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He-spiramycine-a-macrolide

Ko te spiramycine he macrolide?

Posted i runga i  January 15, 2021, Etita e Jason, Kāwai  

He aha te spiramycine?

1. definition

Ko te Spiramycin he ma, he paura kowhai paku ranei, he iti nei te haunga. paku hygroscopic. He wairewa te Spiramycine ki te methanol, te etanol, te acetone me te ether, tata ki te kore e rewa i te wai, kaore hoki e waatea i te hinu hinu. Ko te macrolide he paturopi i whiwhi i te ahurea reo o Streptomyces ambofaciens. Ko te Spiramycin te acetate o te acetylspiramycin. I muri i te whakahaere-a-waha, ka tangohia te roopu acetyl hei whakaatu i te kaha o te pungarehu. Ko te Spiramycin he kaitohutohu bacteriostatic kaha, ana he paakita whakamate noa i nga kukū tiketike rawa.

He kaha te pungarehu o te Spiramycine me te paanga o te pungarehu (PAE) i roto i te tinana, ka taea te whakarei ake i te phagocytosis o nga phagocytes, ka tohaina ki te tinana. He nui ake te kaha o te Spiramycine ki roto i nga kiri kiko i te erythromycin a he iti ake nga painga o te taha i te erythromycin. Ka taea te whakamahi i te Spiramycine hei whakaora i te taringa, i te ihu, i te korokoro me nga mate manawa e pa ana ki nga huakita karamu-pai me etahi huakita karamu-kino. He pai mo te whakaora i te rongoa o te otitis, te periodontitis, te sinusitis whakapau me etahi atu kohao o te waha me te korokoro o te ihu taringa na te huakita tairongo. Ka taea hoki te whakamahi ki te hamani i te toxoplasmosis.

Spiramycin (SPM) he paturopi macrolide macrolide tekau ma ono-tangata. Ko tona takenga mai o te acetylated, acetylspiramycin, he ahuatanga o te kukume o te kiko tiketike, te paitini iti, me te kaha o te vivo roa. He pai mo te mastitis whakapau, ngongo mumura lymph me te periodontitis. I whakamahia e Omura nga whakamatautau isotop hei whakaatu i te mowhiti lactone o te SPM e 5 ngota o te waikawa acetic, 1 te ngota ngota waikawa propionic, he 1 ngota ngota waikawa butyric me te 1 ngota ngongo e mohiotia ana (e rua nga waro).

Ko te koiora o te mowhiti lactone ka tiimata mai i te ngota ngota o te propionyl-CoA, ka whai ake nga ngota o 2-methylmalonyl-CoA. Ko nga wahanga e toru-waro kaore i te mahi noa i te koiora o te SPM, engari ko te whakauru i te propionyl-CoA carboxylase. Ko nga mycaminoses e toru i roto i te ngota ngota i ahu mai i te ngota ngota kūhuka katoa, ko nga roopu N-methyl me C-methyl kei runga i te mycaminos i ahu mai i te methionine, a ko te putake o nga ngota hauota kei te roopu N-methyl kaore ano kia tino whakamaramatia.

2. Nga rongoa rongoa

Ko te Rovamycine he paturopi paturopi macrolide i puta mai i te ahurea ahurei o Streptomyces ambofaciens. Ko te Spiramycin te acetate o te acetylspiramycin. I muri i te whakahaere-a-waha, ka tangohia te roopu acetyl hei whakaatu i te kaha o te pungarehu. Rovamycine he kaihoko kitakita kaha, a he paakita whakamate noa iho i nga kukū tiketike rawa. Ko tana mahinga mahi patu huakita he rite ki te erythromycin. Na te whakakotahi me te waahanga 50S o te tinana ribonucleoprotein kitakita, ka aukati i te toronga o te mekameka peptide ka pa ki te whakahiatotanga o te pūmua kitakita kia tutuki ai te painga o te ngota.

Ko te hihinga antibacterial o te spiramycin he rite ki te erythromycin, ana ko tana awangawanga uaua kaore i te kaha ki te erythromycin, ana ko te koiora-a-waha he iti ano i te erythromycin. Heoi, he maha nga erythromycin-ātete Staphylococcus aureus e aro nui ana ki te spiramycin. Hei taapiri, ko te spiramycin he pai ake te painga o muri-paturopi i te erythromycin.

