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ochratoxin A.

Cov zaub mov twg muaj ochratoxin A?

Muab lo rau  Cuaj hlis 29, 2020, Kho los ntawm Jason, Qeb  
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Ochratoxin A yog dab tsi?

ochratoxin A.
Ochratoxin A.

1. Lus txhais

Ochratoxin yog dav faib nyob rau hauv qhov. Ochratoxin tsim tawm ib pab pawg ntawm cov tshuaj lom metabolites tom qab kis kab mob rau zaub mov, taum, pub thiab lwm yam khoom lag luam thiab lwm yam khoom lag luam, feem ntau ochratoxin A. (OTA), ochratoxin Aspergillin B (OTB), Ochratoxin C (OTC), thiab lwm yam.

Ntawm lawv, OTA cov ntsiab lus yog qhov siab tshaj thiab cov tshuaj lom yog qhov muaj zog tshaj plaws. Cov kab mob hu ua fungi uas tsim OTA nyob rau hauv qhov yog feem ntau Aspergillus ochraceus (Alochraceus), Penicillium verrucosum (P1verrucosum) thiab Aspergillus carbonarius (A1 carbonarius). Ib puag ncig ib puag ncig xav tau rau kev loj hlob thiab rov tsim dua tshiab ntawm peb yam kab mob uas tsim cov tshuaj lom, hom qoob loo tsis huv, thiab cov pa phem sib txawv ntawm ib cheeb tsam mus rau ib cheeb tsam, thiab lawv feem ntau pom muaj nyob hauv cov qoob loo xws li pob kws, taum thiab txiv laum huab xeeb. Npua yog rhiab heev rau cov tshuaj lom no thiab OTA yog ib qho ntawm feem ntau lom mycotoxins mus npua. Lub raum yog lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb ntawm cov tshuaj lom.

2. Cov yam ntxwv

OTA (cov qauv molecular: C20H18Cl NO6; hnyav hnyav: 403.8 Da), uas yog 7-carboxy-5-chloro-8-hydroxy-3,4-dihydro-3-R-methylisocoumarin-7-L-β-Phenylalanine tsim los ntawm chlorinated isocoumarin analogues thiab phenylalanine txuas nrog los ntawm amide bonds. Nws yog xim dawb, tsis muaj ntxhiab, ua kom sov ua kom khov nrog cov ntsiab lus melting txog 168-173 ° C.

OTA yog soluble hauv cov kuab tshuaj organic. Cov tshuaj lom no ruaj khov heev thiab tsis tuaj yeem rhuav tshem txawm tias ntawm 250 ° C. Fermentation tuaj yeem txo qis txog 70% ntawm cov co toxins. 98% ntawm ochratoxin tuaj yeem degraded los ntawm cov kab mob rumen. Kev ruaj ntseg ntawm ochratoxin hauv nqaij npuas, npua lub raum thiab lub siab npua kuj tseem siab heev, thiab poob cov tshuaj lom los ntawm kev ua noj yog qhov tsis muaj qhov kawg. Yog li ntawd, kev phom sij ntawm OTA hauv tib neeg cov zaub mov noj tsis tuaj yeem suav tau.

3. faib

OTA tau pom thawj zaug hauv pob kws, thiab tom qab ntawd nplej thiab taum pauv. Ntau yam khoom cog thiab khoom noj xws li txiv hmab txiv ntoo, txiv hmab txiv ntoo, cawv txiv hmab, npias, kas fes, cocoa thiab qhob noom xim, tshuaj ntsuab suav, thiab cov txuj lom tuaj yeem kis tau los ntawm OTA.

4. Keeb kwm

Qhov ntxov tshaj plaws ntawv ntawm OTA tau pom hauv tebchaws Denmark xyoo 1928. Nyob nruab nrab ntawm xyoo 1957 thiab 1958, mob raum (Kab mob Balkan raum) tau kis ntawm cov neeg nyob hauv tebchaws Danube, Yugoslavia, Romania, thiab Bulgaria. Cov neeg ua liaj ua teb koom nrog kev ua liaj ua teb nyob deb nroog tsuas yog noj cov zaub mov uas tau sau hauv lawv tus kheej teb. Kab mob hauv lub raum yog tshwm sim los ntawm cov zaub mov muaj ochratoxin A..

