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Dab tsi yog-streptomycin-siv-rau

Dab tsi yog streptomycin siv rau?

Muab lo rau  Hlis ntuj nqeg 19, 2020, Kho los ntawm Jason, Qeb  

Streptomycin yog dab tsi?

1. Kev Txhais Tau

Streptomycin yog tshuaj tua kab mob aminoglycoside. Aminoglycosides yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob glycoside tsim los ntawm kev sib txuas cov suab thaj thiab amino cyclic cawv los ntawm cov pa oxygen. Aminoglycoside tshuaj tua kab mob inhibit protein synthesis thiab yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob bactericidal nyob rau theem ruaj khov. Nws yog tus yam ntxwv tiv thaiv kab mob aerobic gram-negative bacilli, Pseudomonas, tuberculosis, thiab staphylococcus. Txij li cov tshuaj tua kab mob aminoglycoside yuav tsum yog aerobic kom siv cov tshuaj tua kab mob, lawv tsis muaj txiaj ntsig tiv thaiv kab mob anaerobic. Aminoglycoside tshuaj muaj qib sib txawv ntawm ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity thiab neuromuscular blockade.

Xyoo 1943, Ph.D. hauv University of California, Berkeley, Salman A. Waxman cais nws los ntawm Streptomyces, thiab nws yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob thib ob tsim thiab siv hauv kev kho mob tom qab tshuaj penicillin. Waxman kuj tau txais khoom plig Nobel hauv Physiology lossis Tshuaj hauv xyoo 1952. Cov txiaj ntsig tshwj xeeb ntawm streptomycin tiv thaiv tuberculosis bacillus tau qhib lub sijhawm tshiab ntawm kev kho mob tuberculosis. Txij thaum ntawd los, keeb kwm ntawm Mycobacterium tuberculosis uas tau ua rau tib neeg txoj sia nyob tau ntau txhiab xyoo tuaj yeem muaj nyob rau thawj zaug.

Streptomycin yog tshuaj tua kab mob muab rho tawm los ntawm kab lis kev cai ntawm Streptomyces griseus. Nws yog cov khoom sib xyaw aminoglycoside yooj yim, uas khi rau cov protein ntawm ribonucleic acid protein lub cev ntawm Mycobacterium tuberculosis thiab ua rau cuam tshuam nrog cov protein synthesis ntawm Mycobacterium tuberculosis, yog li tua lossis cuam tshuam kev loj hlob ntawm Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Txij li qhov mob teb ntawm txhaj intramuscular ntawm streptomycin yog qhov me me, nws tsim nyog rau kev siv tshuaj kho mob. Tsuav lub hom phiaj raug xaiv kom raug thiab cov tshuaj tsim nyog, cov neeg mob feem ntau tuaj yeem txhaj tshuaj ntev (feem ntau yog li 2 hlis). Yog li ntawd, nws tseem yog cov tshuaj tseem ceeb hauv kev kho los tiv thaiv tuberculosis tau ntau caum xyoo.

2. Streptomycin Siv

Streptomycin yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob microbial, uas tuaj yeem tswj tau cov kab mob cog qoob loo zoo, xws li kua, txiv pear tua hluav taws, haus luam yeeb tua hluav taws, pwm xiav, zaub mos mos lwj, lws suav kab mob kis, lig blight, thiab qos yaj ywm rot, qia dub, dib dib qhov chaw, cov kab mob me me, taum qis qis, cov kab mob ua rau tuag, cov kab mob hu ua celery, cov noob taum cov kab mob nplooj.

Streptomycin muaj cov kab mob bacteriostatic ntawm qhov qis, thiab muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob ntawm qhov siab. Nws muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob muaj zog ntawm Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nws kuj muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob rau Escherichia coli, Shigella, Pertussis, thiab Pneumoniae. Tuberculosis, tso zis tso zis, mob plab bacillary, sepsis, thiab lwm yam. Noj cov tshuaj no tuaj yeem ua rau loog nyob ib ncig ntawm daim di ncauj thiab ntsej muag, uas yuav cuam tshuam rau yim lub paj hlwb thaum siv. Kev siv cov tshuaj no mus ntev yuav ua rau lub raum puas.

