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immunoglobulin-thiab-kab mob

Kev sib raug zoo ntawm immunoglobulin thiab kab mob

Muab lo rau  Cuaj hlis 29, 2020, Kho los ntawm Jason, Qeb  
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immunoglobulin-thiab-kab mob
immunoglobulin-thiab-kab mob

Immunoglobulin yog dab tsi?

Immunoglobulin (Ig) hais txog globulin uas muaj tshuaj tiv thaiv (Ab) kev ua lossis cov qauv tshuaj thiab zoo ib yam li tshuaj tiv thaiv molecules. Immunoglobulin yog tetrapeptide cov qauv tsim los ntawm ob lub teeb pom kev zoo ib yam thiab ob txoj hlua hnyav zoo ib yam txuas nrog los ntawm interchain disulfide bonds.

5 immunoglobulins yog dab tsi? Immunoglobulins tau muab faib ua tsib pawg, uas yog immunoglobulin G. (IgG), immunoglobulin A. (IgA), cov immunoglobulin M. (IgM), immunoglobulin D. (IgD) thiab immunoglobulin E. (IgE).

Lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob yog tsim los ntawm cov ntaub so ntswg tiv thaiv kab mob, kabmob hauv nruab nrog cev, tiv thaiv kab mob hauv lub cev thiab tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis. Immunoglobulin yog chav kawm ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob uas suav nrog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv lub cev, xws li cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob antigen lees paub, kev sib txawv antigens, keeb kwm keeb kwm sib haum xeeb loj, thiab qee qhov lwm yam receptor molecules. Nws kuj suav nrog cov lwg me me tsim tawm thiab zais los ntawm lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob thiab tsis tiv thaiv kab mob, xws li cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob immunoglobulin, ua kom muaj cov molecules ntau ntxiv, thiab cytokines. Immunoglobulin yog lub tswvyim hauv cov qauv tshuaj. Lub hauv paus tshuaj ntawm txhua qhov tshuaj tiv thaiv yog immunoglobulin tshuaj, tab sis tsis yog txhua yam immunoglobulins muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob.

Immunoglobulin Qauv

Immunoglobulins tuaj yeem faib ua tshuaj tiv thaiv thiab membrane immunoglobulins. Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob feem ntau pom muaj nyob hauv cov ntshav, tab sis kuj tseem muaj lwm cov kua hauv lub cev thiab cov kua dej exocrine. Lawv lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb yog tshwj xeeb khi antigen.

Maiv vwj immunoglobulin tshuaj yog antigen receptor ntawm daim nyias nyias ntawm B cells, uas tuaj yeem paub tshwj xeeb txog antigen molecules. Hauv lub cev, antibodies thiab antigens tuaj yeem siv ncaj qha cuam tshuam tom qab khi. Piv txwv li, antitoxins tuaj yeem tshem tawm exotoxins, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob rau nruab nrab tuaj yeem tiv thaiv cov kab mob los ntawm kev kis mus rau lub hom phiaj ntawm tes, thiab zais IgA tuaj yeem tiv thaiv kab mob ua rau cov cell tuav.

Hauv vitro, kev sib sau ua ke thiab nag lossis daus tuaj yeem tshwm sim tom qab cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob khi rau lub antigen. Immunoglobulin tuaj yeem qhib kev ua tiav, khi rau Fc tus txais ntawm lub xovtooj ntawm tes, (Fc yog cov kauv crystalline. Hydrolyze IgG molecules nrog papain tuaj yeem tau txais ob Fab thiab ib qho Fc thooj. Cov khoom tawg no tuaj yeem cuam tshuam nrog cov tshuaj molecules thiab cov cell effector, tab sis tsis tuaj yeem khi rau antigens.)

Los ntawm txoj hlab ntaws thiab mucosa, IgG yog tib hom Ig uas tuaj yeem kis tau los ntawm tib neeg lub tsho me nyuam. Kev hloov ntawm leej niam IgG rau tus menyuam hauv plab los ntawm txoj hlab ntshav yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob, uas yog qhov tseem ceeb rau kev tiv thaiv menyuam mos thaum yug los. IgA zais cia tuaj yeem hla dhau mucosa ntawm txoj hnyuv thiab ua pa, uas yog lub hauv paus tseem ceeb ntawm lub cev mucosal hauv zos tiv thaiv kab mob. Ib qho ntxiv, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob muaj qhov zoo thiab tsis zoo cuam tshuam rau kev tiv thaiv kab mob.

