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Kev Pub Noj thiab Kev Tswj Technology ntawm Kev Hloov Nyuj

Kev Pub Noj thiab Kev Tswj Technology ntawm Kev Hloov Nyuj

Muab lo rau  Kaum ib hlis 25, 2019, Kho los ntawm Victoria, Qeb  

1. lactation
Rau cov menyuam mos liab, cov kua amniotic thiab cov hnoos qeev hauv qhov ncauj thiab qhov ntswg yuav tsum tau ntxuav tam sim ntawd. Kom paub meej tias plab hlaub tuaj yeem ua pa ib txwm, tom qab ntawd txiav txoj hlab ntaws. Tom qab ntawd, 7% ntawm iodine cawv tau siv rau hauv plab hnyuv ib ncig ntawm txoj hlab ntaws thiab txoj hlab ntaws rau. ntxuav kab mob rau 3 hnub, thiab kev saib xyuas tau them rau qhov tshwm sim ntawm kev kis kab mob hauv txoj hlab ntsws kom tsis txhob muaj qhov tshwm sim ntawm txoj hlab ntaws o. Calves yuav tsum noj li 2 kg ntawm high-zoo colostrum nyob rau hauv lub sij hawm nyob rau hauv 2 teev tom qab yug me nyuam, thiab xyuas kom txaus kom lawv thiaj li tau txais cov tshuaj tiv thaiv sai li sai tau, thiab tom qab ntawd pub zaum ob ntawm 1-2 teev. Kev saib xyuas yuav tsum tau them rau nws nyob rau hauv 4 teev tom qab yug me nyuam, thiab qhov ntim ntawm pub mis kuj yog kwv yees li 2 kg. Tom qab ntawd, lawv tuaj yeem noj tau raws li lub sijhawm ua haujlwm rau 3 mus rau 4 hnub, peb zaug hauv ib hnub, txhua lub sijhawm tswj tau li ntawm 2 kg, ua tib zoo saib xyuas qhov kub ntawm colostrum ntawm 38 ℃. Tom qab thawj colostrum tau noj, tus calf tuaj yeem hloov mus rau ib lub tawb calf sib cais rau ib lub lim tiam ntawm kev pub mis, thiab tom qab ntawd hloov mus rau ib qho xoob cowshed rau kev pub mis me me.

thaum plab hlaub noj nrog cov mis nyuj zoo tib yam, lawv tau pub peb zaug hauv ib hnub, txhua zaus tswj tau li ntawm 2L. Nws yuav tsum tau muab sau tseg tias qhov kub ntawm cov mis nyuj zoo tib yam kuj yog 38 ℃, thiab lub sij hawm pub mis thiab kom muaj nuj nqis yog tsau. Hauv av ntawm tus menyuam nyuj raug ntxuav ib hnub ib zaug thiab tshuaj tua kab mob alkali lossis kua qaub txhua lub lis piam. Cov thawv ntim khoom siv yuav tsum tau muab ntxuav tam sim ntawd kom tsis txhob muaj mis nyuj av thiab lwm yam av, thiab cov tshuaj sodium hypochlorite yuav tsum tau muab yaug ib hnub ib zaug, thiab thaum kawg muab tso rau hauv lub qhov cua kom qhuav rau khaws cia. Txij li thaum cov nyuj tau pub rau hauv pab pawg, lawv tuaj yeem raug cob qhia kom noj cov khoom siv granular. Yog tias muaj kev tso cai, lawv tuaj yeem muab cov khoom zoo alfalfa rau lawv pub dawb. Kev saib xyuas yuav tsum tau them rau kev tu hauv av txhua hnub, hloov lub txaj ntawm lub cowshed, thiab tua kab mob ib zaug ib lub lim tiam. Txhawm rau ua kom cov menyuam yaus yooj yim los tswj tom qab laus, txoj kev siv hluav taws xob thiab tshuaj lom neeg tuaj yeem siv los tshem tawm cov fab. Cov txheej txheem electrothermal yog tsim rau cov menyuam mos uas muaj hnub nyoog 3-5 lub lis piam, cov txheej txheem tshuaj yog tsim rau cov menyuam mos uas muaj hnub nyoog 4-10 hnub, thiab kev sib tw raws sij hawm tuaj yeem txo kev ntxhov siab.

