Yuav Pib Li Cas Tsim Cov Khoom Siv Covid 19?

Yuav Pib Ua Li Cas Covid 19 Cov Khoom Xeem?

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Ua raws li cov lus qhia no, yooj yim los teeb tsa cov kab ntau lawm thiab pib ua lag luam

Muaj ob txoj hauv kev los pib koj li raug covid 19 test kit ua lag ua luam.
Qhov 1
Txhua kauj ruam ua los ntawm tus kheej.
O1. Xaiv txoj cai SARS-CoV-2 antibodies thiab antigens rau kev tsim khoom
O2. R & D ntawm cov txheej txheem ua ntej tsim khoom loj
O3. Dispensing antigen thiab antibody ntawm NC membrane
O4. Laminate pawm, NC ntawm daim npav thaub qab
O5. Txiav kab
O6. Muab cov khoom tso rau hauv daim kab xev thiab sib dhos
O7. Sib dhos cov khoom siv ntxiv (raj rho tawm, tsis tov, swab, tso rau siv, thiab lwm yam) hauv lub thawv
O8. QC
O9. Muag rau tom khw

Qhov 2
Pib los ntawm ib nrab khoom.
OA. Xaiv uncut ntawv rau covid 19 kuaj cov khoom siv tsim khoom
OB. Txiav rau hauv ib daim hlab
OC. Sib dhos kab xev thiab kab xev
OD. Sib dhos cov khoom siv ntxiv (raj rho tawm, tsis tov, swab, tso rau siv, thiab lwm yam) hauv lub thawv
OE. QC
NTAWM. Muag rau tom khw

Rau cov tuam txhab hluas lossis cov neeg ua si tshiab, kev xaiv 1 yog qhov nyuaj heev ua nws. Qhov kev xaiv 2 yog qhov kev xaiv zoo tshaj plaws rau sartup.

Qhov kev xaiv1 tsis yog tsuas yog saum toj no 9 cov kauj ruam, nws muaj ntau tshaj li qhov ntawd, xws li, kev npaj rau txhua yam khoom siv: colloidal kub, NC membrance, qauv ncoo, conjugate ncoo, lateral flow backing card, daim kab xev txuas ib sab, mylar bag, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies & antigens, etc. Qhov no yog rau lub tuam txhab uas muaj R&D pab neeg thiab npaj rau kev tsim khoom.

Xav paub ntau ntxiv siv:
https://ballyabio.com/point-of-care-how-to-develop-rapid-test/
https://ballyabio.com/how-to-develop-rapid-test-based-on-immunochromatography/

Txhawm rau kom lub sijhawm luv los pib ua qhov loj me, qhov kev xaiv 2 yog qhov kev xaiv zoo tshaj plaws. Thaum tag nrho cov khoom siv npaj txhij, koj pib covid 19 cov khoom siv ntsuas khoom tsim kom sai li sai tau.

Cov ntaub ntawv twg xav tau rau ob qho kev xaiv?

Qhov 1
1. NC daim nyias nyias
2. Qauv ncoo
3. Conjugate ncoo
4. Mylar hnab
5. Hnab desiccant
6. Lateral flow backing card
7. Nasopharyngeal swb
8. Extraction raj
9. Tsis daws
10. SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Cat. No .: ASARS-27)
11. SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Cat. No .: ASARS-28)
12. SARS-CoV-2 antigen
13. Lateral flow cassette
14. Cov khoom ntim qaub ncaug
15. Colloidal kub

Qhov 2
1. Daim ntawv tsis txiav rau covid 19 test kit manufacturing
2. Mylar hnab
3. Hnab desiccant
4. Lateral flow cassette
5. Sauv
6. Cov khoom ntim qaub ncaug
7. Extraction raj
8. Tsis daws

Cov ntaub ntawv xaiv tau: ntawv cawv, lancet, cov raj xa dej tsis tuaj yeem.

BALLYA tuaj yeem ua dab tsi rau koj?

BALLYA yog ib lub chaw tsim khoom rau covid 19 cov khoom ntsuas hauv Suav teb. BALLYA tuaj yeem pab koj teeb tsa kab ntau lawm sai li sai tau. BALLYA muab txhua yam ntaub ntawv raw, khoom siv, kab tsim khoom rau koj lub Hoobkas.

Cov ntaub ntawv twg BALLYA tuaj yeem muab tau?

  1. NC membrane ua
  2. Qauv ncoo
  3. Conjugate ncoo
  4. Nqus plua plav
  5. Lateral flow cassette
  6. Mylar hnab
  7. Hnab desiccant
  8. Lateral flow backing card
  9. Tsis yooj yim sua pipette
  10. Colloidal kub
  11. Extraction raj
  12. Cov qaub ncaug sau cov khoom siv
  13. Nasopharyngeal swb 
  14. SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Cab No.: ASARS-27)
  15. SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Cat. No .: ASARS-28)
  16. SARS-CoV-2 antigen
  17. Txiav daim ntawv rau covid 19 kuaj cov khoom siv tsim khoom
  18. Tsis daws (covid 19 cov khoom siv ntsuas tsis)

Cov khoom siv dab tsi BALLYA tuaj yeem muab tau?

  1. Lateral flow strip cutter
  2. Lateral flow dispenser
  3. Lateral flow cassette presser
  4. Qauv ntaub qhwv kab txaij txiav
  5. Conjugate ncoo strip cutter
  6. NC membrane laminating tshuab

Cov cuab yeej twg rau kab ntau lawm BALLYA tuaj yeem muab tau?

  1. Kev sib dhos tshuab nrawm (Cov khoom siv ntsuas cov tshuab sib dhos ua ke)
  2. Tsis puv tshuab
  3. Mould rau kev tsim cov ntawv nplaum ib sab
  4. Pwm rau rho tawm raj

Yam khoom ntawm covid 19 cov khoom ntsuas BALLYA tuaj yeem muab tau li cas?

Covid 19 Antibody (IgG/IgM) Test Kit
Covid 19 Antigen Test Kit
Covid 19 Antigen Saliva Test
Covid 19 Neutralizing Antibody Test
Covid 19 Neutralizing Antibody ELISA Test
COVID-19 /Tshuaj Tiv Thaiv Kab Mob A /Flu B Combo Rapid Test

BALLYA puas tuaj yeem muab kev pabcuam OEM?

Yog, tiv tauj peb tus neeg sawv cev kom paub meej.
Covid 19 Cov Khoom Xeem OEM

Hu rau BALLYA rau kev thov ua lag luam

WhatsApp / WeChat: +86 139 222 97756

    Yuav Ntsuas Covid 19 Nyob Hauv Tsev Li Cas?

    Yuav Ntsuas Covid 19 Nyob Hauv Tsev Li Cas?

    Qhov kev xeem twg haum rau hauv tsev kuaj covid 19? Nov yog cov lus qhia luv luv:

    Txog SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test

    cov SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test yog ib sab kev tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tau npaj rau qhov kev kuaj pom zoo nrog rau qhov sib txawv ntawm IgM thiab IgG cov tshuaj tiv thaiv rau SARS-Cov-2 nyob rau hauv tib neeg cov ntshav los ntawm cov ntshav sib xyaw.

    cov SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test yog lub hom phiaj rau siv los pab txheeb xyuas cov tib neeg uas muaj kev tiv thaiv tiv thaiv kab mob rau SARS-CoV-2, qhia txog kev kis mob tam sim no lossis yav dhau los. Lub sijhawm no, nws tseem tsis tau paub tias ntev npaum li cas cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob nyob hauv kev kis tus kab mob thiab tseem yog tias muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kev tiv thaiv kab mob. IgM thiab IgG cov tshuaj tiv thaiv rau SARS-CoV-2 feem ntau tuaj yeem pom hauv cov ntshav ntau hnub tom qab kis tau tus mob ua ntej, txawm hais tias lub sijhawm tiv thaiv kab mob tam sim no muaj kev kis mob tsis zoo.

    Cov txiaj ntsig tsis zoo tsis txwv qhov mob SARS-CoV-2 mob hnyav. Yog tias xav tias muaj kev kis mob hnyav, yuav tsum muaj kev sim ncaj qha rau SARS-CoV-2.

    Cov txiaj ntsig tsis zoo raug rau SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test tej zaum yuav tshwm sim vim hla kev tawm tsam los ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob ua ntej lossis lwm yam laj thawj. Raws li qhov kev hem thawj ntawm cov txiaj ntsig tsis raug, qhov kev lees paub ntawm cov txiaj ntsig zoo yuav tsum tau xav txog kev siv 2nd, ntau yam IgG lossis IgM ntsuas.

    Txog SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test

    COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem suav nrog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob monoclonal piv rau SARS-CoV-2/ COVID-19 sib txuas rau cov nanoparticles kub, uas txuas rau txhua hom SARS-CoV-2 antigen tam sim no hauv qhov piv txwv. Monoclonal antibodies tiv thaiv SARS-CoV-2 tau npog hauv cheeb tsam kev tshuaj ntsuam ntawm NC txheej membrane, uas khi rau qhov chaw tiv thaiv antigen-antibody thiab tseem tsim kab xim vim yog cov nanoparticles kub. Ib cheeb tsam tswj nyob rau qhov kawg ntawm daim kab xev siv tau yog tias qhov kev xeem tau ua tiav.

    COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem yog qhov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob immunochromatographic rau kev tshawb pom tshem tawm nucleocapsid protein antigens tshwj xeeb rau SARS-CoV-2 hauv cov hnoos qeev ncaj qha los ntawm cov tib neeg uas xav tias yog COVID-19 los ntawm lawv cov kws kho mob.

    Nws yog rau qhov ua kom pom tau zoo ntawm SARS-CoV-2 antigen los ntawm kev hnoos qeev nasopharyngeal.

    Hom kev kuaj hauv tsev covid 19

    Muaj ob hom rau hauv tsev kuaj covid 19.

    1. SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test
    2. SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test

    Cov khoom siv hauv tsev kuaj covid 19

    SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test

    SARS-CoV-2-IgG-IgM-Rapid-Test
    SARS-CoV-2-IgG-IgM-Rapid-Test

    cheebtsam

    1. Tsis daws rau covid 19 IgG/IgM kev sim nrawm
    2. Pipette
    3. Covid 19 IgG/IgM cov ntawv ntsuas nrawm

    SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test

    SARS-CoV-2-Antigen-Rapid-Test
    SARS-CoV-2-Antigen-Rapid-Test

    cheebtsam:

    1. Nasopharyngeal swb
    2. Qauv raj
    3. Covid 19 antigen test cassette
    4. Tsis daws rau covid 19 antigen kev sim nrawm

    Yuav ua li cas sau cov qauv rau hauv tsev kuaj covid 19?

    SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test

    tom tsev covid 19 kuaj - sau cov qauv
    tom tsev covid 19 kuaj - sau cov qauv

    SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test

    sau cov qauv - tom tsev covid 19 kuaj
    sau cov qauv - tom tsev covid 19 kuaj
    1. Ua tib zoo ntxig rau Swab Pov tseg, muab nrog koj cov khoom siv, rau hauv ib lub nostri. Siv kev sib hloov maj mam, thawb lub swab mus txog 2.5 cm (1 nti) los ntawm ntug ntawm lub qhov ntswg.
    2. Tig lub swab 5 zaug tawm tsam mucosa sab hauv lub qhov ntswg kom ntseeg tau tias khaws cov hnoos qeev txaus.
    3. Siv tib lub swab, rov ua cov txheej txheem no hauv lwm lub qhov ntswg kom ntseeg tau tias cov qauv tsim nyog tau sau los ntawm ob lub qhov ntswg.
    4. Tshem tawm qhov swab los ntawm qhov ntswg kab noj hniav. Cov hnoos qeev tam sim no tau npaj rau kev npaj siv cov raj tsis huv tshem tawm.

    Yuav ua li cas ntsuas covid 19 kuaj nyob hauv tsev?

    SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test

    ua covid 19 kuaj hauv tsev
    ua covid 19 kuaj hauv tsev

    SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test

    ua hauv tsev kuaj covid 19
    ua hauv tsev kuaj covid 19
    ua-covid-19-kuaj-tom-tsev
    ua-covid-19-kuaj-tom-tsev

    Kev txhais lus cov txiaj ntsig ntawm kev ntsuas hauv tsev covid 19

    SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test

    Kev txhais lus-txiaj ntsig-ntawm-tom-tsev-covid-19-xeem
    Kev txhais lus-txiaj ntsig-ntawm-tom-tsev-covid-19-xeem

    SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test

    tom tsev covid 19 xeem ntsuas cov ntsiab lus
    tom tsev covid 19 xeem ntsuas cov ntsiab lus

    Txiav txim rau hauv tsev covid 19 kuaj

      Lwm Yam Khoom

      SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Saliva Test, COVID-19 IgG/IgM Kev Xeem Ceev

      SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Saliva Test

      Lub Hom Phiaj Siv SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test

      cov SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Saliva Test yog siv rau qhov muaj txiaj ntsig pom ntawm tus mob coronavirus tshiab (SARS-CoV-2) antigen hauv cov hnoos qeev, tsuas yog siv hauv vitro kuaj mob siv.

      Tus kab mob coronaviruses tshiab yog ntawm us genus. SARS-Cov-2 yog ib qho kab mob ua pa hnyav. Cov neeg feem ntau muaj kev phom sij. Tam sim no, cov neeg mob kis los ntawm tus kab mob tshiab coronavirus yog lub hauv paus loj ntawm kev kis mob; cov neeg tsis muaj mob asymptomatic kuj tseem tuaj yeem kis tus kabmob. Raws li kev tshuaj xyuas kab mob sib kis tam sim no, lub sijhawm tsim tawm yog 1 txog 14 hnub, feem ntau yog 3 txog 7 hnub. Qhov tshwm sim tseem ceeb muaj xws li ua npaws, qaug zog thiab hnoos qhuav. Qhov ntswg txhaws, qhov ntswg los ntswg, mob caj pas, myalgia thiab raws plab yog pom nyob hauv ob peb kis.

      Antigen feem ntau tuaj yeem tshawb pom hauv cov hnoos qeev ua pa thaum lub sijhawm mob hnyav. Kev kuaj mob sai ntawm SARS-CoV-2 kev kis mob yuav pab cov kws kho mob kho tus neeg mob thiab tswj tus kab mob kom zoo dua qub thiab muaj txiaj ntsig.

      LUS QHIA

      Cov khoom siv no yog ua raws lub hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob antigen-antigen tshwj xeeb thiab cov ntawv lo colloidal kub immunochromatographic tsom xam technology.

      Cov tshuaj reagent muaj SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody prefixed hauv thaj chaw ntsuas (T) ntawm daim nyias nyias thiab SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody coated rau ntawm daim ntawv lo-colloidal kub sib xyaw.

      Cov qauv tau muab pov rau hauv cov qauv zoo thiab ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam nrog SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody uas tau khi rau ua ntej txheej coated colloidal kub hais thaum kuaj.

      Tom qab ntawd qhov sib xyaw yog chromatographed nce nrog cov txiaj ntsig capillary. Yog tias nws yog qhov zoo, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv uas sau los ntawm colloidal kub hais ua ntej yuav khi rau tus kab mob SARS-CoV-2 hauv tus qauv thaum lub sij hawm chromatography.

      Tom qab ntawd cov ntawv sib txuas tau khi los ntawm SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody tsau rau ntawm daim nyias nyias, thiab kab liab tshwm nyob hauv thaj chaw ntsuas (T). Yog tias nws tsis zoo, tsis muaj kab liab hauv thaj chaw ntsuas (T).

      Txawm hais tias qhov piv txwv muaj SARS-CoV-2 antigen lossis tsis yog, kab liab yuav tshwm nyob rau thaj tsam tswj tau zoo (C). Cov kab liab tshwm hauv thaj tsam tswj hwm qhov zoo (C) yog tus qauv rau kev txiav txim siab seb puas muaj cov qauv txaus thiab seb cov txheej txheem chromatographic yog ib txwm muaj, thiab nws kuj ua haujlwm ua tus qauv tswj hwm sab hauv rau cov tshuaj reagent.

      Cheebtsam ntawm SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test

      Cheebtsam ntawm daim kab xev xeem hauv kab xev:
      Sample ncoo: muaj cov ntsev tsis huv thiab xab npum. Cov ntawv cim npe: muaj cov ntawv lo kub kub tiv thaiv SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody.

      Nitrocellulose daim nyias nyias:
      Tswj thaj chaw: muaj tshis tiv thaiv nas IgG polyclonal antibody thiab tsis nyob. Qhov chaw ntsuas: muaj nas tiv thaiv SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody thiab tsis nyob. Cov ntaub nqus dej: ua los ntawm cov ntawv nqus tau zoo.

      COV NTAUB NTAWV CEV

      1. Ib lub hnab muaj cov ntawv ntsuas kab xev thiab lub desiccant. Lub desiccant yog rau lub hom phiaj cia nkaus xwb thiab tsis siv rau hauv cov txheej txheem sim. 2. Qauv rho tawm tsis: 1/2/3/5/20/25 pc (s)
      2. Lub khob yas: 1/2/3/5/20/25 pc (s)
      3. Cov raj xa dej: 1/2/3/5/20/25 pc (s)
      4. Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob: 1/2/3/5/20/25 pc (s)
      5. 1 Pob Insert

      Cov ntaub ntawv xav tau tab sis tsis muab

      1. Moos lossis Timer

      CEEB TOOM THIAB PRECAUTIONS

      1. Cov khoom no yog siv ib leeg hauv vitro kuaj mob reagent. Tsis txhob rov siv dua. Tsis txhob siv nws yog nws tas sijhawm.
      2. Txhua feem ntawm cov khoom siv tsis tuaj yeem siv ua pawg.
      3. Qhov txiaj ntsig zoo tau los ntawm kev siv cov khoom siv no xav tau kev lees paub ntxiv los ntawm lwm txoj hauv kev.
      4. Kub dhau ntawm qhov chaw sim yuav tsum raug zam. Qhov kub yuav tsum yog 10 ~ 30 ℃, thiab cov tshuaj tiv thaiv av noo yuav tsum tsawg dua 60%. Qhov ntsuas kab ntawv khaws cia ntawm qhov kub tsawg yuav tsum sib npaug rau chav sov ua ntej qhib kom tsis txhob nqus dej.
      5. Kev siv cov xim ntawm kab kev xeem tsis tas yuav cuam tshuam nrog
        concentration ntawm antigen hauv tus qauv, thiab qhov txiaj ntsig txhais tom qab 15 feeb tsis raug.
      6. Nws raug nquahu kom siv cov qauv tshiab, tsis txhob siv ntau zaus khov-thaw mus kuaj.
      7. Tsis txhob hla kev sib kis ntawm cov hnoos qeev los ntawm kev siv lub khob yas tshiab thiab lub raj xa dej rau txhua tus qauv hnoos qeev.
      8. Cov khoom siv ntawm cov khoom siv thiab cov khoom pov tseg uas tsim los ntawm kev ntsuas raug kho raws li cov pa phem kis.
      9. Rau kev siv tshuaj kho mob nkaus xwb, thiab tsis tuaj yeem siv ua lub hauv paus rau kev lees paub lossis tsis suav cov xwm txheej ib leeg.

      Khaws Cia thiab QHOV TSEEB QHOV TSEEB QHOV TSEEB Qhib

      1. Khaws ntawm 2 ℃ txog 30 ℃ hauv lub hnab ntim kom txog rau hnub tas sij hawm (24 lub hlis).
      2. Khaws deb ntawm tshav ntuj, ya raws thiab cua sov.
      3. TSIS TXHOB DAWB.
      4. Thaum cov av qis dua 60%, siv nws li 1 teev tom qab qhib. Thaum cov av noo ntau dua 60%, siv nws tam sim ntawd tom qab qhib. Hnub tsim tawm, hnub tas sij hawm yuav nyob hauv daim ntawv lo

      PRIMARY SAMPLE COLLECTION, HANDING and STORAGE

      1. Muab koj tus nplaig rau ntawm koj lub puab tsaig sab sauv thiab hle koj lub taub hau kom cov qaub ncaug tso tawm ib txwm mus rau hauv lub khob yas pov tseg.
      2. Siv lub raj xa dej kom hloov 0.5 ~ 1 ml ntawm qaub ncaug los ntawm lub khob yas mus rau cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob.
      PRIMARY-SAMPLE-COLLECTIONHANDING-THIAB-STORAGE
      PRIMARY-SAMPLE-COLLECTIONHANDING-THIAB-STORAGE
      1. Cov hnoos qeev tuaj yeem khaws cia ntawm 2-8 ℃ txog li 48 teev ua ntej kuaj. Rau kev khaws cia ntev, cov hnoos qeev tuaj yeem khov thiab khaws cia hauv qab -20 ℃. Cov hnoos qeev yuav tsum tau yaj thiab sib xyaw ua ntej kuaj.