Immunoglobulin thiab kab mob

1. Immunoglobulin thiab ntshav qab zib

Tam sim no Tuam Tshoj tab tom ntsib teeb meem tshiab tag nrho: kis mob ntshav qab zib ntau tshaj plaws hauv ntiaj teb. Raws li txoj kev tshawb fawb tsis ntev los no, ib ntawm kaum tus neeg laus hauv Suav teb muaj mob ntshav qab zib, thiab lwm 16% nyob ze ntawm kev txhim kho ntshav qab zib. Raws li qhov kev tshawb pom zaum kawg, qhov tshwm sim ntawm ntshav qab zib hauv Suav teb yuav luag ze li 11% hauv Tebchaws Meskas, tshaj li cov tebchaws sab hnub poob xws li Lub Tebchaws Yelemees thiab Canada.

Tam sim no, ntau cov ntaub ntawv tshawb fawb txog kab mob sib kis, kab mob, kab mob ntshav qab zib qhia tau hais tias kev pib mob ntshav qab zib yog cuam tshuam nrog kev tiv thaiv kab mob autoimmune, tshwj xeeb yog kev vam khom insulin. Vim tias cov qauv txheej txheem ntawm qee cov tshuaj (antigens) ntawm cov insulin-zais B cov cell hauv cov islets ntawm pancreatic zoo ib yam li cov kab mob antigens, thaum tus kheej tiv thaiv kab mob qis, cov kab mob autoantibodies yuav yuam kev nws rau "tus neeg ntxeem tau", yog li tsim kev tiv thaiv tiv thaiv nws tus kheej islet cells cov tshuaj tiv thaiv. Lawv tawm tsam B hlwb thiab ua rau "sib ntaus ntawm lawv tus kheej cov neeg". Raws li qhov tshwm sim, yuav luag tag nrho cov kab mob pancreatic islet B cells "tuag", thiab kev ua haujlwm ntawm kev zais cov tshuaj insulin raug txo qis lossis tseem ua tsis tiav. Thaum lub cev tsis muaj cov tshuaj no ua kom cov piam thaj hauv ntshav qis, yuav muaj cov kab mob tshwm sim los ntawm cov ntshav qab zib ntau.

Txoj kev tso ntshav C tuaj yeem pab txo qis kev tiv thaiv kab mob rau insulin, pab kom rov qab tau cov cell insulin, thiab ua kom insulin zais ib txwm.

2. Immunoglobulin thiab mob qog noj ntshav

Qub tib neeg kev tiv thaiv muaj cov txiaj ntsig ntawm kev tiv thaiv mob qog noj ntshav, vim tias cov qog nqaij hlav qog nqaij hlav cancer txawv ntawm cov tib neeg ib txwm muaj thiab yog "cov tshuaj sib txawv." Tshwj xeeb, kev tiv thaiv kab mob qog noj ntshav txhais tau tias lub cev siv cov cell tiv thaiv kab mob lossis tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob (xws li tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob) kom paub txog kev hloov pauv lossis cov qog nqaij hlav hauv lub cev hauv lub sijhawm, thiab tom qab ntawd tshem tawm lawv. Cov txiaj ntsig no tseem hu ua "kev tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob", uas yog sib npaug rau tib neeg lub cev ceeb toom tiv thaiv mob qog noj ntshav. Yog li ntawd, thaum lub cev nkag los ntawm cov qog nqaij hlav cancer, nws pib nyob ntawm lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob.