Toxicity ntawm ochratoxin A.

Cov tshuaj lom ntawm ochratoxin yog: OTA> OTC> OTB. Qhov no feem ntau nyob ntawm qhov ionization tsis tu ncua ntawm yim pawg hydroxyl hauv cov qauv. Cov ntsiab lus ntawm OTB thiab OTC hauv kev ua paug pub feem ntau qis dua, thiab nws tsis muaj tshuaj lom rau cov tsiaj feem ntau dua li OTA.

Yog li ntawd, OTA cov ntsiab lus feem ntau yog txiav txim siab. Tsis ntev los no, Creppy li al. (1983) thiab Hadidane li al. (1992) hloov phenylalanine hauv OTA cov lwg me me nrog cov amino acids xws li tryptophan, valine, thiab lysine, thiab tau txais cov koob ntawm OTA analogues. Kev hloov pauv sib piv ntawm cov amino acid, threonine thiab alanine yog cov tshuaj lom ntau tshaj plaws, ua raws los ntawm kev hloov pauv sib piv ntawm methionine, tryptophan thiab glutamate, thiab kev hloov pauv sib piv ntawm glutamine thiab proline muaj qhov qis tshaj. Hadidane li al. (1991) tshaj tawm tias threonine, hydroxyproline thiab lysine hloov pauv analogues ntawm OTA kuj tseem muaj nyob hauv qhov.

1. Mob toxicity

Npua thiab dev yog tshwj xeeb rhiab rau OTA, thaum cov nas tsuag thiab ruminants tsis paub tab. OTA tseem tuaj yeem ua rau txo qis hauv cov protein tag nrho, albumin, globulin, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides thiab potassium, thiab nce urea, sarcosine, phosphatase thiab cholinesterase ntawm nqaij qaib (Huff li al., 1988). Cov tsos mob tshwm sim ntawm qhov mob hnyav yog qhov pib ua rau tsis qab los, hnyav, xeev siab, thiab ntuav, ua raws li tenesmus, nce qhov kub hauv qhov quav, pus los ntawm kab mob sib kis, tonsillitis, nqhis dej, polyuria, lub cev qhuav dej, nquag, thiab thaum kawg tuag.

2. Mob toxicity ntev

Cov npua uas muaj tshuaj lom nyob rau hauv kev noj qab haus huv zoo, tab sis kev noj zaub mov raug txo, qhov hnyav nce qeeb, thiab dej thiab tso zis nce ntxiv. Thaum cov concentration ntawm OTA yog 0-200 μg/kg, nws yuav luag tsis muaj kev cuam tshuam rau kev siv pub thiab pub noj. Thaum OTA cov ntsiab lus ntau dua 1400 μg/kg, nws muaj qhov cuam tshuam loj rau kev siv pub thiab noj kom tsawg. Tom qab kev nyab xeeb pub mis rau npua hloov pauv ntawm OTA cov kab mob sib kis, thiab kev tsim khoom ntawm npua rov qab zoo li qub hauv ob peb lub lis piam. Tom qab pub mis nyuj rau cov qaib ntxhw nrog kev noj zaub mov muaj OTA 2000 mg/kg rau 1 lub lis piam, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase thiab γ-glutamyltransferase txo 40%.

Qhov kev txo qis hauv kev ua haujlwm enzyme tau ua nrog ua rau lub raum puas tsuaj. Qhov no qhia tau tias cov enzymes, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog enolpyruvate phosphate carboxykinase, yog cov ntsuas ntsuas ntawm OTA-ntxias porcine nephropathy. Yog li, kev ntsuas ntawm kev ua haujlwm enzyme hauv lub raum thaum pib ua lub luag haujlwm kuaj mob rau OTA-cov kab mob porcine nephropathy (Krogh li al., 1988). Ua ntej thiab Sisodia (1978) tau tshaj tawm tias tso hens tau pub cov zaub mov uas muaj OTA 5 mg/kg rau 6 lub lis piam, thiab tus nqi qe ntau lawm thiab noj tau raug txo qis.

