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cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav

Nws txhais li cas thaum cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav?

Muab lo rau  Cuaj hlis 30, 2020, Kho los ntawm Jason, Qeb  
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ballya-tshuaj tua kab mob-kuaj

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Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob yog dab tsi?

cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav
cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav

tshuaj hauv cov ntshav los yog cov kua dej hauv nruab nrab hais txog immunoglobulin tshuaj uas yog tsim los ntawm cov ntshav ntshav sib txawv ntawm B lymphocytes nyob rau hauv kev txhawb nqa ntawm antigen los ntawm lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob thiab tuaj yeem tshwj xeeb khi rau qhov sib xws antigen.

Lub ntsiab muaj nuj nqi ntawm tshuaj tiv thaiv yog los ua ke nrog antigen (suav nrog txawv teb chaws thiab tus kheej), yog li tshem tawm lub cev txawv teb chaws xws li cov kab mob me me thiab kab mob uas nkag mus rau hauv lub cev, tshem tawm cov co toxins tawm los ntawm lawv lossis tshem tawm qee yam antigens tus kheej, yog li lub cev tuaj yeem tswj tau qhov sib npaug. Tab sis qee zaum nws tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev puas tsuaj rau lub cev, xws li tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob nuclear, tiv thaiv kab mob DNA ob npaug, thiab tiv thaiv cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thyroglobulin.

Nws txhais li cas thaum cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav?

Thaum cov kab mob los yog lwm cov protein txawv teb chaws nkag rau tib neeg lub cev, tib neeg lub cev yuav tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv sib xws los tawm tsam cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob sib xws. Qee cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob zoo heev, thiab lwm yam tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob muaj teeb meem.

Muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv lub cev txhais tau tias lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob tau nthuav tawm rau qee yam antigen, yog li qee yam tshuaj tiv thaiv tuaj yeem kuaj pom hauv cov ntshav ncig. Qee qhov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob yuav tsis tsuas yog muaj nyob hauv cov ntshav ncig tab sis hauv mucosa. Lub cev cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob yog lub hauv paus tseem ceeb ntawm kev tiv thaiv tsis zoo uas tsim los ntawm lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob. Nws raug rau qhov sib thooj antigen. Tom qab tus kab mob lossis kab mob kis rau tib neeg lub cev, nws tuaj yeem tsim ntau yam antigens. Cov antigens no tuaj yeem ua rau lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob paub thiab tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv sib xws. Qee cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob muaj kev tiv thaiv, uas yog tiv thaiv cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob. Piv txwv li, kab mob siab hom B tuaj yeem tsim tawm tom qab txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob siab B. Qhov no yog kev tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob. Tom qab tsim tawm, tib neeg yuav tsis kis tus kab mob siab B.

Tab sis qee qhov cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav tsis yog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob. Piv txwv, tom qab tau txais kab mob siab C, lub cev lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob yuav tiv thaiv kab mob siab C, tab sis cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob no tsis yog tiv thaiv kab mob. Nws tsuas tuaj yeem qhia tau tias ib tus neeg yuav kis tus kab mob siab C. Yog tias nws yog tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob AIDS, nws kuj txhais tau tias tus neeg ntawd tau kis tus kabmob HIV, vim nws tsis yog tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob.

Thiab nws nyob ntawm qhov tshwj xeeb tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob txhawm rau txiav txim siab tias muaj kab mob. Feem ntau, yuav muaj kev kuaj ntshav cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob, thiab yog tias sib thooj antigen yog qhov tsis zoo, txhais tau tias muaj tus kab mob.

Nws txhais li cas thaum koj muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv koj cov ntshav ntau dhau?

Cov theem siab ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav tej zaum yuav yog vim muaj ntau yam infusions ntawm cov ntshav, uas muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv ntau dua. Yog tias pob txha pob txha thiab hloov pauv lub raum tau ua tiav nyob rau lub sijhawm no, nws yuav ua rau muaj kev tsis lees paub ntau dua.

Qee cov neeg mob nrog hyperthyroidism feem ntau ua ke nrog cov qib thyroid autoantibody TPOAb, thiab TGAb. Qhov no tuaj yeem yog hyperthyroidism tshwm sim los ntawm cov kab mob autoimmune thyroiditis. Cov kab mob autoimmune uas yuav ua rau kom muaj cov thyroid autoantibodies ntau ntxiv ua rau lub sij hawm ntev diffuse puas tsuaj ntawm cov nqaij cov thyroid. Lub sijhawm no, yog tias tus neeg mob ua tiav cov thyroid xim doppler ultrasound, tuaj yeem sib txawv lossis kab sib chaws zoo li cov qog qog ntshav tuaj yeem pom.