3. Immunoglobulin thiab kab mob rheumatic

Raws li kev txheeb cais los ntawm Lub Koom Haum Saib Xyuas Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv (World Health Organization), qhov tshwm sim ntawm rheumatism hauv ntiaj teb cov neeg nyob ze li ntawm 6 txhiab leej yog siab li 5%. Ze li ntawm 300 lab tus tib neeg raug kev txom nyem los ntawm mob caj dab rheumatoid thiab lwm yam kab mob rheumatoid. Cov neeg mob feem ntau muaj lub raum, lub plawv, lub ntsws, lub siab, ntshav thiab kab mob hauv lub cev thiab kev ua haujlwm txawv txav, uas feem ntau tshwm sim rau cov neeg laus.

Raws li cov khoom siv hluavtaws tseem ceeb ntawm lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob, immunoglobulin tshuaj muaj qhov pom tseeb los tiv thaiv kab mob. Nws tuaj yeem tswj hwm kev ua haujlwm ib txwm ntawm tib neeg lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob, tiv thaiv tib neeg txoj kev tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob thiab kab mob hauv vitro, thiab tiv thaiv kev kub taub hau, qaug zog thiab pob qij txha tshwm sim los ntawm qhov ua rau raug mob. Yog li cov neeg nruab nrab thiab cov neeg laus tuaj yeem txaus siab rau lawv lub hnub nyoog laus dua hauv kev thaj yeeb.

Qhov immunoglobulin los qhov twg los?

1. Qhov immunoglobulin los qhov twg los?

IgG yog qhov tsuas immunoglobulin tshuaj uas tuaj yeem kis mus rau tus menyuam hauv plab los ntawm lub tsho me nyuam, thiab niam mis muaj cov tshuaj immunoglobulins ntau. Tom qab tus menyuam yug los, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob kis los ntawm leej niam lub tsho me nyuam thiab leej niam lub mis thaum lub sijhawm pub niam mis pab kom tus menyuam tau txais kev tiv thaiv kab mob thawj zaug..

2. Kev sib txuas ntawm cov kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob hauv lub cev

Feem ntau ntawm cov immunoglobulin tshuaj xav tau los ntawm tib neeg lub cev nyob ntawm kev sib txuas ntawm cov kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob. Raws li menyuam yaus loj hlob txog li 15 xyoos, lawv lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob maj mam loj hlob thiab pib mus txog qib neeg laus. Thaum muaj hnub nyoog 22 xyoos, lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob muaj lub zog ua haujlwm zoo tshaj plaws thiab muaj peev xwm muaj zog tshaj plaws los tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob globulin. Tom qab ntawd, nrog kev nce hnub nyoog, cov kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob pib nqaim. Tom qab muaj hnub nyoog 55 xyoos, qee qhov kev tiv thaiv kab mob hauv lub cev txawm tias tsis zoo tag nrho, tus naj npawb ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob immunoglobulins tsawg dua, thiab kev tiv thaiv kab mob globulin hauv lub cev yuav poob qis.

3. Ntxiv hauv vitro ntxiv

Kev txhaj tshuaj hauv vitro gamma globulin ua yog ib txoj hauv kev nrawm thiab muaj txiaj ntsig los txhim kho lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob kom tiv thaiv kev kis mob. Nws feem ntau yog siv rau kev tiv thaiv thiab kho kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob tsis zoo, kis kab mob siab, mob qhua pias, mob khaub thuas, mob khaub thuas, mob khaub thuas thiab lwm yam kis kab mob thiab kab mob. Nws kuj tseem tuaj yeem siv rau cov kab mob tsis haum xws li ua xua rhinitis, eczema, myasthenia gravis, ITP, erythema lupus thiab kab mob Kawasaki.

Qhov tseem ceeb ntawm txhaj tshuaj immunoglobulin

Immunoglobulin yog hom protein uas muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv tib neeg cov ntshav thiab lub cev, tseem hu ua gamma globulin. Nws muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob thiab tshuaj tua kab mob, ntxiv dag zog rau phagocytosis ntawm cov cell, thiab tuaj yeem tua lossis rhuav tshem cov kab mob me me hauv kev koom tes ntawm kev ua tiav. Nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb tiv thaiv kab mob.

