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Dab tsi yog-cephalexin

Puas yog cephalexin yog tshuaj tua kab mob muaj zog?

Muab lo rau  Lub peb hlis ntuj 22, 2021, Kho los ntawm Jason, Qeb  

Cephalexin yog dab tsi?

1. Lus txhais

Cephalexin (Cefalexin) yog cov khoom siv hluavtaws thawj-qhov ncauj cephalosporin tshuaj tua kab mob uas tuaj yeem tiv thaiv kev sib txuas ntawm cov phab ntsa ntawm tes, ua rau cov cell hloov pauv kom txog thaum cov cell tawg thiab tawg. Cov khoom dawb crystalline muaj qhov iab iab thiab tsw ntxhiab. Cephalexin yog me ntsis soluble hauv dej, tab sis tsis yaj hauv ethanol, chloroform lossis ether.

Cephalexin muaj qhov siab hauv cov zis thiab cov pus. Nws yog qhov tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau cov kab mob urogenital. Nws muaj txiaj ntsig zoo rau kab mob bacteremia, kab mob endocarditis, mob qog noj ntshav, mob hnyav palatine tonsillitis, pharyngitis, mob ntsws, mob ntsws ntsws lobar mob ntsws thiab mob nqaij mos ua los ntawm streptococcus.

Cefadroxil thiab cephalexin yog ob hom tshuaj sib txawv, koom nrog tib chav tshuaj tua kab mob. Thiab lawv cov cim qhia thiab cov txiaj ntsig kho tau zoo ib yam. Cefadroxil thiab cephalexin tuaj yeem siv sib pauv tau feem ntau. Lub zog tiv thaiv kab mob ntawm cephalexin ntau dua li ntawm cephalexin. Cov kev tsis zoo ntawm cefadroxil tsawg dua thiab sib dua, nrog rau tag nrho cov xwm txheej ntawm kwv yees li 4%. Qhov tshwm sim tsis zoo ntawm cephalexin ntau dua, nrog rau tag nrho cov xwm txheej ntawm kwv yees li 8%.

2. Cov teebmeem tshuaj

Cephalexin yog ib nrab hluavtaws thawj tiam cephalosporin qhov ncauj. Nws cov txheej txheem ntawm kev ua yog txhawm rau tiv thaiv kab mob cell phab ntsa sib txuas los ntawm kev sib txuas nrog ib lossis ntau dua penicillin khi cov protein (PBPs) ntawm cov kab mob (cephalexin feem ntau khi rau PBP-3), yog li ua si cov tshuaj tua kab mob. Cov kab mob tua kab mob ntawm cephalexin zoo ib yam li ntawm cephalothin, tab sis nws cov tshuaj tua kab mob ua phem dua li tom kawg.

Tsuas yog enterococci thiab methicillin-resistant staphylococci, gram-positive cocci rhiab rau cephalexin. Cephalexin muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob zoo rau Neisseria spp. thiab tsis tshua nkag siab rau tus kab mob khaub thuas bacilli. Nws muaj qee yam tshuaj tua kab mob rau qee yam Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella, thiab lwm yam Enterobacter spp. Acinetobacter, cov Pseudomonas aeruginosa thiab Bacteroides fragilis tiv taus cephalexin.

3. Pharmacokinetics

Cefalexina tau nqus tau zoo, thiab cov ntshav siab tshaj (Cmax) tau mus txog 1 teev tom qab noj 0.5 g ntawm cov khoom ntawm lub plab khoob, nrog qhov nruab nrab ntawm 18 mg/L. Noj cov tshuaj tom qab noj mov ua rau lub sijhawm nqus tau thiab txo qis cov ntshav siab, tab sis qhov nqus tau tsis txo. Kev nqus ntawm cov khoom tuaj yeem nce ntxiv hauv cov menyuam mos uas muaj tus kab mob celiac thiab mob plab hnyuv me me, thiab nws tuaj yeem ncua thiab txo qis hauv cov neeg mob Crohn tus kab mob thiab mob ntsws hauv lub ntsws.