Kev Pub Noj thiab Kev Tswj Technology ntawm Kev Hloov Nyuj
Kev Pub Noj thiab Kev Tswj Technology ntawm Kev Hloov Nyuj

2. Tawb kev lub sij hawm

Los ntawm lactation mus rau weaning, calves feem ntau yuav tsum tau npaj rau lub sijhawm ntev. Ua ntej, cov nyuj yuav tsum tau cob qhia kom pub quav nyab thiab cov as-ham kom ntxov li sai tau. Lawv feem ntau pib cob qhia rau cov khoom noj txais tos nyob ib ncig ntawm 7 hnub qub, quav nyab noj nyob ib ncig ntawm 10 hnub qub thiab silage noj nyob ib ncig ntawm 2 lub hlis. Qhov thib ob, kev saib xyuas yuav tsum tau them rau kev npaj cov zaub mov kom ntseeg tau tias lawv muaj 15% mus rau 20% ntawm cov protein ntau, ntau dua 8% ntawm cov fiber ntau, nrog rau ntau cov zaub mov thiab cov vitamins. Thaum kawg, peb yuav tsum paub lub sij hawm ntawm kev txiav. Feem ntau, cov nyuj muaj hnub nyoog 45 hnub thiab tuaj yeem txiav tau thaum lawv noj tau li 1 kg ntawm pub txhua hnub.

Cov calves los ntawm weaning mus rau 6 lub hlis yog hu ua weaned calves. Lub sijhawm no, lawv yuav tsum yog pab pawg. Cov nyuj uas muaj qhov hnyav thiab hnub nyoog zoo sib xws yuav tsum tau noj ua ke. Tus naj npawb ntawm txhua pab pawg yuav tsum yog 10-15, thiab qhov kev faib ua feem ntawm kev mloog zoo thiab roughage yuav tsum raug kho raws li qhov xwm txheej tiag tiag. Pab pawg ntawm cov nyuj tuaj yeem txhawb nqa lawv txoj kev loj hlob thiab kev loj hlob tsis tu ncua kom ntau li ntau tau, uas yog qhov zoo rau kev sib koom ua ke ntawm estrus.

Tsis tas li ntawd, cov nyuj yuav tsum tau muab cov ntsiab lus txaus rau lub sijhawm no, feem ntau vim tias kev loj hlob ntawm cov plab hnyuv siab raum ntawm cov nyuj yog nyob rau hauv lub xeev ceev tshaj plaws nyob rau theem no, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog qhov ntim ntawm cov plab hnyuv siab raum ntawm 4-6 lub hlis hloov pauv pom tseeb. Txhawm rau kom txaus siab rau txoj kev loj hlob ntawm rumen epithelial cov ntaub so ntswg, nws yog ib qho tsim nyog yuav tsum tau noj cov zaub mov uas muaj cov concentrates txaus, uas tuaj yeem tsis tsuas yog ua tau raws li qhov xav tau ntawm kev loj hlob ntawm rumen epithelial cov ntaub so ntswg, tab sis kuj muab acetic acid thiab butyric kua qaub rau rumen txoj kev loj hlob. Thaum tsim cov khoom noj, yuav tsum tau saib xyuas kom muaj ntau dua 30% cov tshuaj ntxuav tes tsis huv, uas tuaj yeem sib xyaw nrog 1.8-2.2 kg ntawm cov quav nyab zoo thiab 1.4-1.8 kg ntawm cov ntsiab lus sib xyaw, kom ntseeg tau tias qhov nce txhua hnub ntawm cov nyuj tuaj yeem. mus txog 750 g ntawm theem no.

Tsis tas li ntawd, txhawm rau txhawb txoj kev loj hlob ntawm lub cev, nws yog ib qho tsim nyog yuav tsum tau muab cov dej huv huv kom txaus thiab txhuam tsis tu ncua. Feem ntau, qhov kub ntawm kev txhuam hniav yog siab tshaj 15 ℃, thiab nws yog qhov zoo dua los siv txhuam txhuam los txhuam cov nyuj lub cev, txhuam ob zaug ib hnub.

