to 30 minutes and lasts for more than 6 hours; bioavailability of aerosol inhalation is about 10%, which takes effect for 1 to 5 minutes, and the maintenance time is 4 to 6 hours.
It is used for the treatment of asthmatic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, and emphysema caused by bronchial spasm. It is made by p-hydroxyacetophenone through chloromethylation, esterification, bromination, amination, and then hydrolysis, neutralization and hydrogenation.
It is used as lean meat in modern pork farming to increase lean meat production in pigs. Since 2002, it has been classified as a banned drug in the breeding industry and must not be added to livestock and poultry breeding. Note that salbutamol is currently not approved by the FDA for weight loss.
Obstetrics and gynecology has traditionally been used to treat preterm labor in clinical practice, but it has not been included in the drug label.
"Lean meat powder" does not refer to a specific drug, but is a generic name for a class of phenethanolamine compounds that promote protein synthesis and inhibit fat deposition. These include ractopamine, clenbuterol and salbutamol. Lean meat powder is banned in many countries because of its harm.
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