Txawm hais tias tsis muaj qhov txo qis hauv txoj hnyuv nqus hauv cov neeg laus, cov ntshav cov tshuaj ntau ntau nyob ntev dua li cov hluas. Cov ntshav tshem tawm ib nrab-lub neej (t1/2b) ntawm cov khoom no yog 0.6-1.0 teev. Ntxiv probenecid tuaj yeem ua rau kom ntshav siab, t1/2b tuaj yeem txuas ntxiv mus rau 1.8 teev; t1/2b tuaj yeem txuas ntxiv mus rau 5-30 teev hauv lub raum tsis ua haujlwm; Tus menyuam mos t1/2b yog 6.3 teev.

Tom qab nqus tau, cefalexina tau nthuav dav dav hauv ntau cov ntaub so ntswg thiab lub cev kua. Qhov nruab nrab ntawm cov hnoos qeev tom qab kev tswj hwm qhov ncauj ntawm 0.5g txhua 6 teev yog 0.32mg/L, thiab kev mloog zoo nyob hauv cov hnoos qeev yog siab dua. Cov tshuaj concentration hauv pus yog qhov sib npaug ntawm cov ntshav cov tshuaj, thiab cov tshuaj sib xyaw hauv cov kab noj hniav sib xyaw exudate yog 50% ntawm cov tshuaj ntshav siab.

Cefalexina tuaj yeem nkag mus rau cov ntshav ncig ntawm tus menyuam hauv plab los ntawm txoj hlab ntshav; cov mis ntau ntawm cov niam pub mis tom qab qhov ncauj 0.5g yog 5mg/L. Kwv yees li 5% ntawm qhov ncauj tau tawm los ntawm cov kua tsib, thiab cov tshuaj hauv cov kua tsib yog 1 txog 4 zaug ntawm cov tshuaj ntshav. Cov ntshav protein sib khi tus nqi yog 10% txog 15%. Cov khoom lag luam tsis tau hloov pauv hauv lub cev, thiab kev tso zis ntau ntxiv hauv cov zis hauv 24 teev yog 80% txog 90% ntawm koob tshuaj. Qhov siab tshaj plaws ntawm cov zis tom qab kev tswj hwm qhov ncauj ntawm 0.5g tuaj yeem ncav cuag 2.2g/L. Cephalexin tuaj yeem tshem tawm los ntawm hemodialysis thiab lim ntshav hauv plab.

Nws cov kab mob tua kab mob yog ib yam tib yam li cefalotin thiab ceftazidime, thiab nws cov tshuaj tua kab mob muaj zog dua li ob qho. Txawm li cas los xij, cov khoom lag luam tshwj xeeb los ntawm cov kua qaub tsis kam thiab qhov ncauj nqus tau zoo. Nws muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob zoo tiv taus Staphylococcus aureus.

Cefalexina feem ntau yog siv rau kab mob ua pa, kab mob tso zis tso zis, kis kab mob hauv plab thiab kab mob poj niam, tawv nqaij thiab cov nqaij mos mos kis, tus kab mob gonorrhea tshwm sim los ntawm cov kab mob rhiab.

Cephalexin siv

Cephalexin-siv
Cephalexin-siv

1. indications

Cephalexin yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav dav, feem ntau yog siv rau kab mob Gram-positive thiab tsis zoo, xws li mob khaub thuas, hemorrhagic sepsis, kab mob streptococcal, erysipelas, anthrax, emphysema gangrene, mob qog noj ntshav, thiab actin Septic hyperthermia (41 ~ 43 ℃) lossis qhov kub tsis tu ncua (qis dua 37 ℃) tshwm sim los ntawm mycosis, necrotosis, leptospirosis, thiab lwm yam, plab zom mov, zoo li haus dej txias, tsis qab los, tsis meej pem thaum taug kev, pob ntseg xiav, quaj, thiab lwm yam.

Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, keflex tau siv los kho ntau yam kab mob sib kis, xws li: kis mob pleuropneumonia, mob ntsws ntsws, mob atrophic rhinitis, PRRS, mastitis, mob qog noj ntshav, stomatitis, urethritis, hnoos, mob hawb pob, tsis muaj menyuam, tseem yug menyuam lossis menyuam npua tuag 7 -10 hnub tom qab yug me nyuam, lub mis o, ua rau cov mis tsis zoo, txo cov kua mis, ko taw thiab qhov ncauj mob, tso zis, mob thiab pus.