      Cov Txheej Txheem Kuaj ntawm SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test

      Qhuav-rho tawm
      Qhuav-rho tawm
      Tshawb nrhiav-kev ua haujlwm
      Tshawb nrhiav-kev ua haujlwm

      KEV SIB TXHAWB NQA

      tsis zoo: Tsuas yog txoj kab liab tshwm nyob rau thaj tsam tswj hwm qhov zoo (C), thiab tsis muaj kab nyob hauv thaj chaw xeem (T).
      zoo: Ob kab liab tshwm. Ib qho yog nyob hauv thaj chaw xeem (T) thiab lwm qhov yog nyob hauv thaj chaw tswj hwm qhov zoo (C).
      Invalid: Tsis muaj kab liab qhia hauv thaj chaw tswj hwm qhov zoo (C). Qhov no qhia tau hais tias kev ua haujlwm tsis raug lossis lub kaw lus kaw suab tau puas lossis puas. Rov ntsuas dua nrog cov khoom siv tshiab. Yog tias qhov teeb meem tseem nyob, tsis txhob siv tus lej no tam sim ntawd thiab tiv tauj koj tus neeg muag khoom hauv cheeb tsam.

      INTERPRETATION-OF-RESULTS
      INTERPRETATION-OF-RESULTS

      Nco tseg: Cov piv txwv tsis raug yuav tsum raug kho raws li cov pa phem kis, thiab cov qauv yuav tsum tau sau dua.

      Tswj txheej txheem

      Cov khoom ntsuas muaj nws tus kheej qhov ntsuas qhov ntsuas tau zoo. Tom qab ua qhov kev sim thiab tsis muaj kab hauv Cheeb Tsam Tswj (C) ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob pom, cov qauv tsis tau ntxiv kom raug lossis qhov kev sim yuav ua rau tsis zoo.

      TXWV

      1. Cov khoom siv no tsuas yog txhawm rau txheeb xyuas SARS-CoV-2 antigen hauv tib neeg cov qaub ncaug.
      2. Qhov tseeb ntawm qhov kev xeem yog nyob ntawm tus qauv sau, muab, khaws thiab ua haujlwm txheej txheem. Kev sau cov qauv tsis raug, khaws cov qauv tsis raug, cov qauv tsis ua tiav, lossis rov ua dua khov-thaw mus los ntawm cov qauv yuav cuam tshuam rau cov txiaj ntsig ntsuas.
      3. Qhov ntsuas kab xev tsuas yog muab qhov pom tau zoo ntawm SARS-COV-2 hauv qhov piv txwv. Yog tias koj xav tau txhawm rau txheeb xyuas cov ntsiab lus tshwj xeeb ntawm qhov ntsuas, thov siv cov cuab yeej tshaj lij tshaj lij.
      4. Qhov ntsuas ntawm cov khoom siv no yog rau kev siv tshuaj kho mob nkaus xwb thiab yuav tsum tsis txhob siv los ua ib qho hauv paus rau kev kuaj mob thiab kho mob. Kev tswj hwm chaw kho mob ntawm cov neeg mob yuav tsum raug txiav txim siab ua ke nrog lawv cov tsos mob/cim, keeb kwm kev kho mob, lwm yam kev kuaj sim hauv tsev, thiab cov lus teb kho mob.
      5. Vim yog qhov txwv ntawm txoj hauv kev ntawm antigen kuaj pom cov tshuaj reagents, nws qhov kev tshuaj xyuas qhov tseeb feem ntau qis dua li ntawm nucleic acid reagents. Yog li ntawd, cov kws sim yuav tsum ua tib zoo saib xyuas cov txiaj ntsig tsis zoo thiab yuav tsum txiav txim siab ua ke nrog lwm cov txiaj ntsig ntsuas. Nws raug nquahu kom tshuaj xyuas qhov tsis txaus ntseeg qhov tshwm sim tsis zoo los ntawm kev siv cov tshuaj nucleic acid lossis kab mob kev paub txog kab lis kev cai.
      6. Txheeb xyuas qhov ua tau ntawm cov txiaj ntsig tsis raug cuav:
        • Kev sau cov qauv tsis tsim nyog, kev thauj mus los thiab kev ua haujlwm, thiab qis dhau ntawm cov tshuaj uas tau sim hauv cov qauv tuaj yeem ua rau muaj qhov tsis raug qhov tseeb.
        • Kev hloov pauv ntawm caj ces tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev hloov pauv hauv kev txiav txim siab antigenic, uas tuaj yeem ua rau cov txiaj ntsig tsis raug cuav. Qhov no feem ntau yuav tshwm sim los ntawm kev siv monoclonal antibody reagents.
        • Hom kev coj ua piv txwv zoo tshaj plaws thiab sijhawm piv txwv (lub npe kab mob siab tshaj) tom qab kis tsis tau txheeb xyuas qhov tseeb, yog li sau cov qauv me me, hauv ntau qhov ntawm tib tus neeg mob tuaj yeem zam qhov tsis raug qhov tsis raug.

      TUS NEEG PHEM HWJ CHIM

      Kev Ntsuam Xyuas Kev Ruaj Ntseg thiab Tshwj Xeeb

      Tshawb nrhiav 3 SARS-CoV-2 antigen rhiab siv cov khoom lag luam (S1, S2, S3), thiab qhov txiaj ntsig zoo rau S1; zoo lossis tsis zoo rau S2; tsis zoo rau S3. Kev kuaj pom ntawm 5 SARS-CoV-2 antigen zoo cov tuam txhab siv cov khoom lag luam, thiab cov txiaj ntsig tau zoo tag nrho.
      Kev kuaj pom ntawm 5 SARS-CoV-2 antigen tsis zoo cov tuam txhab siv khoom lag luam, thiab cov txiaj ntsig tau tsis zoo.

      SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Saliva Test Kit (Colloidal Gold) pom tias tsis muaj kev cuam tshuam nrog kev ua raws li cov qauv pom zoo: Tus kab mob kis rau tib neeg (HKU1, OC43, NL63,229E), tus kab mob khaub thuas A, kab mob khaub thuas B, kab mob ua pa sib kis, rhinovirus, adenovirus , enterovirus, EB Virus, Measles virus, human cytomegalovirus, Rotavirus, Norovirus, Mumps virus, varicella-zoster virus, parainfluenza virus type II, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, thiab tsis tsawg tshaj 100 qhov hnoos qeev rau kev noj qab haus huv.

      Repeatability thiab Reproducibility.

      Kev ntsuam xyuas pom cov txiaj ntsig zoo nrog txhua qhov kev kuaj pom zoo thiab pom cov txiaj ntsig tsis zoo nrog cov qauv tsis zoo. Tsis muaj qhov sib txawv tseem ceeb tau pom rau tib tus qauv thaum rov ntsuas 10 qhov kev sim hauv tib pawg. Tsis muaj txiaj ntsig zoo nyob rau hauv thiab sib txawv ntau qhov sib txawv tau pom ntawm cov kev ntsuas sib txawv rau txhua qhov ntau, ntau qhov sib txawv, cov neeg ua haujlwm sib txawv ntawm cov chaw sib txawv hauv lub sijhawm sib txawv rau tib cov qauv.

      Cov txiaj ntsig tau pom tias rov ua dua thiab rov tsim dua tshiab ntawm SARS CoV-2 Antigen Saliva Test Kit yog qhov txaus siab.

      LITERATURE REFERENCES

      Related

      Covid 19 Antigen Test , COVID-19 IgG/IgM Kev Xeem Ceev

      Covid 19 Antigen Test Clinical Trial

      Cov Ntaub Ntawv Kho Mob ntawm Covid 19 Antigen Test

      Sib piv Cov Ntsiab Lus Ntsuas ntawm Cov Khoom thiab Cov Ntaub Ntawv Txheeb Xyuas Tshuaj Kho Mob
      Cov khoom ntsuas ntsuas (Covid 19 Antigen Test)Kev Ntsuas Xyuas Kev Ntsuas Tus KheejTag nrho cov
      Pab pawg zooTsis zoo pab pawg
      zoo45550
      tsis zoo4296300
      Tag nrho cov9301350

      Diagnostic rhiab heev: 45/(50) 100%= 90%
      Kev Ntsuas Tshwj Xeeb: 296/(300) 100%= 98.67%
      Tag Nrho Cov Npaum Li Cas: (45+296)/(45+5+4+296)*100%= 97.43%

      LOD ntawm Covid 19 Antigen Test

      SARS-CoV-2Kev quav tshuajViral concentration hauv Ag deviceR1R2R3
      P011000 pwg+++
      P150200 pwg+++
      P2100100 pwg+++
      P3200 50 pwg+++
      P440020 pwg+++
      P580010 pwg+++
      P616005 pwg+--

      Txwv tsis pub paub paub meej tias:

      SARS-CoV-2Kev quav tshuajViral concentration hauv Ag deviceRov qab ua duatau
      P580010 pwgR1+
      R2+
      R3+
      R4+
      R5+
      R6+
      R7+
      R8+
      R9+
      R10+
      R11+
      R12+
      R13+
      R14+
      R15+
      R16+
      R17+
      R18+
      R19+
      R20+

      Kev sim rov ua dua ntawm Covid 19 Antigen Test

      SARS-CoV-2Kev quav tshuajViral concentration
      hauv Ag ntaus ntawv
      Rov qab ua duatau
      P320050 pwgR1+
      R2+
      R3+
      R4+
      R5+
      R6+
      R7+
      R8+
      R9+
      R10+
      P580010 pwgR1+
      R2+
      R3+
      R4+
      R5+
      R6+
      R7+
      R8+
      R9+
      R10+

      Kev ntsuas hla kev ua haujlwm:

      Cov kab mob mekom muaj nuj nqistau
      Tus mob khaub thuas A80/8
      Tus mob khaub thuas B50/5
      RSV50/5
      SARS31/3
      Adenoviruses40/4
      ParaFlu30/3
      M. Mob ntsws50/5
      Kab mob qhua pias20/2
      Streptococcus pneumoniae10/1
      Staphylococcus aureus10/1
      EBV30/3
      Coxsachie virus CA1620/2
      AIV H7N 910/1
      AIV H5N 110/1
      Saliwa30/3
      Tsis zoo ntshav/ntshav200/20