3. Immunological toxicity

Cov kev tshawb fawb tau tshaj tawm tias OTA tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev tiv thaiv kab mob. Tom qab noj OTA hauv tsiaj ntawm hom tsiaj sib txawv, cov lymphocytes, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov lymphocytes ntawm cov thymus, tus po, thiab bursa ntawm Fabricius, txo qis, feem ntau nrog los ntawm qhov qeeb dhau qhov ua rau tsis haum. Muller (1999) kuaj pom tseeb tias thaum qhov siab ntawm OTA yog 20-50 mg/kg, nws tuaj yeem txo tus naj npawb ntawm cov qe ntshav dawb thiab lymphocytes hauv npua, nce tag nrho cov neutrophils, thiab txo qis phagocytosis ntawm neutrophils. Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, nws tau pom tias OTA nce apoptosis ntawm phages, uas tej zaum yuav suav hais tias yog vim li cas rau qhov tsis muaj zog phagocytic muaj peev xwm ntawm macrophages.

4. Teratogenic thiab carcinogenic

OTA yog cov tshuaj teratogenic muaj zog rau cov nas, tab sis tsis muaj txiaj ntsig rau npua. Qhov cuam tshuam teratogenic ntawm OTA ntawm tsiaj sib txawv vim qhov hloov pauv hauv plab ntawm OTA. Yog tias poj niam tsiaj noj zaub mov uas muaj OTA, thiab cov chaw hauv lub paj hlwb, qhov muag, thiab cov pob txha ntawm lawv cov xeeb ntxwv tau cuam tshuam. Cov nas hauv cev xeeb tub tau muab OTA 1.0 mg/kg BW qhov ncauj los yug rau cov xeeb ntxwv tsis zoo. Npua noj cov zaub mov uas muaj 700-1400μg/kg OTA, thiab cov chaw kho mob ntawm sows thiab cov menyuam mos yug tshiab yog ib txwm muaj (Kuiper li al., 1989).

Tom qab pub mis nyuj nrog 2.5 mg/kg OTA pub, tsuas yog ib qho me me lossis tsis muaj OTA tau kuaj pom hauv lub qe, thiab thaum qis-koob tshuaj OTA tau txhaj rau hauv lub qhov ncauj ntawm lub qe qe cua, cov embryos deformed (Juszkiewicz li al., 1982) . OTA tseem yog cov carcinogen rau cov nas.

Cov zaub mov twg muaj ochratoxin a?

1. Cov khoom cog

OTA feem ntau ua paug ntau yam qoob loo thiab zaub mov, suav nrog cov nplej, taum thiab cov khoom ua kua, txiv hmab txiv ntoo qhuav, kas fes, txiv hmab thiab cawv txiv hmab, txuj lom, cov qoob loo roj, npias, tshuaj yej, thiab tsiaj pub. OTA tshwm sim ib txwm muaj nyob hauv cov tsiaj qub, tshwj xeeb yog hauv barley. Xyoo 1983, OTA cov pa phem hauv 13 lub tebchaws suav nrog Tebchaws Meskas thiab Canada yog 1% txog 30%. Hauv xyoo 1979, qhov nruab nrab qhov nruab nrab ntawm cov pa phem OTA hauv Tebchaws Meskas thiab Canada yog 1.035μg/kg, thiab 83% ntawm cov kuab paug tau muaj qhov tsawg dua 200μg/kg, uas yog kwv yees li 3% tus nqi ntawm cov pa phem yog 20000 ~ 30000μg/kg.

Feem ntau, kev ua qias tuaj yog hnyav dua li cov pa phem (Krogh, 1987). Ao Zhigang thiab Chen Daiwen (2008) tau sau 44 feem ntawm pob kws, 49 feem ntawm cov nqi noj, 3 feem ntawm cov nplej, 21 feem ntawm cov zaub mov noj taum pauv, 21 feem ntawm pluas mov noj, 37 feem ntawm cov khoom lag luam, 18 feem ntawm DDGS , 7 feem ntawm silage, 8 ntu ntawm nyuj mis nyuj sib xyaw pub mis thiab 17 feem ntawm cov mis nyuj nyuj roughage kuaj thiab lwm yam los ntawm Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Beijing, Inner Mongolia, Tianjin, Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan thiab lwm lub xeev thiab nroog. Qhov zoo yog 95.1%.