3. Keeb kwm

Xyoo 1945, Fleming, Flory, thiab Chan tau sib koom qhov khoom plig Nobel rau Tshuaj hauv kev lees paub lawv qhov kev tshawb pom thawj zaug puas tau panacea rau kev kis kab mob-tshuaj penicillin. Tab sis penicillin tsis ua haujlwm tiv thaiv ntau hom kab mob, suav nrog tuberculosis, kab mob ntawm tuberculosis. Tuberculosis yog ib yam kab mob phem tshaj rau tib neeg.

Xyoo pua 20th, kwv yees li 100 lab tus tib neeg tseem tuag los ntawm tuberculosis. Cov kws sau ntawv nto moo xws li Chekhov, Lawrence, Lu Xun thiab Orwell txhua tus tau tuag ntxov ntxov vim yog mob ntsws. Cov kws kho mob thoob plaws ntiaj teb tau sim ntau txoj hauv kev los kho tus kab mob ntsws, tab sis tsis muaj leej twg ua tau zoo tiag tiag. Kev txom nyem los ntawm tuberculosis txhais tau tias raug txim tuag. Txawm tias tom qab Koch nrhiav tau tus kab mob Mycobacterium tuberculosis xyoo 1882, qhov xwm txheej no tseem tsis tau zoo dua qub. Cov nyhuv tej yam yees siv ntawm tshuaj penicillin tau coj kev cia siab tshiab rau tib neeg. Puas tuaj yeem nrhiav tshuaj tua kab mob zoo sib xws los kho tus kab mob ntsws?

Tseeb txaus, ob peb hlis tom qab tau txais khoom plig Nobel hauv xyoo 1945, thaum Lub Ob Hlis 22, 1946, Rutgers University tus xibfwb Selman A. Waksman tshaj tawm tias nws lub chaw kuaj mob tau tshawb pom cov tshuaj tua kab mob thib ob siv hauv tsev kho mob, tshuaj streptomycin, muaj cov txiaj ntsig tshwj xeeb tiv thaiv kab mob tuberculosis bacilli, thiab lub sijhawm tshiab ntawm tib neeg kov yeej tuberculosis tau pib. Tsis zoo li penicillin, qhov kev tshawb pom ntawm streptomycin tsis yog txhais tau tias ua yuam kev, tab sis qhov tshwm sim ntawm kev tsim qauv zoo thiab muaj kev tshawb fawb mus sij hawm ntev.

4. Cov teebmeem tshuaj

Streptomycin yog tshuaj aminoglycoside. Streptomycin hom kev ua yog ua los ntawm ribosomes hauv cov kab mob, tiv thaiv kab mob protein synthesis, thiab rhuav tshem kev ncaj ncees ntawm cov kab mob ntawm cov kab mob ntawm tes. Cov kab mob rhiab heev muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis ua pa oxygen.

Streptomycin thawj zaug tuaj yeem nthuav tawm los ntawm cov txheej txheem sab hauv ntawm lub cev los ntawm kev sib kis tsis sib xws, tom qab ntawd nkag mus rau hauv lub cell los ntawm cov kab mob ntawm lub cev los ntawm txoj kev thauj no, thiab khi tsis tau rov qab los rau qhov sib cais ribosomal 30S subunit, ua rau kev puas tsuaj ntawm txoj haujlwm A, thiab tom qab ntawd:

  • Tiv thaiv kom raug qhov tseeb ntawm aminoacyl tRNA ntawm txoj haujlwm A, cuam tshuam nrog kev sib dhos ntawm kev ua haujlwm ribosomes, thiab txwv tsis pub tsim ntawm 70S pib ua nyuaj;
  • Induce qhov tsis sib xws ntawm tRNA thiab mRNA code triplet, ua rau 30S subunit ntawm qhov tsis muaj ribosome ua tsis raug rau cov lej caj ces, ua rau txawv txav thiab tsis ua haujlwm cov synthesis protein;
  • Tiv thaiv qhov kev txiav tawm los ntawm kev khi rau A site, yog li cov saw peptide sib txuas tsis tuaj yeem tso tawm, thiab kev sib cais ntawm 70S tsis muaj ribosome tsis raug tiv thaiv;
  • cuam ​​tshuam rau kev tshem tawm cov txheej txheem thiab kev sib sau ua ke ntawm polyribosomes, ua rau kev rhuav tshem ntawm ribosome hauv cov kab mob. Streptomycin muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob muaj zog tiv thaiv kab mob Mycobacterium tuberculosis, thiab nws qhov kev txwv qis tshaj plaws (MIC) feem ntau yog 0.5mg/L. Atypical mycobacteria feem ntau tiv taus streptomycin.