      Cov lus qhia ntxaws txog kev rov ua kom muaj zog

      Qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam hla dhau qhov tshwm sim ntawm InfluA cov txiaj ntsig zoo los ntawm SARS-COV-2 antigen kuaj cov khoom siv
      Cov khoom ntsuas ntsuas (Covid 19 Antigen Test)Kev Ntsuas Xyuas Kev Ntsuas Tus KheejTag nrho cov
      Pab pawg zooTsis zoo pab pawg
      zoo000
      tsis zoo808
      Tag nrho cov808
      InfluA
      InfluA
      Qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam hla dhau qhov tshwm sim ntawm InfluB cov txiaj ntsig zoo los ntawm SARS-COV-2 antigen kuaj cov khoom siv
      Cov khoom ntsuas ntsuas (Covid 19 Antigen Test)Kev Ntsuas Xyuas Kev Ntsuas Tus KheejTag nrho cov
      Pab pawg zooTsis zoo pab pawg
      zoo000
      tsis zoo505
      Tag nrho cov505
      InfluB
      InfluB
      Qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam hla dhau qhov tshwm sim ntawm ParaFlu cov qauv zoo los ntawm SARS-COV-2 antigen kuaj cov khoom siv
      Cov khoom ntsuas ntsuas (Covid 19 Antigen Test)Kev Ntsuas Xyuas Kev Ntsuas Tus KheejTag nrho cov
      Pab pawg zooTsis zoo pab pawg
      zoo000
      tsis zoo303
      Tag nrho cov303
      ParaFlu
      ParaFlu
      Qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam hla dhau qhov tshwm sim ntawm RSV cov qauv zoo los ntawm SARS-COV-2 antigen cov khoom siv ntsuas
      Cov khoom ntsuas ntsuas (Covid 19 Antigen Test)Kev Ntsuas Xyuas Kev Ntsuas Tus KheejTag nrho cov
      Pab pawg zooTsis zoo pab pawg
      zoo000
      tsis zoo505
      Tag nrho cov505
      RSV
      RSV
      Qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam hla dhau qhov tshwm sim ntawm SARS cov qauv zoo los ntawm SARS-COV-2 antigen cov khoom siv ntsuas
      Cov khoom ntsuas ntsuas (Covid 19 Antigen Test)Kev Ntsuas Xyuas Kev Ntsuas Tus KheejTag nrho cov
      Pab pawg zooTsis zoo pab pawg
      zoo101
      tsis zoo202
      Tag nrho cov303
      SARS
      SARS
      Qhov kev tshuaj ntsuam hla dhau qhov tshwm sim ntawm Adenovirus cov qauv zoo los ntawm SARS-COV-2 antigen kuaj cov khoom
      Cov khoom ntsuas ntsuas (Covid 19 Antigen Test)Kev Ntsuas Xyuas Kev Ntsuas Tus KheejTag nrho cov
      Pab pawg zooTsis zoo pab pawg
      zoo000
      tsis zoo404
      Tag nrho cov404
      Adenoviruses
      Adenoviruses
      Qhov kev ntsuas sib kis tau zoo ntawm cov qaub ncaug kuaj tau zoo los ntawm SARS-COV-2 antigen kuaj cov khoom siv
      Cov khoom ntsuas ntsuas (Covid 19 Antigen Test)Kev Ntsuas Xyuas Kev Ntsuas Tus KheejTag nrho cov
      Pab pawg zooTsis zoo pab pawg
      zoo000
      tsis zoo033
      Tag nrho cov033
      Qaub ncaug
      Qaub ncaug
      Qhov kev ntsuas hla kev rov ua tiav ntawm Ntshav/Plasma cov qauv zoo los ntawm SARS-COV-2 antigen kuaj cov khoom siv
      Cov khoom ntsuas ntsuas (Covid 19 Antigen Test)Kev Ntsuas Xyuas Kev Ntsuas Tus KheejTag nrho cov
      Pab pawg zooTsis zoo pab pawg
      zoo000
      tsis zoo02020
      Tag nrho cov02020
      Ntshav-Ntshav
      Ntshav-Ntshav

      Qhov Zoo ntawm Covid 19 Antigen Test

      Qhov Zoo Tshaj-ntawm-tus-Antigen-Test
      Qhov Zoo Tshaj-ntawm-tus-Antigen-Test

      Covid 19 Antigen Test Assay Txheej Txheem:

      Ua ntawv thov 2 tee tag nrho ntawm qhov piv txwv tov tov (60-70ul) ntsug rau hauv cov qauv zoo ntawm daim kab xev ntsuas. Cov txiaj ntsig tau pom tom qab 20 feeb thiab tseb rau qhov tseem ceeb kho mob tom qab 20 feeb.

      Kev Ntsuas-Txheej Txheem
      Kev Ntsuas-Txheej Txheem

      Qauv Sau:

      Txoj kev sau los ntawm Nasopharyngeal swb hnoos:

      Tus neeg teb xov tooj tuav tus swab los ntawm sab tes xis thiab tuav lub taub hau ntawm cov ntsiab lus ruaj khov los ntawm sab laug. Muab sab sab nqes rov qab rau hauv qab ntawm lub qhov ntswg thiab nkag mus maj mam thiab maj mam. Tsis txhob ua kom ntau dhau kom tsis txhob raug mob los ntshav. Thaum qhov ntxeev ntawm swab kov cov posterior posries ntawm kab noj hniav paranasal, cia tus swab
      nyob twj ywm hauv qhov chaw li ob peb feeb (kwv yees li 3seconds) thiab tig lub swab maj mam muab rau ib lub voj voog thiab tom qab ntawd tshem tus swab maj mam.

      Qauv-Sau
      Qauv-Sau

      Txoj kev sau los ntawm Oropharyngeal swab hnoos:

      Lub taub hau ntawm tus neeg uas yuav tsum tau khaws cia yog qaij me ntsis thiab nws lub qhov ncauj qhib dav, nthuav tawm cov pharyngeal tonsils ntawm ob sab. So qhov swab hla tus cag ntawm tus nplaig. So lub pharyngeal tonsils n ob sab ntawm tus neeg kom rov qab los nrog lub zog me me lossis tsawg kawg 3 zaug, thiab tom qab ntawd so thiab nqes phab ntsa tom qab pharyngeal tsawg kawg 3 zaug.

      Qauv Kho:

      Ntxiv 550ul cov tshuaj diluent tov rau hauv cov raj coj mus kuaj, poob lub swab tom qab sau cov qauv mus rau hauv cov qauv sib tov tov, ua kom cov tshuaj nkag mus rau hauv swab, tig thiab nyem qhov swab 10 zaug, tom qab ntawd rub tawm swab, thiab siv cov kua uas tseem coj mus kuaj.

      Qauv Kho
      Qauv Kho

      Covid 19 Antigen Test Instruction

      KEV SIV KEV SIV COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem

      COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem yog ib qho tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tom hauv ntej uas tau npaj rau kev txheeb xyuas qhov muaj txiaj ntsig SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigens hauv nasopharyngeal swab thiab oropharyngeal swab los ntawm cov tib neeg uas xav tias yog COVID-19 los ntawm lawv cov kws kho mob.

      Cov txiaj ntsig yog rau kev txheeb xyuas SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen. Antigen feem ntau tuaj yeem tshawb pom hauv nasopharyngeal swab thiab oropharyngeal swab thaum lub sijhawm mob hnyav. Cov txiaj ntsig tau zoo qhia pom tias muaj cov kab mob antigens, tab sis kev txheeb xyuas txheeb ze nrog keeb kwm ntawm tus neeg mob thiab lwm yam ntaub ntawv tshuaj xyuas yog qhov tsim nyog los txiav txim seb puas muaj tus kab mob. Cov txiaj ntsig zoo tsis txiav tawm kev kis kab mob lossis sib kis nrog lwm cov kab mob. Tus neeg sawv cev kuaj pom yuav tsis yog qhov tseeb ua rau muaj kab mob.

      Cov txiaj ntsig tsis zoo tsis txiav tawm SARS-CoV-2 kev kis mob thiab yuav tsum tsis txhob siv los ua lub hauv paus rau kev kho lossis kev txiav txim siab tswj tus neeg mob, suav nrog kev txiav txim siab tswj kev kis kab mob. Cov txiaj ntsig tsis zoo yuav tsum raug txiav txim siab hauv qhov xwm txheej ntawm tus neeg mob tsis ntev los no, keeb kwm thiab muaj cov tsos mob thiab cov tsos mob zoo ib yam nrog COVID-19, thiab tau lees paub nrog kev tshuaj ntsuam molecular, yog tias tsim nyog rau kev tswj hwm tus neeg mob.

      COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem yog npaj rau kev siv los ntawm cov neeg ua haujlwm kuaj mob kuaj mob tshwj xeeb qhia thiab kawm paub nyob rau hauv vitro kuaj mob cov txheej txheem.

      SUMMARY ntawm COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem

      Tus kab mob tshiab coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2) yog ntawm β genus. COVID-19 yog kab mob ua pa sib kis tau yooj yim. Cov neeg feem ntau muaj kev phom sij. Tam sim no, cov neeg mob kis los ntawm tus kab mob tshiab coronavirus yog lub hauv paus loj ntawm kev kis mob; cov neeg tsis muaj mob asymptomatic kuj tseem tuaj yeem kis tus kabmob.

      Raws li kev tshuaj xyuas kab mob sib kis tam sim no, lub sijhawm tsim tawm yog 1 txog 14 hnub, feem ntau yog 3 txog 7 hnub. Qhov tshwm sim tseem ceeb muaj xws li ua npaws, qaug zog thiab hnoos qhuav. Qhov ntswg txhaws, qhov ntswg los ntswg, mob caj pas, myalgia thiab raws plab yog pom nyob hauv ob peb kis.

      PRINCIPLE ntawm COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem

      COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem yog qhov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob raws li lub hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm txheej txheem tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thib ob. COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem tau tsim los txhawm rau txheeb xyuas nucleocapsid antigen los ntawm SARS-CoV-2 hauv nasopharyngeal swab thiab oropharyngeal swab, los ntawm cov neeg mob uas xav tias yog COVID-19 los ntawm lawv cov kws kho mob.

      Thaum lub sijhawm ntsuas, ib qho hnoos qeev txav mus los los ntawm kev ua ntshav capillary. SARS-CoV-2 antigens yog tias muaj nyob hauv cov hnoos qeev yuav khi rau cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob sib txuas. Cov txheej txheem tiv thaiv kab mob tom qab ntawd tau ntes ntawm daim nyias nyias los ntawm kev ua ntej coated SARS-Co-2 nuclenocapsid protein monoclonal antibody, thiab cov kab xim uas pom yuav tshwm nyob rau thaj tsam kab ntawv qhia pom tias muaj txiaj ntsig zoo. Thaum tsis muaj SARS-CoV-2 antigens, kab xim yuav tsis tsim nyob hauv cheeb tsam txoj kab ntsuas uas qhia qhov tsis zoo.

      Txhawm rau ua tus txheej txheem kev tswj hwm, kab xim ib txwm yuav tshwm ntawm thaj tsam kab kev tswj hwm, qhia tias qhov ntim tau zoo ntawm cov hnoos qeev tau ntxiv thiab daim nyias nyias tau tshwm sim.