immunoglobulin qauv
immunoglobulin qauv

Serum immunoglobulins tuaj yeem faib ua tsib hom, uas yog IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, thiab IgE. Tus nqi ib txwm txawv vim yog cov ncauj lus sib txawv, hnub nyoog, cheeb tsam, thiab txoj hauv kev. Ntau yam immunoglobulins tsis tsuas yog sib txawv hauv qhov ntau, tab sis kuj muaj lawv tus kheej cov yam ntxwv hauv kev ua haujlwm:

1. IgG

Feem ntau cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob nrog tshuaj tua kab mob, tshuaj tua kab mob, thiab tshuaj tiv thaiv antitoxin cuam tshuam rau IgG. Nws yog tib qho immunoglobulin uas tuaj yeem hla tus menyuam hauv plab. Nce IgG pom hauv IgG ntau yam myeloma, kab mob lupus erythematosus, mob caj dab rheumatoid, mob siab ua haujlwm ntev, kab mob ntsws, kala-azar thiab qee yam kab mob sib kis. Kev txo qis yog pom hauv cov mob nephrotic syndrome, qee cov qog nqaij hlav, mob qog ntshav, mob hnyav, kab mob sib kis thiab qee yam kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob tsis zoo.

2. IgA

IgA muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob thiab tshuaj tua kab mob. Nws kis tsis tau los ntawm lub tsho me nyuam, thiab cov menyuam tuaj yeem kis tau los ntawm niam mis nkaus xwb.  

Tus nqi siv: 0.7 ~ 3.9 g/L rau cov neeg laus.

Muaj ob hom IgA hauv tib neeg cov ntshav, uas yog serotype thiab secretory type. Qhov qub muaj nyob hauv daim ntawv ntawm monomer, thiab tom kawg yog tsim los ntawm kev sib txuas dimer thiab cov ntawv zais cia. Qhov chaw uas muaj cov tshuaj sib xyaw thiab tso tawm nyob rau hauv txoj hnyuv, ua pa rau lub mis, lub mis, cov qog ua kua qaub thiab cov qog ua kua, yog li lawv feem ntau muaj nyob hauv cov hnyuv, ua kom cov hlab ntsws, colostrum, qaub ncaug thiab kua muag. Lawv yog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tseem ceeb koom nrog hauv kev tiv thaiv mucosal thiab ua lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv kev tiv thaiv kab mob hauv zos. Nws yog los ntawm colostrum uas cov menyuam yaus tau txais cov tshuaj IgA, uas ua tiav cov txiaj ntsig ntawm kev tiv thaiv ntuj dhau los. 

Ua kom siab IgA tau pom hauv IgA hom ntau yam myelopathy, kab mob lupus erythematosus, mob caj dab rheumatoid, mob siab rau daim siab, eczema, thrombocytopenia thiab lwm yam kab mob. Cov qib iga tsawg yog pom nyob rau hauv cov kab mob hnyav, kab mob sib kis, malabsorption syndrome, qee yam kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob tsis zoo, rov ua dua kab mob, ua rau cov ntshav hloov pauv, kab mob autoimmune, thiab lwm yam.

3. IgM

IgM yog qhov ua tau zoo tiv thaiv kab mob nrog lub zog tua kab mob zoo, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog tiv thaiv kab mob Gram-negative xws li Escherichia coli. 

Tus nqi siv: 0.4 ~ 3.5 g/L rau cov neeg laus.

Nws yog thawj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob sib xyaw thiab zais cia hauv cov txheej txheem ntawm ontogeny. IgM tuaj yeem tsim tawm nyob rau theem kawg ntawm kev tsim menyuam hauv plab. Cov ntsiab lus ntawm IgM tsawg heev hauv cov menyuam yug tshiab, thiab nws maj mam nce thaum yug, mus txog qib neeg laus ntawm 1/2 txog 1 xyoos.

Kev nce ntxiv ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav no qhia tau hais tias tus menyuam hauv plab muaj tus kabmob intrauterine (xws li kab mob rubella, cytomegalovirus, thiab lwm yam). Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv lub cev yog IgM, thiab cov tshuaj tiv thaiv hemolytic tshwm sim los ntawm kev hloov ntshav ntawm pab pawg ntshav tsis sib xws kuj yog tshwm sim los ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob no. Thaum lub cev kis los ntawm kab mob, IgM yog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob ntxov tshaj plaws uas tsim los ntawm kev tiv thaiv tsis txaus ntseeg. Kev soj ntsuam kuaj mob ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob no tuaj yeem txheeb xyuas thiab kho tus kab mob no thaum ntxov.   