Keflex tau qhia rau mob tonsillitis mob hnyav, angina, otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis, mob ntsws thiab lwm yam kab mob ua pa, kab mob tso zis thiab cov tawv nqaij thiab cov nqaij mos mos kis los ntawm cov kab mob rhiab. Keflex yog kev npaj qhov ncauj thiab yuav tsum tsis txhob siv rau kis mob hnyav.

2. Cephalexin ntau npaum li cas

  • Cov neeg laus: qhov ncauj. Feem ntau 0.25 ~ 0.5g (1 ~ 2 tsiav tshuaj) ib zaug, 4 zaug hauv ib hnub, qhov siab tshaj plaws yog 4g (16 tsiav tshuaj) ib hnub. Cov neeg mob uas lub raum tsis ua haujlwm yuav tsum txo cov tshuaj raws li qib kev ua haujlwm tsis zoo ntawm lub raum. 0.5g (4 ntsiav tshuaj) txhua 12 teev rau cov neeg mob cystitis yooj yim, tawv nqaij thiab cov nqaij mos kis thiab streptococcal angina.
  • Menyuam txhaj tshuaj: Qhov ncauj. Qhov hnyav txhua hnub 25-50 mg/kg, 4 zaug hauv ib hnub. Cov neeg mob uas muaj tawv nqaij thiab cov nqaij mos thiab cov kab mob streptococcal angina noj 12.5-50 mg/kg hais lus txhua 12 teev.

3. Siv tsiaj kho tsiaj

Cephalexin yog tshuaj tua kab mob siv hauv dev thiab miv. Nws yog cov tshuaj cephalosporin thiab cuam tshuam nrog tshuaj penicillin tshuaj tua kab mob. Cephalosporins muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav dua li penicillin. Keflex kuj tseem yog ib qho tshuaj tua kab mob feem ntau siv rau miv thiab dev.

Cov txheej txheem tua kab mob ntawm cephalosporins zoo ib yam li lwm yam beta lawm tshuaj, uas yog, nws ua rau muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob los ntawm kev sib tw rau qhov chaw nruab nrab ntawm qhov chaw ua haujlwm ntawm cov phab ntsa ntawm tes thiab cuam tshuam kev sib xyaw ntawm peptidoglycan tus qauv ntawm cov phab ntsa ntawm cov kab mob. Tam sim no, cephalosporins tau siv dav hauv thaj tsam ntawm tib neeg cov tshuaj, tab sis kev siv lawv hauv cov tshuaj veterinary raug txwv.

Ntau lub tebchaws tau maj mam sib cais tib neeg thiab tsiaj txhu cephalosporins txhawm rau txhawm rau txo qhov kev tawm tsam tshwm sim los ntawm kev siv cephalosporins ntau los ntawm tib neeg thiab tsiaj txhu thiab tshwm sim ntawm kev tsis sib haum ntawm ob. Cov neeg hauv tsev neeg cephalosporin raug cais raws li lub sijhawm txhim kho, kev ruaj ntseg ntawm beta lactamase cov, thiab qhov sib txawv ntawm cov tshuaj tua kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob gram-negative bacilli. Tam sim no, muaj ntau pua ntawm cephalosporin cov khoom lag luam, tab sis feem ntau ntawm lawv yog cov khoom lag luam tib neeg thiab ob peb yam khoom siv tsiaj txhu.

Cephalexin tiv thaiv kab mob los ntawm kev tsim kom txaus thiab tiv thaiv phab ntsa ntawm tes. Qhov no tuaj yeem ua rau tsis ruaj khov thiab tom qab cov kab mob tuag. Cephalexin yog cov tshuaj yuav tshuaj thiab tsuas tuaj yeem tau txais los ntawm kws tshuaj kws kho tsiaj. Tsoomfwv Meskas Khoom Noj thiab Tshuaj (FDA) tsis tau pom zoo cov tshuaj rau tsiaj, tabsis cov kws kho tsiaj tau hais kom nws ua tshuaj ntxiv raws li txoj cai.