I whakaatuhia e te huakita te whakahee-aukati i te spiramycin me te erythromycin. He kaha te mahi a te Spiramycine ki te patu tangata ki a Staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic streptococcus, pneumococcus, diphtheria, Bacillus anthracis me Clostridium; hei taapiri, ko te spiramycine he kaha nga mahi aukati ki a Listeria me Catabranham Bacteria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Campylobacter fetus, Bacillus influenzae, Bacillus pertussis, Bacteroides, Perfringens, Propionibacterium acnes, Peptococcus me Peptostreptococcus, me te Myc Chlamydia, Treponema pallidum, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium Etc.

3. Pharmacokinetics

Ko te spiramycin acetylspirillum-a-waha kaore i te pangia e te waikawa parani, tata ki te 40% te ngongo. Ko te spiramycin oral 100mg, 200mg, kua eke ki te toto teitei i te 2h, ko te 0.8mg / L, 1mg / L. Ka tohaina te rongoa i muri o te ngongo. Ko te kukume o te mimi, pana, te huna o te bronchial me te kiko o te pūkahukahu he teitei ake i te toto, ana ka heke te toto ki te iti, he nui tonu te tarukino kei roto i te kiko.

Ko te kukume o te tarukino i roto i te tinana he nui i roto i te pūkahukahu, ate, me te ate (ko te kukume o te ngongo ka tae ki te 7-10 wa te kukume o te serum). Ka uru te Spiramycin ki roto ki nga macrophages, tae atu ki te aukati placental me te aukati o te toto-cerebrospinal. Ko te kukume o te waipiro cerebrospinal ki te meningitis e 65% o te whakaheke toto. I muri i te ngongo o te tarukino, ka pania tuatahihia ki te ate ki te acetylspiramycin. Ko te haurua o te koiora o te spiramycin he roa atu i te erythromycin me te acetylspiramycin, ka kohia i roto i te tinana i muri i te whakahaere tonutanga.

Whakamahia ai te Spiramycin

Spiramycin-whakamahinga
Spiramycin-whakamahinga

1. Tuhinga

  • He pai mo te maimoatanga i nga mate manawa me nga kiri me nga ngoikoretanga o te kiko ngohengohe e pa ana ki nga huakita tairongo, tae atu ki te: pharyngitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, pyoderma, erysipelas me te kirika whero.
  • He pai mo te whakaora i nga mate a-waha me te mate otolaryngology na te huakita tairongo, penei i te papaho otitis, te periodontitis, me te sinusitis kino.
  • Ka taea hoki te whakamahi ki te hamani i te toxoplasmosis.

2. whakamahinga

Ko te hihinga antibacterial o te spiramycine he rite ki etahi atu macrolide paturopi. Na te puhoi o te maunu me te kaha o te hononga hononga o te kiko, he pai ake te kaha o te pungarehu i te tinana i nga antibiotic rite, ina koa mo te pneumococcus me te streptococcus.

I tetahi atu, na te puhoi o te whakaheke, te kararehe me te heihei mo te kai a te tangata, me roa ake te tangohanga o te tarukino i mua i te patunga.

Spiramycine he paturopi macrolide. Ko tana aarai tuukiri he rite ki te erythromycin. He paanga nui ki nga huakita Gram-pai me etahi huakita Gram-kino, rickettsiae me nga wheori nui, penei i te streptococcus, te meningococcus, te Bacillus pertussis, te Mycoplasma pneumoniae, te Bacillus diphtheria, te Chlamydia trachomatis, te Leptospira me te Clostridium me etahi atu. huakita ātete ki penihana, Tuhinga ka whai mai, tetracycline a chloramphenicol. Ma te haumanu ka whakamahia mo nga mate ka puta i nga momo tairongo tairongo, penei i te mate o te manawa manawa o runga, te mate mimi, te mate pukupuku, te mastitis, te osteomyelitis, te kirika ngangana, te otitis media, te mate buccal me te waha me te sinusitis.