      CEEB TOOM THIAB PRECAUTIONS

      Cheebtsam ntawm COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem

      Daim kab xev ntsuas muaj daim kab xev coated nrog tiv thaiv SARS-CoV-2 nuclenocapsid protein monoclonal antibody ntawm kab T kuaj, thiab cov ntaub zas ziab uas muaj colloidal kub ua ke nrog SARS-CoV-2 nuclenocapsid protein monoclonal antibody.

      Qhov ntau ntawm cov ntawv xeem tau luam tawm ntawm daim ntawv lo.

      Cov Ntawv Qhia

      Cov Ntaub Ntawv Yuav Tsum Tab sis Tsis Muab

      CIA LI NYIAJ THIAB STABILITY

      SPECIMEN rau COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem

      Cov hnoos qeev uas tau txais thaum ntxov thaum pib muaj cov tsos mob yuav muaj cov kab mob kis tau zoo tshaj plaws; cov hnoos qeev uas tau txais tom qab tsib hnub ntawm cov tsos mob feem ntau yuav ua rau muaj qhov tsis zoo thaum piv rau qhov ntsuas RT-PCR. Kev khaws cov hnoos qeev tsis txaus, tuav cov hnoos qeev tsis zoo thiab/lossis thauj mus los yuav ua rau muaj qhov tsis raug qhov tseeb; yog li ntawd, kev qhia hauv kev khaws cov hnoos qeev tau pom zoo vim yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov qauv zoo rau kev tsim cov txiaj ntsig kev xeem raug.

      Qauv sau

      Nasopharyngeal Swab Sample

      Ntxig lub minitip swab nrog lub pluaj hloov pauv tau (xaim lossis yas) hla lub qhov ntswg mus rau qhov ncauj (tsis nce mus txog) kom txog thaum muaj kev tiv thaiv lossis qhov kev ncua deb sib npaug ntawm qhov ntawm pob ntseg mus rau lub qhov ntswg ntawm tus neeg mob, qhia kev sib cuag nrog nasopharynx. Swab yuav tsum ncav qhov tob sib npaug ntawm qhov deb ntawm lub qhov ntswg mus rau sab nrauv ntawm pob ntseg. Maj mam txhuam thiab yob lub swab. Cia qhov swab nyob rau qhov chaw li ob peb feeb kom nqus tau cov kua. Maj mam tshem tawm swab thaum tig nws. Cov hnoos qeev tuaj yeem sau tau los ntawm ob sab siv tib lub swab, tab sis nws tsis tas yuav sau cov hnoos qeev los ntawm ob sab yog tias lub minitip tau ntim nrog kua los ntawm thawj sau. Yog tias qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov septum lossis txhaws txhaws tsim qhov nyuaj kom tau txais cov hnoos qeev los ntawm ib lub qhov ntswg, siv tib lub swab kom tau txais cov hnoos qeev los ntawm lwm lub qhov ntswg.

      Nasopharyngeal-Swab-Qauv
      Nasopharyngeal-Swab-Qauv

      Oropharyngeal Swab Sample

      Ntxig swab rau tom qab pharynx thiab thaj tsam tonsillar. Rhais swab hla ob lub qhov quav thiab tom qab oropharynx thiab tsis txhob kov tus nplaig, cov hniav, thiab cov pos hniav.

      Oropharyngeal-Swab-Qauv
      Oropharyngeal-Swab-Qauv

      Qauv Kev Npaj

      Tom qab Swab cov hnoos qeev tau sau, swab tuaj yeem khaws cia hauv cov tshuaj reagent muab nrog cov khoom siv. Tsis tas li, tuaj yeem khaws cia los ntawm raus lub taub hau swab hauv lub raj uas muaj 2 txog 3 ml ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob (lossis isotonic saline solution, cov ntaub so ntswg kab lis kev cai daws, lossis phosphate buffer).

      Qauv thauj thiab Cia

      Kev khaws cov hnoos qeev tshiab yuav tsum ua kom sai li sai tau, tab sis tsis pub dhau ib teev tom qab khaws cov hnoos qeev. Cov piv txwv sau tuaj yeem khaws cia ntawm 2-8 ℃ tsis pub ntev tshaj 24 teev; Khaws ntawm -70 ℃ rau lub sijhawm ntev, tab sis zam kev rov ua dua khov -thaw mus.

      Kev Npaj Ua Ntej rau COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem

      1. Unscrew lub hau ntawm cov tshuaj reagent rho tawm. Ntxiv tag nrho cov tshuaj rho tawm cov tshuaj reagent rau hauv lub raj rho tawm, thiab muab tso rau ntawm qhov chaw ua haujlwm.
      2. Ntxig tus qauv swab rau hauv lub raj rho tawm uas muaj cov tshuaj reagent rho tawm. Dov lub swab yam tsawg kawg 5 zaug thaum nias lub taub hau tiv thaiv hauv qab thiab sab ntawm lub raj rho tawm. Cia tus swab hauv lub raj rho tawm rau ib feeb.
      3. Tshem tus swab thaum nyem ob sab ntawm lub raj kom tshem cov kua los ntawm tus swab. Cov tshuaj uas tau muab rho tawm yuav raug siv ua cov ntawv kuaj.
      4. Ntxig lub taub dej tso rau hauv lub raj rho tawm kom nruj.
      ZOO TSHAJ PLAWS
      (Daim duab no tsuas yog siv rau cov neeg ua tim khawv nkaus xwb, thov saib mus rau cov khoom siv.)

      TEST PROCEDURE ntawm COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem

      Tso cai ntsuas cov cuab yeej thiab cov qauv ntsuas kom sib npaug rau qhov ntsuas kub (15-30 ℃ lossis 59-86 ℉) ua ntej ntsuas.

      1. Tshem daim kab xev los ntawm lub hnab ntim.
      2. Thim rov qab lub raj nqus cov hnoos qeev, tuav lub raj nqus cov hnoos qeev tawm ncaj qha, hloov 3 tee (kwv yees li 100μL) mus rau qhov hnoos qeev zoo (S) ntawm daim kab xev ntsuas, tom qab ntawd pib lub sijhawm ntsuas. Saib cov duab hauv qab no.
      3. Tos kom kab xim tuaj tshwm. Txhais cov qhab nias xeem ntawm 15 feeb. Tsis txhob nyeem cov txiaj ntsig tom qab 20 feeb.
      Kuaj-txheej txheem
      (Daim duab no tsuas yog siv rau cov neeg ua tim khawv nkaus xwb, thov saib mus rau cov khoom siv.)

      INTERPRETATION NTAWM COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem

      INTERPRETATION-OF-RESULTS
      INTERPRETATION-OF-RESULTS

      Zoo:*Ob kab tshwm. Ib txoj kab xim yuav tsum yog thaj tsam tswj hwm (C), thiab lwm txoj kab xim uas pom tseeb nyob ib sab yuav tsum yog hauv cheeb tsam xeem (T). Zoo rau qhov muaj SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen. Cov txiaj ntsig tau zoo qhia pom muaj cov kab mob antigens tab sis kev txheeb ze txheeb ze nrog keeb kwm ntawm tus neeg mob thiab lwm yam ntaub ntawv tshuaj xyuas yog qhov tsim nyog los txiav txim siab tus kab mob kis tau zoo Cov txiaj ntsig tsis txiav tawm kev kis tus kab mob lossis sib kis nrog lwm cov kab mob. Tus neeg sawv cev kuaj pom yuav tsis yog qhov tseeb ua rau muaj kab mob.

      Tsis zoo: Ib txoj kab xim tshwm hauv thaj tsam tswj hwm (C). Tsis muaj kab tshwm hauv cheeb tsam xeem (T). Cov txiaj ntsig tsis zoo yog qhov xav tau. Cov txiaj ntsig ntsuas tsis zoo tsis txwv kev kis tus kab mob thiab yuav tsum tsis txhob siv los ua ib qho hauv kev kho lossis lwm yam kev txiav txim siab tswj hwm tus neeg mob, suav nrog kev txiav txim siab tswj tus kab mob, tshwj xeeb yog thaum muaj cov tsos mob thiab cov tsos mob zoo ib yam nrog COVID-19, lossis hauv cov uas tau nyob rau hauv kev sib cuag nrog tus kab mob. Nws tau pom zoo tias cov txiaj ntsig no tau lees paub los ntawm cov txheej txheem kev ntsuas molecular, yog tias tsim nyog, rau kev tswj hwm tus neeg mob.

      Tsis raug: Cov kab tswj tsis tshwm sim. Qhov ntim tsis txaus lossis cov txheej txheem txheej txheem tsis raug yog qhov feem ntau yuav ua rau tswj kab tsis ua haujlwm. Rov tshuaj xyuas cov txheej txheem thiab rov ua qhov kev sim siv cov ntawv ntsuas tshiab. Yog tias qhov teeb meem tseem nyob, txiav txuas ntxiv siv ntau tam sim thiab hu rau koj tus neeg xa khoom hauv zos.

      KEV ZOO

      Cov txheej txheem tswj hwm tau suav nrog hauv qhov kev xeem. Ib txoj kab xim uas tshwm nyob rau thaj tsam tswj (C) yog suav tias yog kev tswj hwm txheej txheem sab hauv. Nws lees paub qhov ntim cov hnoos qeev txaus, cov kua membrane txaus thiab cov txheej txheem txheej txheem raug.

      Cov qauv tswj tsis tau muab nrog cov khoom siv no. Txawm li cas los xij, nws tau pom zoo tias kev tswj hwm qhov zoo thiab qhov tsis zoo raug ntsuas raws li kev sim ua haujlwm zoo los lees paub cov txheej txheem sim thiab txheeb xyuas qhov ua tau zoo.

      Txwv ntawm COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem

      TUS NEEG PHEM HWJ CHIM

      Txwv Kev Tshawb Fawb (Txheeb Xyuas Qhov Zoo)

      Qhov txwv ntawm Kev Tshawb Fawb (LoD) ntawm COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem is 5 × 102.67 TCID50/mL (cultured SARS-CoV-2 virus).