2. Tsiaj cov khoom lag luam

Tsiaj txhu noj OTA-muaj zaub mov yuav ua rau OTA tsub zuj zuj hauv lub cev. Yog li, OTA feem ntau tuaj yeem kuaj pom hauv lub raum, daim siab, leeg nqaij, ntshav, mis thiab khoom siv mis. Holmberg li al. (1990) tshaj tawm 6-xyoo cov txiaj ntsig kev tshawb fawb, uas pom tias OTA kev sib kis ntawm cov ntshav npua tau zoo sib xws nrog cov av noo ntawm cov qoob loo uas tau sau qoob hauv ntau lub caij. Piv txwv li, thaum cov av noo ntawm barley yog 18% hauv xyoo 1984, qhov ntsuas pom ntawm OTA hauv cov ntshav npua yog li 12%.

Thaum qhov nruab nrab cov av noo yog 25% hauv xyoo 1987, qhov ntsuas pom ntawm OTA yog li 35%. Qhov seem ntawm OTA hauv lub raum npua, daim siab, rog, thiab ntshav kuj tseem cuam tshuam zoo nrog kev mloog zoo ntawm OTA hauv kev pub zaub mov. Qhov siab ntawm OTA hauv cov ntshav ntawm npua siab dua li ntawm lwm cov ntaub so ntswg. Yog li ntawd, cov ntshav hauv cov ntshav tuaj yeem kwv yees tau txais OTA hauv tag nrho pab tsiaj (Signatovich li al., 1989). Yog li peb tuaj yeem hloov kho txoj hauv kev pub mis tag nrho kom txo qis cov concentration OTA hauv tag nrho cov nqaij npua.

Txwv rau Ochratoxin A

Tuam Tshoj tus GB 2761-2011 tau teev tseg tias qhov nyiaj pub dawb ntawm OTA hauv cov nplej, taum thiab lawv cov khoom yuav tsum tsis pub ntau tshaj 5μg/kg. Raws li EU lub vev xaib, hais txog qhov txwv tsis pub tsawg ntawm OTA, EU tau hloov kho nws qhov kev txwv ntau tshaj plaws hauv cov khoom lag luam nplej rau 3.0μg/kg; qhov txwv txwv nyob hauv cov protein nplej tau hloov kho rau 8.0μg/kg, thiab Tebchaws Meskas tseem tab tom tsim cov cai tsim nyog.

Ochratoxin A.
Cheeb Tsam / Haiv NeegkhoomLODTsev
Grain thiab nws cov khoom
Tuam TshojCereals (txhuv xam raws li mov nplej xim av)50Qhov hnyav μg/kg
Tuam TshojUa cov nplej50Qhov hnyav μg/kg
CACnplej50Qhov hnyav μg/kg
CACbarley50Qhov hnyav μg/kg
CACRye50Qhov hnyav μg/kg
EUKev noj cov zaub mov tiav30Qhov hnyav μg/kg
EUCov qoob loo tsis tiav50Qhov hnyav μg/kg
Taum thiab lawv cov khoom
Tuam TshojTaum50Qhov hnyav μg/kg
caw
Tuam Tshojcaw20Qhov hnyav μg/kg
EUPerfumed wines thiab cocktails2 (12)Qhov hnyav μg/kg
haus
Tuam TshojAv kas fes (roasted kas fes)50Qhov hnyav μg/kg
Tuam TshojAv kas fes (roasted kas fes)50Qhov hnyav μg/kg
Tuam TshojInstant kas fes100Qhov hnyav μg/kg
Tuam TshojRoasted kas fes taum, av thiab roasted kas fes taum, tsis muaj kas fes sai50Qhov hnyav μg/kg
Tuam TshojInstant kas fes100Qhov hnyav μg/kg

Yuav kuaj li cas rau ochratoxin a?