Streptomycin muaj txiaj ntsig zoo tiv thaiv ntau yam kab mob tsis zoo xws li Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Brucella, Pasteurella, Meningococcus thiab Neisseria gonorrhoeae, thiab lwm yam. Streptomycin muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob tsis zoo tawm tsam feem ntau cov kab mob zoo xws li Staphylococcus aureus. Streptococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa thiab cov kab mob anaerobic tiv taus streptomycin.

Dab tsi yog streptomycin siv rau?

1. indications

  • Streptomycin tsim nyog rau tularemia, lossis ua ke nrog lwm cov tshuaj tua kab mob rau tus kab mob plague, venereal granulomatosis, brucellosis, nas tom npaws, thiab tseem tuaj yeem ua ke nrog penicillin los kho lossis tiv thaiv Streptococcus viridans lossis Enterococcus los ntawm endocarditis.
  • Streptomycin kuj tseem tuaj yeem siv ua ke nrog lwm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob rau ntau yam tuberculosis lossis lwm yam kab mob mycobacterial los ntawm Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Streptomycin feem ntau yog siv ua ke nrog lwm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tuberculosis rau thawj kis ntawm tuberculosis los ntawm Mycobacterium tuberculosis, lossis lwm yam mob Mycobacterium mob.
  • Cov khoom lag luam tuaj yeem siv rau kev kho mob ntawm tularemia ib leeg lossis ua ke nrog lwm cov tshuaj tua kab mob rau kev kho tus mob plague, granuloma inguinal, brucellosis, nas nas tom npaws, thiab lwm yam.
  • Nws kuj tseem tuaj yeem ua ke nrog tshuaj penicillin or tshuaj ampicillin los kho tus mob endocarditis los ntawm Streptococcus viridans lossis Enterococcus faecalis.

2. Streptomycin Dosage

Tam sim no, nws ntseeg tias kev txhaj tshuaj 750 mg ib hnub rau cov neeg laus tuaj yeem ua tiav lub hom phiaj ntawm kev kho mob. Yav dhau los, 500 mg tau txhaj tshuaj intramuscularly ob zaug ib hnub, thiab nws cov txiaj ntsig kho tau zoo ib yam nkaus li kev txhaj tshuaj intramuscular. Yog li, 750 mg txhaj tshuaj intramuscular yog 250 mg tsawg dua ib hnub, yog li cov kev mob tshwm sim kuj tseem txo qis.

Cov koob tshuaj tuaj yeem nce lossis nce ob npaug rau cov neeg mob uas muaj mob hnyav, tab sis lub sijhawm thov txuas ntxiv yuav tsum tsis txhob ntev dhau, feem ntau tsis pub dhau 1 lub lis piam, thiab yuav tsum tau ua ntawv thov nyob ze. Cov koob tshuaj rau cov neeg laus yuav tsum raug txo kom tsim nyog. Cov menyuam yaus koob tshuaj yog kwv yees li 25 mg rau ib phaus ntawm lub cev hnyav ib hnub. Lawv kuj yuav tsum tau ua tib zoo saib.

Peb siv streptomycin sulfate hmoov tam sim no Muaj dihydrostreptomycin yav dhau los. Vim tias ntau tus neeg mob tau hnov ​​pob ntseg tas mus li (lag ntseg), tam sim no dihydrostreptomycin tau raug tshem tawm los ntawm Xeev Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Kev Kho Mob thiab tsis tsim tawm ntxiv lawm.

Streptomycin-xeem
Streptomycin-xeem

Streptomycin Side Effects

1. Teeb meem tsis haum

A. Kev ua xua

Ob leeg Streptomycin thiab dihydrostreptomycin tuaj yeem ua ke nrog cov protein hauv cov ntshav kom tsim cov antigen tiav, tab sis cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tsim tawm txawv, yog li tsis muaj kev cuam tshuam hla. Dihydrostreptomycin tuaj yeem siv rau cov ua xua rau streptomycin.

Kev ua xua suav nrog: tawv nqaij ua pob (0.3%-11%), uas tuaj yeem ua rau pom ua pob liab liab, ua pob khaus, ua pob liab liab, ua pob liab liab, zoo li ua pob ua pob, ua pob liab liab zoo li ua pob, pomphigus zoo li pob, ua pob liab liab, purpura, thiab angioedema. Hauv cov xwm txheej hnyav, tuaj yeem ua rau mob anaphylactic, thiab kev ua xua hnyav tuaj yeem ua rau muaj ntshav tsis txaus, hemoglobinuria, poob siab, thiab lub raum tsis ua haujlwm.