      Hla Reactivity (Txheeb cais tshwj xeeb)

      Hla kev tawm tsam nrog cov kab mob Virus lossis Bacteria hauv qab no nrog qee qhov kev xav tau kawm. Cov txiaj ntsig tau pom tsis zoo thaum kuaj nrog COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test:

      Kab mob/Kab mobconcentrationtau
      Kab mob khaub thuas A (H1N1)1 × 10^6 PFU/ml-
      Kab mob khaub thuas A (H3N2)1 × 10^6 PFU/ml-
      Kab mob khaub thuas B (Yamagata)1 × 10^6 PFU/ml-
      Kab mob khaub thuas B (Victoria)1 × 10^6 PFU/ml-
      Adenoviruses1 × 10^6 PFU/ml-
      Tib neeg metapneumovirus1 × 10^6 PFU/ml-
      Tus kab mob Parainfluenza1 × 10^6 PFU/ml-
      tus kab mob vais lav ua mob rau txoj hlab ua pa1 × 10^6 PFU/ml-
      Streptococcus pyogenes1 × 10^7 PFU/ml-
      Candida albicans1 × 10^7 PFU/ml-
      Mycoplasma mob ntsws1 × 10^7 PFU/ml-
      Chlamydia mob ntsws dej1 × 10^7 PFU/ml-
      Legionella pneumophila1 × 10^7 PFU/ml-
      Tib neeg tus kabmob coronavirus 229E1 × 10^6 PFU/ml-
      Neeg mob coronavirus OC431 × 10^6 PFU/ml-
      Neeg mob coronavirus NL631 × 10^6 PFU/ml-
      Tib neeg tus kab mob coronavirus HKU11 × 10^6 PFU/ml-

      Soj Ntsuam Kev Ua Tau Zoo

      Txhawm rau kwv yees qhov ua tau zoo ntawm COVID-19 Antigen Kev Xeem Cassette thiab PCR sib piv, 162 nasopharyngeal swab tau sau los ntawm cov neeg mob uas xav tias yog COVID-19.
      Cov ntsiab lus cov ntaub ntawv ntawm COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test los ntawm nasopharyngeal swab raws li hauv qab no:

      COVID-19 AntigenRT-PCRTag nrho cov
      zootsis zoo
      BALLYAzoo27 027
      tsis zoo5130135
      Tag nrho cov32130162

      Daim Ntawv Pom Zoo Feem Xeem Zoo (PPA) = 84.38%(27/32), (95%CI: 68.25%~ 93.14%)
      Kev Pom Zoo Feem Pua Tsis Zoo (NPA) = 100%(130/130), (95%CI: 97.13%~ 100%)

      Coronavirus COVID 19 TEST

      COVID-19 IgG/IgM Kev Xeem Ceev

      Txhawm rau Txheeb Xyuas thiab Txheeb Xyuas COVID-19

      Coronavirus hloov kho
      Coronavirus hloov kho

      Coronavirus hloov kho: Tsib Hlis 9, 2020 tag nrho mob coronavirus txog li 4.01 lab tus neeg mob. Sab saum toj 20 tus mob coronavirus lub teb chaws raws li nram no:
      NO.1 Conronavirus US, 1,321,785 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.2 Conronavirus Espana, 260,117 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.3 Coronavrius Ltalis, 217,185 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.4 Coronavirus UK, 211,364 mob coronavirus
      NO.5 Coronavirus Russia, 187,859 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.6 Coronavirus Fabkis, 176,079 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.7 Tus kabmob Coronavirus Tebchaws Yelemees, 170,588 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.8 Coronavirus Brasil, 146,894 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.9 Coronavirus Turkey, 135,569 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.10 Coronavirus Iran, 104,691 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.11 Coronavirus Tuam Tshoj, 82,887 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.12 Coronavirus Canada, 66,434 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.13 Coronavirus Peru, 61,847 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.14 Coronavirus Hauv Is Nrias teb, 59,695, tus mob coronavirus
      NO.15 Coronavirus Belgium, 52,011 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.16 Coronavirus Netherlands, 42,093 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.17 Coronavirus Saudi Arabia, 35,432 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.18 Coronavirus Mexico, 31,522 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.19 Coronavirus Switzerland, 30,207 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      NO.20 Coronavirus Ecuador, 28,818 tus neeg mob coronavirus
      Saum toj no cov ntaub ntawv los ntawm https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

      Coronavirus yog tsev neeg muaj kab mob loj uas yuav ua rau muaj mob rau tsiaj lossis tib neeg. Hauv tib neeg, ntau tus kab mob coronavirus tau paub tias ua rau kis mob ua pa xws li mob khaub thuas mus rau cov kab mob hnyav dua xws li Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) thiab Cov tsos mob ua pa hnyav (SARS). Tsis ntev los no pom tus mob coronavirus ua rau tus mob coronavirus COVID-19.

      IgM muab thawj kab ntawm kev tiv thaiv thaum kis tus kab mob, ua raws los ntawm kev tsim kho, muaj kev sib raug zoo IgG cov lus teb rau kev tiv thaiv mus sij hawm ntev thiab kev tiv thaiv kab mob. Yog li kev sim tshuaj tiv thaiv COVID-19 IgM thiab IgG cov tshuaj tiv thaiv yog ib txoj hauv kev zoo rau kev kuaj mob sai sai ntawm COVID-19 kev kis mob. Ib qho ntxiv, kev kuaj pom COVID-19 IgM cov tshuaj tiv thaiv zoo li qhia pom tias tsis ntev los no rau COVID-19, thaum kuaj pom ntawm COVID-19 IgG tshuaj tiv thaivy qhia tias theem tom ntej ntawm kev kis mob.

      Txoj Cai Ntsuam Xyuas Covid 19
      Txoj Cai Ntsuam Xyuas Covid 19

      Kev siv:
      cov COVID-19 IgG/IgM Kev Xeem Ceev yog npaj rau kev siv txhawm rau txhawm rau txheeb xyuas IgG thiab IgM cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tshiab ntawm tus kabmob coronavirus hauv tib neeg cov ntshav, ntshav lossis ntshav tag nrho hauv vitro. Nws tau siv los ua qhov ntsuas ntxiv rau kev txheeb xyuas qhov xav tias muaj qhov tshiab mob hlwb nucleic acid cov xwm txheej tsis zoo, lossis tau siv hauv kev sib koom nrog kev tshawb pom nucleic acid hauv kev kuaj mob ntawm cov neeg xav tias muaj mob. Nws tsis tuaj yeem siv los ua lub hauv paus rau kev kuaj mob thiab tsis suav nrog tus mob coronavirus tshiab mob ntsws, thiab tsis tsim nyog rau kev tshuaj xyuas pej xeem.

      Pom zoo pab pawg neeg kom raug sim:
      Tus Pheej hmoo: Pom tseeb hauv tsev kho mob, Cov tsos mob tab sis Nucleic kuaj Tsis zoo rau tus neeg mob
      Xav tias: Cov neeg hauv tsev neeg ntawm Cov neeg mob uas tau lees paub lossis xav tias, Tus neeg nyob ze tsis ntev los no
      Raug: Cov neeg laus, menyuam yaus lossis cov neeg tsis muaj zog tiv thaiv kab mob
      Pom Zoo: Txuas ntxiv saib xyuas kev txhim kho kab mob thiab saib xyuas kev mob rov zoo

      Ntiv Tes Ntiv Tes/Tag Nrho Cov Ntshav Thiab Xeem Txheej Txheem:

      1. Txhaj ntiv tes nrog rab koob ntshav
      2. Nqa cov ntshav nrog lub raj dej
      3. Ntxiv 10ul qauv rau hauv cov qauv zoo
      4. Ntxiv 2 tee ntawm cov qauv dilution rau hauv cov qauv zoo tam sim ntawd
      5. Tos 15 feeb
      6. Nyeem tau
      KEVID TEST ANTIBODY TEST
      KEVID TEST ANTIBODY TEST

      Ntshav/Ntshav Ntsuas Txheej Txheem:

      1. Sau 10ul ntawm cov ntshav/ntshav.
      2. Ntxiv 2 tee ntawm cov qauv dilution rau hauv cov qauv zoo tam sim ntawd
      3. Tos 15 feeb
      4. Nyeem tau
      Covid 19 kuaj tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob
      Covid 19 kuaj tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob

      Kev Txhais Lus Rau Cov Ntsiab Lus
      PHEEJ YEEM HAIS

      1. Pom C-kab thiab G-kab qhia tias covid-19 IgG zoo
      2. Pom C-kab thiab M-kab qhia tias covid-19 IgM zoo
      3. Pom C-kab, G-kab thiab M-kab qhia tias covid-19 IgG & IgM zoo

      NEGATIVE RESULT
      Pom C-kab qhia covid-19 IgG & IgM tsis zoo

      covid-test-results-antibody-test
      cov txiaj ntsig kev kuaj mob coronavirus

      Tus Mob Coronavirus Tus Kws Kho Mob Kawm

      Kev tshawb fawb txog tus mob coronavirus
      Kev tshawb fawb txog tus mob coronavirus

      Tag nrho cov mob coronavirus 600 tus neeg mob.
      Qhov tshwj xeeb: 98.43%
      Rhiab heev: 87.54%

      COVID-19 IgG/IgM Kev Xeem Ceem Ceev & Qhov Tseem Ceeb Ntawm Tsev Kho Mob

      Cov txiaj ntsig kev sim Covid thiab tus mob coronavirus tseem ceeb hauv tsev kho mob
      Cov txiaj ntsig kev sim Covid thiab tus mob coronavirus tseem ceeb hauv tsev kho mob

      Cov xwm txheej txog khaus laus nas vais lav COVID 19 Qhov Tseem Ceeb Ntawm Tsev Kho Mob
      1. Nucleic Acid (PCR) zoo, tab sis IgM & IgG ob qho tsis zoo. Cov neeg mob tuaj yeem nyob hauv 'lub sijhawm window' ntawm SARS-COV-2 (Coronavirus) kis.
      2. Nucleic Acid (PCR) thiab IgM yog qhov zoo, tab sis IgG tsis zoo. Tus neeg mob tuaj yeem nyob rau theem pib ntawm kev kis tus kab mob, thiab lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob ua ntej tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv IgM, tab sis tsis muaj IgG tau tsim lossis cov ntsiab lus IgG tsis tau mus txog qhov txwv qhov ntsuas ntawm kev kuaj mob.
      3. Nucleic Acid (PCR) thiab IgG zoo, tab sis IgM tsis zoo. Cov neeg mob tuaj yeem lig dhau los lossis rov tshwm sim ntawm kev kis mob.
      4. Nucleic Acid (PCR), IgG thiab IgM txhua qhov zoo. Tus neeg mob nyob rau theem mob hnyav, tab sis tib neeg lub cev tau tsim qee qhov kev tiv thaiv rau SARS-COV-2 (Coronavirus) (cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob IgG tsis tu ncua tau tsim tawm).
      5. IgM zoo, Nucleic Acid (PCR) thiab IgG tsis zoo. Tus neeg mob tuaj yeem nyob rau theem mob SARS-COV-2 (Coronavirus). Lub sijhawm no, cov txiaj ntsig ntsuas nucleic acid yuav tsum raug txiav txim siab (PCR tuaj yeem yog qhov tsis raug tsis raug).
      6. IgG zoo, Nucleic Acid (PCR) thiab IgM tsis zoo. Tus neeg mob tej zaum tau kis tus mob SARS-COV-2 yav dhau los, tab sis tus neeg mob tau zoo lawm lossis tus kab mob hauv lub cev tau raug tshem tawm lawm.
      7. Nucleic Acid (PCR) tsis zoo, tab sis IgM & IgG ob qho tib si zoo. Tus neeg mob tsis ntev los no tau kis tus kab mob SARS-COV-2 (Coronavirus) thiab tseem tab tom rov zoo. Los yog qhov ntsuas nucleic acid tsis raug qhov tsis raug thiab tus neeg mob nyob rau theem mob kis.