Cephalexin tuaj yeem siv los kho ntau yam kab mob sib kis hauv miv thiab dev, suav nrog: kab mob ntawm daim tawv nqaij, mob txhab, mob pob txha, mob ntsws thiab mob zais zis. Cephalexin zoo ib yam li tshuaj veterinary cefadroxil, thiab kws kho tsiaj feem ntau siv ob qho tshuaj sib pauv vim tias lawv muaj cov txiaj ntsig zoo ib yam. Cephalexin tsis muaj kev kho mob zoo rau kev kis kab mob los ntawm cov cab (xws li cov kab mob hauv plab), kab, kab mob lossis kab mob hu ua fungi.

Cephalexin Cov Teeb Meem

Cephalexin-Sab-Teeb Meem
Cephalexin-Sab-Teeb Meem

1. Kev phiv tshuaj

  • Cov tsos mob ntawm kev ua xua xws li pob khaus ntawm daim tawv nqaij, ua xua, erythema, thiab ua npaws ua npaws yog ib txwm muaj, thiab qee zaum muaj kev poob siab anaphylactic.
  • Cov kab mob plab zom mov: cov tsos mob ntawm lub plab xws li xeev siab, ntuav, raws plab thiab tsis xis nyob hauv plab feem ntau. Pseudomembranous enteritis qee zaum pom.
  • Cov kab mob ntawm lub paj hlwb: Cov neeg mob ob peb tuaj yeem muaj cov kab mob hauv lub paj hlwb xws li kiv taub hau, daim ntawv pov thawj, tinnitus, thiab qaug dab peg.
  • Hepatotoxicity: Qee tus neeg mob yuav muaj lub siab ua haujlwm tsis zoo tom qab siv tshuaj (nce ntxiv ntawm cov ntshav alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase thiab alkaline phosphatase).
  • Nephrotoxicity: Ob peb tus neeg mob tuaj yeem nce ib ntus hauv urea nitrogen, creatine, thiab creatinine tom qab noj tshuaj, thiab qee zaum pom muaj proteinuria thiab oliguria.
  • Cov ntshav: qee zaum qis dua hemoglobin, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, eosinophilia, thiab lwm yam tom qab siv tshuaj.
  • Lwm tus: Kev siv tshuaj mus ntev tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev tsis sib xws ntawm cov paj ntoo thiab kis tus kab mob ob zaug; vitamin K thiab vitamin B deficiency kuj tseem tuaj yeem tshwm sim.
  • Ob qhov xwm txheej ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv disulfide tshwm sim los ntawm cephalexin tau tshaj tawm. Tus neeg mob tau haus npias ob peb hnub tom qab noj cephalexin thiab tsim kev tsis zoo, lub hauv siab nruj, ua tsis taus pa, tawm hws, ua tsis taus pa, thiab lwm yam. Lub tshuab electrocardiogram qhia pom atrial ntxov ntxov qis, uas zoo tom qab kev kho mob. Haus npias nyob rau hnub tom ntej, cov tsos mob saum toj no tau tshwm sim dua. Cov tshuaj disulfiram zoo li tshwm sim los ntawm kev haus cawv ntau dua thiab ua rau tuag taus. Ntau yam tshuaj xws li cephalosporin tshuaj tua kab mob thiab furazolidine nrog cawv tuaj yeem ua rau cov tshuaj disulfide yooj yim. Yog li cephalexin thiab cawv yuav tsum tsis txhob noj ob peb hnub.