Streptomycin tuaj yeem ua rau lub raum puas tsuaj me me, thiab cov neeg mob tuaj yeem tsim cov proteinuria, tubular zis, thiab lwm yam, uas feem ntau tsis cuam tshuam rau kev siv tshuaj tas mus li. Ob peb tus neeg mob yuav ua rau lub raum tsis ua haujlwm, tab sis lawv tuaj yeem rov zoo tom qab siv tshuaj. Kev siv tshuaj xws li sodium bicarbonate tuaj yeem txo txoj hauv kev muaj proteinuria. Leukopenia ntau dua, ntxiv rau qee zaus neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia, thiab lwm yam. Kev siv streptomycin mus ntev tuaj yeem ua rau ua tiav lossis ib nrab ntawm kev ua haujlwm tsis zoo. Nws tau tshaj tawm tias kev txhaj tshuaj intratympanic ntawm cov khoom tau siv los kho Meniere's syndrome, thiab 95% ntawm cov neeg mob tau kiv taub hau ploj tab sis hnov ​​lus tseem nyob.

B. Tshuaj lom

Tawv, kiv taub hau, lag ntseg, thiab lwm yam tshwm sim, thiab feem ntau tshwm sim tsis pub dhau 10 hnub tom qab siv tshuaj. Cov ntaub ntawv luv tshaj tshwm sim tsis pub dhau 20 feeb tom qab txhaj tshuaj, uas kav ntev li 1 txog 6 teev, thiab kis mob hnyav tuaj yeem txuas ntxiv mus rau 24 teev. Perioral loog, kiv taub hau, dyskinesia, mob taub hau, qaug zog, ntuav, thiab lub ntsej muag yaug kuj tseem tuaj yeem tshwm sim. Hauv cov xwm txheej hnyav, tawm hws, ua pa nyuaj, thiab cramps tsis yooj yim sib txawv los ntawm kev poob siab anaphylactic. Txawm li cas los xij, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob feem ntau tshwm sim los yog ua rau hnyav zuj zus. Qee qhov xwm txheej, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tsuas yog tshwm sim thaum pib txhaj tshuaj thiab ploj mus tom qab. Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv mob hnyav ntawm streptomycin feem ntau ntseeg tias muaj feem cuam tshuam nrog nws cov khoom tsis huv.

Streptomycin ua rau lub raum ua rau me ntsis, pom tau tias yog proteinuria thiab tubular cov zis, qee qhov uas poob qis hauv lub raum ua haujlwm ib ntus, uas tuaj yeem rov qab los tom qab siv tshuaj. Lub raum puas tas mus li yog qhov tsawg. Cov nyhuv cuam tshuam rau cov pob txha pob txha: pom tau tias yog leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia thiab oligocytosis. Leukopenia feem ntau, thaum aplastic anemia thiab pancytopenia tsis tshua muaj. Nws kuj yog ib qho yooj yim ua rau hirsutism, kab mob sib kis, mob caj dab, mob myocarditis, mob qog noj ntshav, thiab lwm yam.

2. Rooj

  • Hla kev ua xua. Cov neeg mob uas ua xua rau ib qho aminoglycoside kuj tseem tuaj yeem ua xua rau lwm yam aminoglycosides. Cov tshuaj no yog contraindicated rau cov neeg uas muaj keeb kwm ntawm kev tsis haum tshuaj streptomycin.
  • Streptomycin tuaj yeem hla los ntawm txoj hlab ntshav, thiab nws cov ntshav nyob rau hauv hlab ntaws yog kwv yees zoo ib yam li cov ntshav ntawm leej niam. Nws tau tshaj tawm tias tshuaj streptomycin tau ua rau hnov ​​lus tsis zoo hauv tib neeg lub cev xeeb tub. Cov poj niam cev xeeb tub yuav tsum ntsuas qhov zoo thiab qhov tsis zoo.
  • Cov neeg mob laus tuaj yeem tsim ntau yam tshuaj lom tom qab siv aminoglycosides, yog li nws yog qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws los saib xyuas lub raum ua haujlwm (nws yog qhov zoo tshaj los ntsuas kev tshem tawm creatinine) thaum lub sijhawm kho aminoglycosides. Cov tib neeg uas lub raum ua haujlwm zoo ib yam kuj tseem yuav hnov ​​tsis hnov ​​lus tom qab siv tshuaj. Ib qho ntxiv, cov neeg mob laus dua yuav tsum siv tshuaj me me kom haum rau lawv lub hnub nyoog, lub raum ua haujlwm thiab ua haujlwm ntawm yim khub ntawm lub paj hlwb.