      Covid Kev Ntsuas (Colloidal Kub) vs. Nucleic Acid (PCR)

      Kuaj Kab Mob Coronavirus (colloidal kub) VS Nucleic Acid PCR Test
      Kuaj Kab Mob Coronavirus (colloidal kub) VS Nucleic Acid PCR Test

      Covid Xeem los ntawm kev ntsuas kub raloit colloidal
      Lub sijhawm xeem: 15 feeb xwb
      Khiav Haujlwm: Kev ntsuas siab thiab nqa tau ruaj khov
      Kev tsav tsheb: Muaj peev xwm ua tau ntawm Point of Care suav nrog cov ntawv pov thawj me me, chaw kho mob, cov neeg mob pw saum txaj. Yooj yim yam tsis muaj cov cuab yeej txhawb nqa xav tau, txawm tias kev sim hauv tsev ua tau yooj yim

      Covid Xeem los ntawm Nucleic Acid (PCR)
      Lub sijhawm xeem: 3-4 teev
      Khiav Haujlwm: Nyuaj nrog cov cuab yeej txhawb nqa thiab kev txawj ua haujlwm xav tau
      Kev tsav tsheb: Yuav tsum muaj cov cuab yeej nyuaj nrog ua cov txuj ci thiab tsuas muaj nyob hauv cov tsev kho mob loj

      Qhov kom zoo dua ntawm NPAJ TEST
      Kev Tshawb Fawb Thaum Ntxov
      Zoo IgM qhia txog theem pib ntawm kev kis mob
      Tag Nrho Spectrum
      Npog thaum ntxov, theem nrab thiab lig ntawm tus kab mob, zam kev ploj mus
      efficiency
      2 Xeem ntawm ib daim kab xev, ua rau 15 feeb
      Kev Nyab Xeeb
      Kev kuaj tus kheej zam kev kis tus kab mob

      Pob Lus Qhia Txog
      Cov Ntsiab Lus ntawm Cov Khoom
      1. Xeem kab xev
      2. Qauv Dilution
      3. Capillary Sampler
      4. Cov Lus Qhia Rau Kev Siv
      5. Cov ntaub ntawv tsis muab tab sis xav tau:
      Lancet | Cov Dej cawv so | Hnab looj tes | Timer

      Pob Loj: 20 Xeem / thawv

      Kev Xeem Rau Covid 19: Kev Ntsuam Xyuas Coronavirus VS Covid 19 Antibody Test Thiab Covid 19 Antigen Test

      Coronavirus hloov kho: muaj tag nrho 3.66 lab (cov ntaub ntawv los ntawm ntiaj teb corona) tib neeg kis tus kab mob thiab lees paub mob coronavirus hauv ntiaj teb. Nws yuav nce zuj zus txhua hnub, cov neeg tuag tus naj npawb coronavirus 257,301. Cov khoom siv tshuaj xyuas yog ib qho tseem ceeb heev los ntawm txhua lub tebchaws txhawm rau txhim kho thiab tshuaj xyuas qhov teeb meem ceev. Txoj kev tshawb nrhiav nrov yog nucleic acid test, qhov thib ob yog covid 19 tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob, qhov kev sim tshiab tshaj yog rau covid 19 antigen kuaj pom. Dab tsi yog 3 hom sib txawv kuaj tus mob coronavirus? Lawv ua haujlwm li cas thiab ntsuas txoj cai li cas? Kab lus no yuav qhia koj qhov koj txhawj xeeb.

      Hnub no, National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) tau pom zoo ntau dua 113 yam tshiab ntawm tus mob coronavirus thaum muaj xwm txheej ceev los ntawm 113 lub tuam txhab uas muaj CE cim lossis FDA pom zoo. Ntawm qhov ntawd, 80 yam rau kev kuaj nucleic acid thiab 33 yam rau covid 19 antibody test. Nucleic acid thiab cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov ntshav (lossis antigens) yog cov txheej txheem tseem ceeb thiab cov txheej txheem sim ntawm tus mob coronavirus tshiab lees paub thiab kuaj mob rau tus neeg mob. Cov hnoos qeev yuav tsum tau ua thiab txheej txheem ua haujlwm yog dab tsi? Thiab tam sim no peb ntsib teeb meem dab tsi?

      COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Test

      Kev tshawb pom Nucleic acid muaj cov yam ntxwv ntawm kev kuaj mob ntxov, txhawb siab thiab tshwj xeeb. Nws kuj tseem yog "tus txheej txheem kub" rau kev kuaj mob tshiab tus mob coronavirus mob ntsws. Txoj hauv kev dav tshaj plaws yog Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Feem ntau, qhov txiaj ntsig zoo ntawm SARS-Cov-2 yog ua raws tib qho piv txwv uas nyob ntawm ORF1ab thiab N cov noob thiab ua tau raws li ob lub hom phiaj zoo, lossis ib lub hom phiaj zoo los ntawm kev rov tshawb pom dua, lossis ob qho piv txwv ua tau raws lub hom phiaj tib lub sijhawm.

      Lub hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) yog dab tsi?

      Cov kab mob ua tus kab mob raws li lub hom phiaj tshawb nrhiav cia lub hom phiaj xaiv DNA ua ntu zus los ntawm PCR kev nthuav dav channel. Txhua qhov sib txuas ntawm DNA tau nthuav dav tuaj yeem ua ke nrog kev soj ntsuam fluorescent uas peb tau ntxiv ua ntej. Cov noob hom phiaj ntau ntxiv, ua kom muaj zog ntxiv cov xim fluorescent. Hauv cov qauv yam tsis muaj tus kab mob, tsis muaj kev nthuav dav ntawm lub hom phiaj, yog li tsis muaj lub teeb liab fluorescence muaj zog tuaj yeem kuaj pom. Yog li ntawd, kev tshawb pom nucleic acid yog qhov tseeb los txiav txim siab cov nucleic acid hauv cov qauv los ntawm cov teeb liab fluorescent sib sau ua ke.

      Tus qauv kuaj yog dab tsi?

      Cov hnoos qeev feem ntau yog qhov ntswg swabs, pharyngeal swabs, nasopharyngeal swabs, hnoos, hnoos hnoos hnoos qeev, cov kua dej hauv lub qhov ncauj (BALF), thiab lwm yam.

      Yuav kuaj covid 19 li cas? 5 Kauj ruam ntawm kev kuaj tus mob coronavirus

      Muaj tsib txoj hauv kev: piv txwv, piv txwv khaws cia, khaws cia, rho tawm nucleic acid, thiab kuaj lub computer. Tag nrho cov txheej txheem no yuav tsum muaj kev sim sim nruj:
      1. Sampling. So cov phab ntsa tom qab pharyngeal thiab ob sab pharyngeal tonsils nrog pharyngeal swab 5-10 zaug, thiab tig lub swab tsis tu ncua
      2. Qauv khaws cia. Raus lub taub hau ntawm swab rau hauv cov tshuaj khaws cia ntawm tes, tom qab ntawd tsoo qhov kawg ntawm swab thiab kaw lub raj raj kom nruj tam sim raws li cov qauv khaws cia.
      3. Cia. Muab cov raj coj mus kuaj rau hauv lub hnab ntim thiab xa nws mus tshuaj xyuas lub sijhawm. Ua kom muaj chaw cia khoom ntawm 2-8 degrees ℃ thaum hloov mus rau kev tshuaj xyuas.
      4. Nucleic acid rho tawm. Tshem tawm cov nucleic acid los ntawm cov kab mob tsis ua haujlwm rau kev kuaj pom tom ntej, koj tuaj yeem siv cov cuab yeej siv tsis siv neeg, xws li cov cuab yeej rho tawm nucleic acid.
      5. Fluorescence PCR nucleic acid detection, uas yog, kuaj ntawm lub tshuab, nws yuav siv sijhawm 70-80mins kom ua tiav PCR cov tshuaj tiv thaiv.

      Peb ntsib teeb meem dab tsi tam sim no?

      Yog li ntawd, ntxiv IgM thiab IgG antibody thaum kuaj nucleic acid tsis zoo, tuaj yeem ua rau qhov ua tsis tau ntawm kev kuaj mob tsis tau.

      COVID-19 Antibody Test

      Tom qab 7 hnub ntawm tus mob coronavirus mob ntsws, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv lub cev tau maj mam tsim tawm, ua ntej cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob immunoglobulin (IgM) thiab tom qab ntawd IgG antibodies. Yog li ntawd, IgM cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob qhia tias kis tau tus mob tsis ntev los no, thiab nce IgG cov tshuaj tiv thaiv qhia tias muaj keeb kwm kis mob.

      Kev kuaj ntshav tau kho rau hauv Kev Txheeb Xyuas thiab Kev Kho Mob ntawm COVID-19 (7th Kev sim siab), vim tias nws muaj qhov zoo tshaj plaws ntawm kev sim sai thiab yooj yim, uas tuaj yeem tsoo dhau qhov kev txwv tam sim no ntawm tus kheej thiab qhov chaw, thiab ua kom luv lub sijhawm sim. Nws tuaj yeem kuaj pom tias yog KEVID-19 kev kis kab mob yog tias muaj qhov xav tias zoo ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tshwj xeeb IgM thiab IgG, lossis IgG cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hloov pauv los ntawm qhov tsis zoo mus rau qhov zoo, lossis lub sijhawm rov zoo yog 4 zaug lossis siab dua qhov ntawd nyob rau lub sijhawm mob hnyav.

      test rau covid 19
      Antibody Concentration of COVID-19 Infection

      Cov khoom ntsuas no yog ua raws colloidal kub immunochromatography kev ntsuam xyuas, colloidal gold-labeled recombinant novel mob hlwb antigen thiab kev tswj kom zoo tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob kub cim tau txau rau ntawm txoj hlua khi; ob txoj kab tshawb nrhiav (G thiab M) thiab ib txoj kab tswj tau zoo (kab C) tau lo rau ntawm NC daim nyias nyias. Daim npav ntsuas no siv cov qauv ua kua raws cov kua nitrocellulose, yog tias muaj COVID-19 IgM cov tshuaj tiv thaiv, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv yuav ua ke nrog cov cim kab mob antigens thiab dhau los ua cov qhob noom xim kasfes, cov txiaj ntsig zoo tuaj yeem nyeem tau. Thiab yog tias muaj COVID-19 IgG tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov qauv, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob yuav ua ke nrog cov kab mob antigens cim thiab dhau los ua cov qhaub cij. sib txuam, thiab tom qab ntawd cov txiaj ntsig zoo yuav tshwm sim los ntawm tib txoj kev. Daim npav xeem kuj tseem muaj kab tswj hwm kab (kab C) los txiav txim seb cov txheej txheem chromatography ua tiav.

      test rau covid 19
      test rau covid 19

      Tus qauv kuaj yog dab tsi?