OTA thin-layer chromatography yog txoj kev tshuaj xyuas zoo tshaj plaws. Nws yog qhov yooj yim kom nrov vim tias nws tsis muaj qhov xav tau rau cov cuab yeej siv. Nrog rau kev thov cov txheej txheem txheej txheej tuab tuab tuab tuab, txheej tuab tuab chromatography yog qhov tsim nyog rau qhov muaj txiaj ntsig zoo thiab muaj nuj nqis. Txoj kev HPLC muaj qhov ua tau zoo dua thiab tuaj yeem txheeb xyuas qhov tseeb ochratoxin A. hauv qhov piv txwv zoo thiab muaj nuj nqis. Txawm li cas los xij, qhov ntsuas yog kim thiab yuav tsum tau ua piv txwv nyuaj ua ntej kho, xav tau kem ua kom huv thiab tsis kis kab mob chromatographic.

Cov txheej txheem tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob yog cov txheej txheem tshuaj xyuas ntshav biochemical raws li xaiv cov tshuaj tiv thaiv ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thiab antigens lossis haptens. Feem ntau muaj kev xaiv siab thiab qis qis nrhiav kom tau. Nws tau siv dav los txiav txim siab ntau yam antigens, ib nrab tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob lossis tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob.

Kev hloov pauv tus nqi thiab muaj pes tsawg ntawm cov zis yog ib qho cim qhia ntawm tus npua ochratoxin lom. Polyuria yog qhov tshwm sim pom tseeb ntawm kev lom. Kev hloov pauv ntawm cov zis feem ntau yog nce ntawm cov protein thiab cov piam thaj hauv cov zis. Ntshav hauv cov zis qhia tias puas tsuaj loj rau ob lub raum.

Yuav kho tus mob ochratoxin a li cas?

Ua tib zoo saib xyuas cov dej noo thaum lub sijhawm sau qoob, thiab khaws cov qoob loo kom qhuav li sai tau ua ntej sau qoob loo. Yog tias tsis muaj tseeb, cov qoob loo yuav tsum qhuav kom sai li sai tau tom qab sau qoob. Nws yog qhov zoo tshaj los siv cua kub kom qhuav kom cov dej noo sib npaug lossis tsawg dua 0.70; Khaws qhov chaw khaws cia kom zoo thiab khaws cov zaub mov hauv qhov chaw txias thiab qhuav. Yog tias tsim nyog, siv txoj hauv kev tshawb nrhiav nrawm los saib xyuas ochratoxin A. sai sai.

Yog tias tsiaj raug lom, nws tuaj yeem muab qhov ncauj phenobarbital ntawm 80 mg rau ib phaus ntawm qhov hnyav nyob rau 5 hnub lossis qhov ncauj 3-methylcholanthrene ntawm 20 mg rau ib kg ntawm lub cev qhov hnyav tuaj yeem ua rau tsiaj ua siab ntev rau ochratoxin A.. Cov khoom noj uas muaj kab mob yuav tsum tau hloov tam sim tom qab lom. Kev tiv thaiv kev tiv thaiv yog tib txoj hauv kev kom txo tau cov tshuaj lom. Siv cov ntawd pwm adsorbent cov khoom uas tau sim hauv vitro thiab vivo los ua pov thawj lawv qhov ua tau zoo, xws li AZ. Koj kuj tseem tuaj yeem txiav txim siab pub zaub mov tsis zoo rau cov neeg laus ruminants, thiab cov kab mob hu ua rumen uas tuaj yeem ua rau cov tshuaj lom tau zoo.

xaus

Ochratoxin A yog cov tshuaj lom lom tshaj plaws ntawm ochratoxins, nrog ntau yam thiab ruaj khov. Kev txheeb xyuas kom raws sij hawm thiab ntsuas kev tiv thaiv kom muaj txiaj ntsig zoo tshaj yog txhais tau tias txo qis kev raug mob.

Xav kawm paub ntau ntxiv txog mycotoxins? Nyeem Dab tsi yog aflatoxin?

References

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