He kaha te pungarehu o te Spiramycine me te painga o te pungawerewere (PAE) i roto i te vivo, e taea ai te whakarei ake i te phagocytosis o nga phagocytes. Ko te Acetylspiramycin he paturopi me te aukatingikokiri e mau ana te mowhiti macrolide 16-membered, ana he pai te paanga ki te kore he kino kino, a he maha nga wa ka whakamahia hei whiringa tuatahi mo nga mate penei i te kitakita aerobic gram-positive me te cocic anaerobic, me he whakakapi mo te hunga e mate mate ana ki lactam beta patu paturopi.

3. Raihana

  • Nga pakeke: 0.8 ~ 1.2g ia ra, ka wehea ki te 3 ~ 4 wa; mo nga keehi kino, ka taea te tango ki te 1.6 ~ 2g ia ra.
  • Tamariki: Ko te rongoa mo ia ra ko te 20-30 mg / kg, ka whakahaerehia i te 2 ki te 4 wa.

4. Acetylspiramycin

A. Whakamarama

Ko te Acetylspiramycin te acetate o te spiramycin. I muri i te whakahaere-a-waha, ka tangohia te roopu acetyl hei whakaatu i te kaha o te pungarehu. Ko te Acetylspiramycin he kaitohutohu bacteriostatic pakari, ana ko te paanga kitakita noa kei te tino kaha.

Ko tana mahinga mahi patu huakita he rite ki te erythromycin. Na te whakakotahi me te waahanga 50S o te tinana ribonucleoprotein kitakita, ka aukati i te toronga o te mekameka peptide ka pa ki te whakahiatotanga o te pūmua kitakita kia tutuki ai te painga o te ngota. Ko te ngoikoretanga o te acetylspiramycin he rite ki te spiramycin, engari he ngoikore te ngoikoretanga o te raukikini i tera o te spiramycin. Ko te hihinga antibacterial o te acetylspiramycin he rite ki te erythromycin, ana ko tana awangawanga uaua kaore i te kaha ki te erythromycin, ana ko te koiora-a-waha he iti ano i te erythromycin. Heoi, he maha nga erythromycin-ātete Staphylococcus aureus e aro nui ana ki te acetylspiramycin.

Hei taapiri, ko te acetylspiramycin he pai ake te painga o muri-paturopi i te erythromycin. I whakaatuhia e te huakita te whakahee-aukati i te acetylspiramycin me te erythromycin. He kaha te mahi a te Acetylspiramycin ki te Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus hemolyticus, Pneumococcus, Diphtheria, Bacillus antracis me Clostridium; Hei taapiri, he kaha te mahi a te Acetylspiramycin ki te Listeria me te Catab, Lanhamella, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Campylobacter fetus, Bacillus influenzae, Bacillus pertussis, Bacteroides, Perfringens, Propionibacterium acnes, Peptococcus me Peptostreptococcus, me te myma myc ngarara.

Ka taea e nga papa Acetylspiramycin te aukati i te Streptococcus pneumoniae, te Streptococcus pyogenes, te Enterobacter faecalis, me era atu, engari he kino ano nga paanga, penei i te mamae o te puku te mamae ranei, te ruaki, te whakapairuaki, me era atu, e kitea ana ka whakamahia ana nga horopeta nui. Heoi, kaore e nui te awe o enei tohu, mena ka mutu te tango i te tarukino, ka ngaro enei tohu. Hei taapiri, kei te whakamahara ahau ki a koe ko te acetylspiramycin ka puta i roto i te punaha hepatobiliary, no reira kaore e taunakihia kia tuukinotia e nga tuuroro he ngoikore te mate pukupuku me te ngoikoretanga o te whatukuhu.

B. Tohu

He pai mo te tonsillitis, Bronchitis, pneumonia, pharyngitis, otitis media, kiri me nga ngoikore o te kiri i pangia e nga huakita ngawari penei i te Staphylococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Meningococcus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Diphtheria, Mycoplasma, Treponemaastonia, etc. kirika ngangana, mate niho me te karu, etc.