Feem ntau hais lus, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav yuav tsis ploj mus. Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tau tsim los ntawm B lymphocytes hauv cov ntshav, thiab B lymphocytes yog tsim los ntawm cov qog ntshav hauv lub cev, thiab lawv nyob hauv qhov sib npaug tas li ntawm kev tsim thiab tuag. Txawm hais tias koj pub ntshav, nws yuav tsis cuam tshuam rau qhov nyiaj tshuav no.

High cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav yog lus dav thiab tsis meej. Nws tau pom zoo kom mus rau tom tsev kho mob kom nug tus kws kho mob kom paub meej txog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thiab lwm yam kab mob.

Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav

Antibodies yog immunoglobulins, tab sis tsis yog txhua immunoglobulins yog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv. Tsuav yog glycoprotein muaj cov qauv tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob, nws yog immunoglobulin. Immunoglobulins tau qhia ua Ig. Nws tau pom tias tib neeg muaj tsib hom immunoglobulins, uas yog IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD thiab IgE.

immunoglobulin qauv
immunoglobulin qauv

Tsuas yog peb hom immunoglobulins cuam tshuam nrog pab pawg ntshav, uas yog IgG, IgM thiab IgA. Muaj qhov hu ua "cov tshuaj tiv thaiv ntuj" thiab "cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob" raws li seb puas muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tuaj yeem kuaj pom thaum cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tshwm sim hauv lub cev.

Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob uas tshwm sim hauv lub cev tsis muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hu ua "natural antibodies"; cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tsim tawm hauv cov ntshav tom qab lub cev tau txhawb los ntawm tib yam lossis heterogeneous antigens hu ua cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob. Muaj ob qhov kev piav qhia rau kev tsim cov "tshuaj tiv thaiv ntuj": ib qho yog tias muaj cov "antigen-sensitized" cells hauv lub cev uas tuaj yeem tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tshwj xeeb yam tsis muaj kev txhawb nqa antigen; lwm qhov yog tias "cov tshuaj tiv thaiv ntuj" yog heteroagglutinins. Muaj qee yam tshuaj zoo ib yam li ntshav hom antigens nyob ib puag ncig puag ncig. Tom qab lub cev tiv tauj cov tshuaj no, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis tau tsim. Piv txwv, qee cov kab mob muaj antigens zoo ib yam li A thiab B antigens. Thaum tib neeg nqus lossis nqus cov kab mob no, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis tau tsim tawm.

"Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv ntuj" ua haujlwm nquag nrog lawv cov kab mob antigen sib xws ntawm qhov kub tsawg. Ntau "ntuj tiv thaiv kab mob" tsis ua haujlwm thaum qhov kub siab tshaj 25 ° C. Qee qhov "tshuaj tiv thaiv ntuj" muaj lub peev xwm los txuas ntxiv, thaum lwm tus tsis ua. Piv txwv li, feem ntau ntawm Lewis cov pab pawg ntshav cov tshuaj tiv thaiv muaj peev xwm los sib txuas ntxiv, thaum tiv thaiv M thiab tiv thaiv N tsis ua. "Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv ib txwm" feem ntau yog IgM immunoglobulins, tab sis qee qhov "cov tshuaj tiv thaiv ntuj" yog IgG immunoglobulins, xws li anti-Lea, anti-M, anti-N, thiab anti-K "natural antibodies" yog IgG.

Zaug antibodies yog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tsim tawm los ntawm lub cev hauv lub xeev hyperimmune tom qab tau txhawb los ntawm tib yam lossis heterogeneous antigen. Kev tso ntshav thiab cev xeeb tub yog qhov laj thawj tseem ceeb rau kev tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv alloimmune. Cov neeg uas tau txais kev txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob, tiv thaiv kab mob khaub thuas (kab mob sib kis, tetanus antitoxin) txhaj tshuaj, thiab cov uas tau siv lub plab npua thiab daim siab tso tawm tau nce kev tiv thaiv A thiab tiv thaiv B titers hauv lawv cov ntshav. Nov yog rooj plaub ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tshwm sim los ntawm kev piv txwv tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis.