Qhov tseem ceeb ntawm kev kho mob: Qhov nce tau pom hauv macroglobulinemia, cov kab mob autoimmune (kab mob lupus erythematosus, mob caj dab rheumatoid, Sjogren's syndrome), kis tus kab mob, mob qog noj ntshav lymphocytic thiab qog noj ntshav qog noj ntshav. Kev txo qis yog pom hauv ntau yam mob myeloma, kub hnyiab, noj zaub mov tsis zoo thiab tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob.

4. Lus qhia

IgE tseem hu ua reactin. Thaum lub cev ntsib teeb meem ua xua, IgE tuaj yeem ua rau cov cell tso ntau yam tshuaj nquag, ua rau muaj kev tsis haum tshuaj. 

Tus nqi siv: 0.13 ~ 0.93 g/L rau cov neeg laus.

Cov ntsiab lus ib txwm ruaj khov. Nws yog immunoglobulin nrog cov ntsiab lus tsawg tshaj plaws hauv tib neeg cov ntshav, thiab muaj kev sib raug zoo nrog cov qog mast, alkaloid granulocytes thiab lwm lub hlwb, uas ua rau hom I ua tsis haum siab. 

Nce IgE pom hauv kev mob hawb pob, urticaria, eczema thiab lwm yam kab mob ua xua thiab kab mob parasitic (roundworms, hookworms) thiab ntxiv rau. Kev txo qis IgE yog pom hauv thawj tus mob agammaglobulinemia.  

5. IgD

Nws yuav muaj txoj haujlwm tswj hwm kev tiv thaiv kab mob. 

Tus nqi siv: 0.6 ~ 2.0 g/L rau cov neeg laus.

Nws yog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob uas tuaj yeem tsim tawm txhua lub sijhawm ntawm kev txhim kho tus kheej, tab sis nws cov ntsiab lus hauv lub cev qis heev, yooj yim hydrolyzed los ntawm cov proteases, thiab muaj ib nrab lub neej luv (tsuas yog 3 hnub). Nws lub cev tseem ceeb ua haujlwm tseem tsis tau nkag siab.

Qhov tseem ceeb ntawm kev kho mob: nce IgD tuaj yeem pom hauv ntau yam mob myeloma, mob osteomyelitis ntev, mob ntshav qab zib sib kis, mob ntshav qab zib, mob ntshav qab zib, qee yam kab mob hauv cov nqaij sib txuas, kab mob ua xua, Hashimoto's thyroiditis thiab kab mob sib kis. Kev txo qis tuaj yeem pom hauv thawj zaug agammaglobulinemia, silicosis, thiab lwm yam.

xaus

Ntsuas cov ntsiab lus ntawm tib neeg cov ntshav immunoglobulin yog ib txoj hauv kev tseem ceeb kom nkag siab tiv thaiv kab mob muaj nuj nqi ntawm lub cev thiab muaj qee yam muaj txiaj ntsig hauv kev kuaj mob ntawm cov kab mob autoimmune, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau kev kuaj mob ntshav plasma ua rau lub cev hloov pauv thiab ua rau lub cev tsis muaj zog.

Ib qho ntxiv, nws muaj qee yam muaj txiaj ntsig rau kev soj ntsuam cov txiaj ntsig ntawm kev kho mob. Txawm li cas los xij, cov ntshav immunoglobulins muaj ntau qhov sib txawv nrog cov yam ntxwv tshwj xeeb. Yog li, kev kuaj mob thiab tshuaj xyuas nws qhov tseem ceeb yuav tsum tau ua ke nrog cov kab mob hauv tsev kho mob.

Xav kawm paub ntau ntxiv txog antigens thiab tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob? Nyeem txog monoclonal thiab polyclonal antibodies.

References

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