I te haumanu, ka whakamahia mo nga mate i pangia e Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Pneumoniae Bacillus, coli Escherichia, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, pēnei i te mate kakā, te mate kakā, te mate puku, te kakā kirika, te osteomyelitis, te urethritis, te mastitis, te kuihi me te pēhi harumaru Yan etc.

C. Nga urupare kino

Ko nga tino morearea o te papa acetylspiramycin ko nga tohu haumanu penei i te mamae o te puku, whakapairuaki, ruaki, ngaro o te hiahia, me nga hupahu tarukino penei i te ruaki o te rohe, o te punaha ranei, engari te tikanga kaore enei e hiahiatia he rongoa motuhake ka taea te whakaora ake i muri i a Tuhinga o mua.

Heoi, ki te puta he urupare mate kino, penei i te poto o te manawa, te heke o te toto, me era atu, he mea nui kia haere wawe atu ki te taote. Hei taapiri, ko nga tuuroro e mate kino ana te ate me te whatukuhu kia kaua e whakamahi i te tarukino, na te mea ka kaha te mate o te ate me te whatukuhu.

Nga hua kino Spiramycin

Nga painga-a-Spiramycin
Nga painga-a-Spiramycin

1. Tauhohenga Kino

  • Ko nga tauhohenga gastrointestinal he ngawari atu i te erythromycin, ko te nuinga tae atu ki te whakapairuaki, te ruaki, te mangai maroke me te kore hiahia. I te nuinga o te waa ka puta ka whakamahia ana te rongoa rongoa nui, ka ngaro nga tohu i muri i te whakamutu o te rongoa.
  • I etahi wa ka kitea nga tauhohenga mate mate pēnei i te kiri kiri me te raau taero.
  • I etahi wa ka puta nga tohu o te whanoke, te ānini, te hiamoe, me te rohirohi.

2. Nga kirimana

Ka aukatihia mo nga tuuroro e pangia ana ki te spiramycine, te erythromycin me etahi atu Macrolides. Ka uru te Spiramycin ki roto ki te waahi, no reira me tino paunahia nga painga me nga mea kino ki te whakatau mena ka whakamahia ma nga wa hapu.

Kaore he raraunga hei whakaatu mena spiramycin kua oti te whakaputa ki roto i te miraka u, engari he maha nga rongoa macrolide ka taea te whakaputa i roto i te miraka u. Na kia tupato nga wahine e whangote ana i tenei hua, kia whakatarewatia te whakamate i te u i nga wa e tika ana. Ana ko te whai hua me te ahuru o nga tuuroro pediatric i roto i nga marama 6 kaore ano kia whakaritea.

3. Ngä Whakauru Iwi

  • Ka whakamahia ngatahi me te metronidazole, he painga pungarehu synergistic ki te Bacteroides fragilis i roto i te whakamatautau in vitro.
  • Ka whakamahia ana me trimethoprim, he painga huaketo synergistic ki te Haemophilus influenza bacilli.
  • Ko te whakamahi tahi me te cytochrome P450 metabolites ka taea te whakanui ake i te karbamazepine, te terfenadine, te cyclohexylbarbital me te phenytoin i roto i te serum.
  • Ka honoa ki te levodopa / carbidopa / carbidopa, ka taea te whakaheke i te rohe i raro i te waa kukume wa (AUC) o te levodopa.

4. Ara

  • I etahi wa, ka paku kitea te ngoikoretanga o te puku, penei i te whakapairuaki, te ruaki, te kore hiahia, te waatea, me te korere.
  • He onge te mate paitini.
  • Cont conticated hoki wahine hapu wahine ranei i roto i te whangai.

Opaniraa

Spiramycine no ki nga patu paturopi macrolide. Ko te Spiramycine me te erythromycin he rite tonu te momo aukati me te taatai ​​rite ki te rauropi. Ana ko te spiramycin he mana weto iti iho i te erythromycin. Heoi, he maha nga kitakita e aukati ana ki erythromycin he tairongo ki te spiramycine, no reira ka taea e te spiramycine me te erythromycin te whakakotahi i a raatau ano.

BALLYA whakaratohia whakamātautau ballya-spiramycin ki te korero ki a koe mena kei reira spiramycin toenga i roto i te kai me te kai.

Tohutoro

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