Kev tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv A thiab tiv thaiv B txawv ntawm "cov tshuaj tiv thaiv ntuj" ntau txoj hauv kev. Qee cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thiab lawv cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob sib xws tuaj yeem sib sau ua ke hauv cov ntsev nruab nrab. Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv zoo li no hu ua cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tiav; qee cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tsuas tuaj yeem khi rau (ua kom pom tseeb) lawv cov kab mob antigen sib xws hauv cov ntsev nruab nrab, tab sis lawv tsis tuaj yeem sib sau ua ke. Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv zoo li no hu ua cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tsis tiav. Txhawm rau ua cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tsis tiav thiab lawv cov antigen cells sib sau ua ke, lwm cov xov xwm yuav tsum tau siv, xws li kev kho enzyme ntawm cov qe ntshav liab, lossis tshem tawm cov qe ntshav liab hauv macromolecular colloidal kua, lossis kev pab ntawm antiglobulin serum. Qhov tseeb, ua tiav cov tshuaj tiv thaiv feem ntau hais txog IgM cov tshuaj tiv thaiv, thaum cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tsis tiav feem ntau yog IgG cov tshuaj tiv thaiv. IgA feem ntau yog cov kua tso zis thiab tsis nyob hauv txoj haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv ntshav hom tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob.

Antibodies hauv ntshav thaum cev xeeb tub

Yam khoom uas yuav tsum tau tshuaj xyuas ua ntej cev xeeb tub yog, kab mob siab A, kab mob siab B tsib yam, kab mob siab C, kab mob siab D, kab mob siab E, mob syphilis, AIDS, mob chlamydia, mycoplasma, kuaj gonococcus sai, lincoccus ntsiav tshuaj, teeb tsa lub siab, ua ntej kuaj RH, kuaj kab mob gynecology + kev kuaj mob leucorrhea niaj hnub, ultrasound ntawm qhov chaw mos B, kuaj chromosome, kuaj phev niaj hnub, kuaj ntshav tas li, kuaj zis tas mus li, thiab ntshav khov.

Yog tias koj muaj ntshav Rh-negative thiab koj cev xeeb tub thawj zaug, koj tsis tas yuav tshee hnyo. Ua ntshav kuaj cev xeeb tub (kuaj ntshav pawg tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob) txij li lub hlis 5 ntawm cev xeeb tub, thiab tom qab ntawd ua tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv lub hlis thib 7 thiab 9 ntawm cev xeeb tub, thiab kuaj dua ib nrab xyoo tom qab yug me nyuam.

Thawj tus menyuam tsis tshua muaj tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thaum cev xeeb tub. Kev tiv thaiv D tshuaj imunoglobin tuaj yeem txhaj tshuaj hauv 72 teev tom qab xa khoom. Yog tias anti-D immunoglobulin tau txhaj ntawm 26-28 lub lim tiam ntawm cev xeeb tub, nws yuav ua tiav qhov txiaj ntsig zoo dua yog tias koj tau txais lwm qhov kev txhaj tshuaj tom qab yug menyuam.

Anti-D immunoglobulin yog txhawm rau tiv thaiv kev tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv D tiv thaiv kab mob. Nws yog los tiv thaiv koj tus kheej txoj cai deev me nyuam thiab txoj cai ntawm kev pub ntshav thiab hloov ntshav. Yog li, nws tsis pom zoo kom tos kom txog thaum tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob. Thaum tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv D tiv thaiv kab mob, nws nyuaj rau tshem nws, yog li kev tiv thaiv obviates kev ntxhov siab.

Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav kuj tseem yuav ua rau muaj menyuam tsis taus, xws li kev tiv thaiv tsis muaj menyuam. Kev tiv thaiv kab mob ntxiv lawm tshob yog kev muaj menyuam tsis taus tshwm sim los ntawm kev tiv thaiv kab mob, xws li tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob phev, tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob endometrial, tiv thaiv cov tshuaj tiv thaiv qe thiab lwm yam. Yog tias koj muaj kev xav tau tshwj xeeb, tom qab ntawd mus rau lub tsev kho mob tas li txhawm rau tshuaj xyuas ntxiv.

xaus

Muaj ntau yam heev ntawm tshuaj tiv thaiv hauv cov ntshav uas koj tsis tuaj yeem yooj yim txhais qhov zoo lossis phem. Nws raug nquahu kom mus rau hauv tsev kho mob txhawm rau tshuaj xyuas lub cev tas li, thiab tsuas yog tom qab ntawd cov kab mob tau tshawb pom tuaj yeem kho tau raws sijhawm.

Xav kawm paub ntau ntxiv txog antigens thiab tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob? Nyeem txog FC sawv ntaub ntawv thiab monoclonal thiab polyclonal antibodies.

References

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