Kev Pub Noj thiab Kev Tswj Technology ntawm Kev Hloov Nyuj
Kev Pub Noj thiab Kev Tswj Technology ntawm Kev Hloov Nyuj

3. Lub sijhawm hloov
Kev yug me nyuam nyuj yog tsuas yog pub nrog roughage kom nthuav lawv cov rumen ntim thiab txhim khu cov kev siv lub peev xwm ntawm roughage, los xyuas kom meej qhov siab tshaj plaws kev loj hlob ntawm lub cev. Cov nyuj muaj hnub nyoog 7-12 hli, pub 1.4-1.6 kg ntawm concentrate, 2.4 kg ntawm alfalfa quav nyab, thiab 9-10 kg ntawm silage txhua hnub, thaum 13-18 lub hlis, pub 1.7-1.8 kg ntawm alfalfa quav nyab, 3.5- 4 kg ntawm alfalfa quav nyab, thiab 12-15 kg ntawm silage txhua hnub, yog li ntawd nws txhua hnub nce mus txog 800 g. Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, raws li qhov loj thiab hnub nyoog ntawm lub cev, cov pab pawg pub mis yuav tsum tau saws, thiab cov alfalfa quav nyab yuav tsum tau muab tso rau hauv cov khoom noj ntxiv ntawm qhov chaw ua si kom nws noj dawb, kom ntseeg tau tias muaj ib txwm muaj. dej huv huv hauv lub tev. Thaum cov nyuj muaj hnub nyoog tshaj 16 lub hlis thiab hnyav 380 kg, lawv tuaj yeem ua ntej sib yuav.

Yog li ntawd, cov neeg ua haujlwm tsis tu ncua ntsuas qhov hnyav thiab qhov loj ntawm cov nyuj mis nyuj, thiab ua tib zoo saib xyuas ostrus thaum twg los tau, kom tau raws sij hawm mating. Yog tias cov nyuj rog rog tsis zoo heev, cov khoom noj muaj peev xwm muab tau raws li qhov xav tau los tswj 700 g ib hnub twg. Kev saib xyuas yuav tsum tau them nyiaj kom tsis txhob muab khoom noj ntau dhau los tiv thaiv kev sib sau ntawm cov roj ntau nyob ib puag ncig ntawm lub tsev menyuam thiab zes qe menyuam, uas yuav cuam tshuam rau kev xeeb tub.

Kev Pub Noj thiab Kev Tswj Technology ntawm Kev Hloov Nyuj
Kev Pub Noj thiab Kev Tswj Technology ntawm Kev Hloov Nyuj

4. Lub caij sib yuav
Txhawm rau kom muaj txiaj ntsig zoo tshaj plaws, cov nyuj hloov pauv tuaj yeem nce qhov hnyav 30 hnub ua ntej mating thiab 30 hnub tom qab mating, ua kom txaus npaj rau kev ua haujlwm estrus thiab mating. cev xeeb tub. Thaum lub sij hawm yug me nyuam ntawm cov nyuj hloov, lub sij hawm ntawm kev sib deev maturity, mating, thiab ib txwm yug me nyuam yog txiav txim los ntawm lawv qhov loj me, tsis yog los ntawm lawv lub hnub nyoog. Yog li ntawd, yog tias cov nyuj hloov tau zoo txaus, calving thaum muaj hnub nyoog 24 lub hlis feem ntau tuaj yeem ua tiav. Cov kev ntsuas hauv qab no tuaj yeem ua rau lub hom phiaj no.

Hloov cov nyuj yuav tsum tau mating thaum lawv muaj hnub nyoog 15 hli. Vim li no, thawj mating yuav tsum tau nqa tawm ntawm 12 lub hlis. Qhov seem 90 hnub yog siv los txuas ntxiv mating ntawm thawj zaug uas tsis yog cev xeeb tub nyuj mus txog thaum cev xeeb tub. Vim yog qhov yuav tsum tau xav txog hnub mating ob peb lub hlis ua ntej, nws yog ib qho tsim nyog yuav tsum tau soj ntsuam cov estrus thiab sau cov estrus, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog hnub estrus, thiaj li ua kom yooj yim rau kev kwv yees ntawm lub sij hawm estrus tom ntej mating, tib lub sijhawm. , qhov tshwm sim ntawm qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov pib estrus ntawm cov nyuj hloov pauv tuaj yeem pom, thiab cov kev ntsuas zoo yuav tsum tau ua raws sijhawm los tiv thaiv lub hnub nyoog qeeb ntawm lub hli mating. Tom qab cev xeeb tub, nyuj yuav tsum tau muab zaub mov raws li 900 g ib hnub twg. Roughage feem ntau yog cov nyom zoo, nyom, cov khoom siv hauv paus, thiab silage pob kws, nrog rau 2.8-4.0 kg ntawm concentrate muab rau ib hnub.

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