2. Cephalexin cov lus ceeb toom

  • Ua ntej siv cephalexin, koj yuav tsum nug tus neeg mob kom ntxaws txog keeb kwm ntawm kev ua xua rau cephalosporins, penicillins thiab lwm yam tshuaj. Cov neeg uas muaj keeb kwm ntawm anaphylactic poob siab los ntawm cov tshuaj penicillin yuav tsum tsis txhob siv cov khoom no. Lwm tus neeg mob yuav tsum mob siab rau cephalosporins thaum siv cov khoom no. Qhov muaj feem cuam tshuam ntawm kev tsis haum tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob penicillins thiab cephalosporins yog li 5% txog 7%, thiab yuav tsum tau siv nrog ceev faj hauv kev saib xyuas ze. Thaum muaj kev fab tshuaj tsis haum, cov tshuaj yuav tsum raug txiav tam sim ntawd. Thaum muaj kev ceeb ntshai anaphylactic, kev cawm tam sim ntawd ntawm qhov chaw yuav tsum tau ua nrog rau kev ntsuas xws li ua kom txoj hlab pa qhib, nqus pa, adrenaline, thiab glucocorticoids.
  • Cov neeg mob uas muaj keeb kwm ntawm kab mob plab, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov uas muaj kab mob plab, mob plab zom mov hauv ib cheeb tsam, lossis cov tshuaj tua kab mob ntsig txog kab mob (cephalosporins tsis tshua muaj tsim pseudomembranous enteritis), thiab cov uas muaj lub raum tsis ua haujlwm yuav tsum siv nrog ceev faj.
  • Kev cuam tshuam nrog kev kuaj mob: Ncaj Coombs ntsuas qhov ua tau zoo thiab tso zis tsis zoo cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob (tooj liab sulfate) tuaj yeem tshwm sim thaum siv cephalexin; alkaline phosphatase, serum alanine aminotransferase thiab aspartate hauv ob peb tus neeg mob Aminotransferase tuaj yeem nce ntxiv.
  • Thaum qhov ncauj txhua hnub tshaj 4g (tsis muaj cephalexin), txiav txim siab hloov mus rau cephalosporins rau kev txhaj tshuaj.
  • Cephalexin feem ntau yog tawm los ntawm ob lub raum, thiab cov neeg mob uas lub raum tsis ua haujlwm yuav tsum siv cov khoom no txhawm rau txo qhov koob tshuaj.
  • Cov khoom lag luam dhau los ntawm txoj hlab ntshav, yog li cov poj niam cev xeeb tub yuav tsum siv nws nrog ceev faj; cov khoom kuj tuaj yeem tawm los ntawm mis. Txawm hais tias tsis muaj lus ceeb toom txog teeb meem nrog cephalosporins siv los ntawm poj niam pub niam mis, nws tseem tsim nyog los ntsuas qhov zoo thiab qhov tsis zoo ua ntej siv nws.

3. Cephalexin kev sib tham

  • Kev siv tib lub sijhawm probenecid thiab cephalexin tuaj yeem ncua lub raum tshem tawm ntawm cephalexin thiab ua rau kom ntshav siab ntawm cephalexin. Txawm li cas los xij, tseem muaj cov ntawv ceeb toom tias probenecid tuaj yeem ua rau kev tshem tawm ntawm cephalexin hauv cov kua tsib.
  • Kev siv ua ke nrog cholestyramine tuaj yeem txo qhov nruab nrab cov ntshav siab ntawm cephalexin.
  • Tib txhij siv nrog aminoglycosides cov tshuaj tuaj yeem ua rau nephrotoxicity.
  • Kev siv tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob typhoid nyob ua ke tuaj yeem txo qhov kev tiv thaiv kab mob ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob typhoid. Cov txheej txheem ua tau yog tias cephalexin muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob tiv thaiv Salmonella tus kab mob.

xaus

Cephalexin yog tshuaj tua kab mob beta lactam, ib qho tshuaj tua kab mob penicillin ib nrab, thiab cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav. Nws muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob dav dav, tsis muaj kev tiv thaiv kab mob, tsis muaj seem, tsis muaj kev phiv thiab lwm yam yam ntxwv zoo.

Nws tau siv dav hauv cov tshuaj thiab cov kws kho tsiaj. Nws feem ntau txwv tsis pub cov synthesis ntawm phab ntsa ntawm tes, yog li cov ntsiab lus ntawm tes swells kom tawg thiab yaj, yog li ua tiav cov kab mob tua kab mob. Nws muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob rau ob qho kab mob gram-positive thiab gram-negative bacteria, thiab kev nqus tau sai thiab ua tiav tom qab txhaj tshuaj nrog kev muaj peev xwm ua tau zoo.

BALLYA muab a betalactam-cefalexin-combo-test los qhia koj yog tias muaj cov beta lactam seem thiab cephalexin seem hauv cov khoom siv mis uas koj noj txhua hnub.

References

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