3. Teeb meem xav tau mloog

  • Cov neeg mob uas ua xua rau ib qho aminoglycoside kuj tseem tuaj yeem ua xua rau lwm yam aminoglycosides.
  • Cov khoom no tuaj yeem ua rau cov hlab ntsha vestibular thiab lub paj hlwb puas.
  • Vim tias cov khoom lag luam tuaj yeem ua rau cov hlab ntsha tawg neuromuscular, ua rau cov leeg pob txha tsis muaj zog.
  • Cov khoom yog nephrotoxic.
  • Thaum lub sijhawm kho, yuav tsum tau them sai sai rau kev kuaj zis thiab lub raum ua haujlwm txhawm rau tiv thaiv kev mob hnyav nephrotoxic thiab kev hnov ​​lus (tshwj xeeb yog hnov ​​lus ntau zaus), uas yog qhov tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau cov neeg mob laus.

4. Tshuaj Tiv Thaiv

  • Streptomycin thiab lwm yam aminoglycosides siv ua ke lossis ua tiav daim ntawv thov hauv zos lossis cov txheej txheem tuaj yeem ua rau muaj peev xwm ua rau ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity thiab neuromuscular blockade. Kev hnov ​​pob ntseg yuav tshwm sim, thiab nws tuaj yeem nce mus rau kev lag ntseg tom qab siv cov tshuaj; qhov hnov ​​lus tsis zoo yuav rov qab los lossis tsis tau. Neuromuscular blockade tuaj yeem ua rau cov leeg pob txha tsis muaj zog, ua pa nyuaj lossis ua pa tuag tes tuag taw (apnea). Tshuaj Anticholinerase lossis ntsev ntsev tuaj yeem pab qhov txhaws rov zoo.
  • Kev sib xyaw ua ke ntawm streptomycin thiab cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob neuromuscular tuaj yeem ua rau cov hlab ntsha tawg tsis zoo, ua rau cov leeg tsis muaj zog, ua pa nyuaj siab lossis ua pa tuag tes tuag taw (apnea). Ua ke ntawm streptomycin nrog capreomycin, cisplatin, diuretic acid, furosemide, lossis vancomycin tshuaj, lossis kev siv tshuaj txuas ntxiv lossis ua ntu zus, tuaj yeem ua rau ototoxicity thiab nephrotoxicity, hnov ​​lus puas tsuaj, thiab txawm tias lag ntseg.
  • Kev thov hauv zos lossis hauv lub cev ntawm streptomycin thiab cefalotin tuaj yeem ua rau kom muaj cov kab mob nephrotoxicity.
  • Kev sib xyaw ua ke ntawm streptomycin thiab polymyxins, lossis kev siv hauv zos lossis cov txheej txheem ua tiav, tuaj yeem ua rau nephrotoxicity thiab cov hlab ntsha neuromuscular thaiv. Qhov tom kawg tuaj yeem ua rau cov leeg pob txha tsis muaj zog, ua pa nyuaj siab lossis tuag tes tuag taw.
Streptomycin
Streptomycin

xaus

Streptomycin tau siv hauv tsev kho mob rau ntau dua ib nrab xyoo, thiab nws tseem yog thawj kab tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob ntsws. Xyoo tsis ntev los no. Vim yog qhov nce ntawm cov kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob ua rau cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob, nws tsuas yog siv nyob rau theem pib ntawm tuberculosis.

Streptomycin tuaj yeem siv ib leeg rau tularemia, lossis tuaj yeem ua ke nrog tshuaj tetracycline los kho tus mob plague thiab brucellosis, thiab tshuaj penicillin los kho Streptococcus viridans endocarditis.

BALLYA muab a betalactam-tetracycline-streptomycin-chloramphenicol-combo-test-cov khoom siv qhia rau koj yog tias muaj tshuaj streptomycin, beta lawm, tetracycline thiab chloramphenicol cov khoom seem uas koj noj txhua hnub.

References

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Zoo siab tsim los ntawm BALLYA
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