      Cov hnoos qeev feem ntau yog ntshav, suav nrog ntshav, ntshav lossis ntshav tag nrho.

      Peb Kauj Ruam los Txheeb Tus Kab Mob Corona

      1. Qhib lub hnab ntawv txhuas, tshem tawm daim ntawv xeem thiab tso nws kab rov tav ntawm lub desktop;

      2. Siv lub pipette los kos cov ntshav ntshav / ntshav / ntshav tag nrho thiab ntxiv nws mus rau qhov piv txwv zoo, thiab tom qab ntawd kos cov tshuaj tsis haum rau hauv cov qauv zoo.

      3. Tos 15 feeb, tom qab ntawv nyeem cov txiaj ntsig.

      Cov teeb meem nrog Kev Xeem rau COVID 19 yog dab tsi?

      1. Cov txiaj ntsig tsis zoo tshwm sim. Qee cov qauv ntshav ntawm tus neeg mob muaj qhov rheumatoid factor, heterophile antibodies, autoantibodies, tshuaj thiab cov qog nqaij hlav, thiab lwm yam, uas yooj yim ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam cuam tshuam hauv kev sim, thiab tom qab ntawd, yuav muaj qhov tsis raug qhov txiaj ntsig qee zaum.

      2. Cuav tsis zoo tshwm sim. Lub sijhawm qhov rai ntawm cov txheej txheem kuaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv lub cev thiab qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov sib txawv ntawm cov khoom ntsuas kuj tseem yuav ua rau muaj qhov tsis raug qhov tseeb.

      Yog li ntawd, kev kuaj pom cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tsuas yog siv los ua kev tshuaj ntsuam ntxiv rau qhov xav tias muaj qhov tsis zoo ntawm nucleic acid kuaj ntawm COVID-19, thiab tsis tuaj yeem siv ua qhov ntsuas ntsuas rau kev tshuaj xyuas ib leeg. Kev siv ua ke ntawm kev kuaj ntshav cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thiab kuaj nucleic acid tuaj yeem pab txhim kho qhov ntsuas pom ntawm COVID-19, nrhiav pom cov neeg mob kuaj mob ntau li ntau tau, thiab muaj txiaj ntsig zoo rau kev tswj kev kis mob.

      kuaj kab mob coronavirus
      Kev kuaj mob coronavirus kuaj mob: Kev txhais lus ntawm kev sib koom ua ke pom ntawm nucleic acids, IgG thiab IgM antibodies

      Covid-19 Kev Tshawb Nrhiav Antigen

      COVID-19 tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob antigen tuaj yeem tshawb pom ncaj qha seb tib neeg tus qauv muaj tus kab mob tshiab. Kev kuaj mob yog nrawm, raug, thiab xav tau cov cuab yeej siv qis thiab cov neeg ua haujlwm. Sandwich ELISA cia ob lub antigen-tshwj xeeb cov tshuaj tiv thaiv los txheeb xyuas thiab khi nrog ib lub hom phiaj txawm hais tias sib txawv epitopes, uas tuaj yeem txo qis qhov kev cuam tshuam hla thiab txhim kho qhov kev xeem tshwj xeeb.

      Lub hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm cov khoom siv tshuaj tiv thaiv antigen yog dab tsi?  

      Cov antigens xws li N protein, E protein thiab S protein ntawm tus kab mob tshiab coronavirus tuaj yeem siv ua cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob los txhawb cov ntshav ntshav los tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tshwj xeeb tom qab tus kab mob kis rau tib neeg lub cev. Raws li txoj cai Sandwich ELISA, thaum cov qauv poob rau ntawm lub ncoo coj mus kuaj, nws yuav ntws los ntawm cov ntaub qhwv sib txuas, kab ntawv xeem (T) thiab kab tswj tau zoo (C) ntawm NC daim nyias nyias.

      Cov ntaub qhwv sib txuas muaj cov ntawv sau antigen-antibody tshwj xeeb, uas tuaj yeem khi rau antigen (cov kab mob kis) hauv cov qauv. Thaum cov qauv mus txog kab ntsuas (T kab), qhov thib ob antigen-tshwj xeeb cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab ntawm kab no yuav ua ke nrog antigen dua, qhov txiaj ntsig zoo yuav raug nyeem. Txoj kab kev tswj kom zoo (kab C) yog txheej nrog IgG tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thiab tuaj yeem ua ke nrog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov qauv ntsuas los txiav txim seb cov txheej txheem chromatography ua tiav.

      Dab tsi yog hom kev kuaj kab mob antigen?

      Cov hnoos qeev feem ntau yog los ntawm qhov chaw kis mob, xws li oropharyngeal swabs, nasopharyngeal swabs, hnoos qeev, ntshav, ntshav, thiab lwm yam.

      Plaub Kauj Ruam los Txheeb Tus Kab Mob CoronaVirus

      1. Tuav tus qauv ua rau hauv cov raj coj mus kuaj;

      2. Muab cov tshuaj zawv zawg thiab nyem rau ntawm phab ntsa ntawm lub raj, kom cov hnoos qeev sib xyaw nrog cov tshuaj kho;

      3. Npaj daim npav xeem thiab ntxiv cov qauv rau cov qauv kom zoo;

      4. Tos 15 feeb, tom qab ntawv nyeem cov txiaj ntsig.

      Dab tsi yog cov teeb meem nrog txoj kev kuaj pom antigen?

      1. Cuav tsis zoo. Kev nrhiav tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob yuav tsum muaj kev nkag siab siab dua, vim tias tus kab mob tshiab tshiab ib txwm kis tus kab mob ua pa qis xws li alveoli. Yog tias koj khaws cov piv txwv ua pa sab saud xws li nasopharynx thiab oropharynx yuav tsis tuaj yeem kis kab mob lossis txaus Covid-19 tus kab mob no thiab ua rau tsis tuaj kuaj mob;

      2. Txoj kev npaj yog nyuaj thiab siv sij hawm ntau. Nws yuav siv sijhawm li ob lossis peb hlis los npaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis, thiab tom qab ntawd npaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob monoclonal hauv nas. Yog tias cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tau ua haujlwm tsis zoo, nws yuav tsum tau npaj rau ob lossis peb hlis ntxiv.

      Yog li ntawd, txoj kev tshawb nrhiav antigen tseem tsis tau paub tab, thiab tam sim no tsis muaj cov tshuaj antigen kuaj pom tau pom zoo thiab sau npe los ntawm National Medical Products Administration

      Kev Tshawb Fawb Ntau

      Tus kab mob coronavirus tshiab nucleic acid / antibody / antigen kuaj pom nws muaj nws cov ntsiab lus thiab tsis tuaj yeem hloov los ntawm ib leeg. Ntau txoj hauv kev nrhiav pom tuaj yeem siv ua ke ua tiav, uas tuaj yeem sib xyaw cov txheej txheem molecular nrog kev tiv thaiv kab mob, muab kev ua si tag nrho rau lawv qhov zoo, txhim kho kev nkag siab thiab qhov tshwj xeeb. Tag nrho cov no tuaj yeem ua kom lub sijhawm tshawb pom lub sijhawm muaj txiaj ntsig zoo, nce qhov ntsuas pom tau zoo, thiab muab kev tiv thaiv ob npaug rau txhua pawg neeg muaj peev xwm ua tau.

      reference:

      Zhengtu Li -Yongxiang Yi li al. Kev txhim kho thiab kev siv tshuaj kho mob sai ntawm IgM -IgG ua ke tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob rau SARS -CoV -2 kev kuaj mob. J Med Virol.2020 ; 1-7

      Pipette Tip Factory Equipment

      Automated-Pipettes-Ntim

      Hauj lwm yam khoom

      Pipette tip cov khoom siv hauv tsev yog ib lub tshuab tsis siv neeg pipette tip tsim khoom tsim los ntawm peb lub tuam txhab rau cov neeg siv khoom lag luam hauv kev tshawb fawb lub neej thiab cov tshuab raj pipette. Nws yog yam tshiab ntawm cov khoom siv tsis siv tus qauv. Cov cuab yeej siv rau kev txawj ntse biomedical consumables.

      Hauv kev teb rau ntau yam teeb meem xws li nyuaj rau kev siv phau ntawv pom zoo, qhov nyuaj ntawm kev tswj hwm me me, qhov nyuaj ntawm cov neeg ua haujlwm, thiab lwm yam, tam sim no koj tuaj yeem siv peb lub tshuab los pub cov vibrating phaj ua haujlwm, lub tshuab cia li tso tawm, cia li nqus , thiab tau txais tus kheej, Cov txheej txheem nyuaj ua xws li rho tawm huab cua tsis siv neeg, kuaj pom tsis siv neeg, tsis lees paub cov khoom lag luam puas, tsis siv neeg ntim khoom, thiab lwm yam daws teeb meem ntawm kev ua haujlwm siab hauv kev tsim cov khoom siv biomedical. Siv microcomputer tswj cov tub ntxhais, kov lub vijtsam ua haujlwm interface, yooj yim thiab nkag siab yooj yim, ua ke nrog roj thiab hluav taws xob, siv tau yooj yim.

      Thov teb

      Tsim kom muaj kev siv tshuab nrawm rau kev lag luam kho mob, ua haujlwm yooj yim, ua haujlwm tau zoo, muaj txiaj ntsig zoo, ob peb qhov ua tsis tiav, muaj zog ntau yam, daws teeb meem yooj yim, tuaj yeem paub tsis siv neeg sib dhos ntawm ntau cov lus qhia thiab lim cov ntsiab lus; kev ruaj ntseg zoo yog lub hauv paus txheej txheem ntsuas phoo tshwj xeeb cov cuab yeej tshwj xeeb; nws tuaj yeem txhim kho koj li kev tsim khoom, txhim kho kom zoo, thiab txo nqi zog.

      Lus qhia rau kev siv

      Cov cuab yeej tuaj yeem paub ntau yam haujlwm. Kev ua haujlwm tsis muaj peev xwm tuaj yeem hloov 3-5 tus neeg. Tsuas yog ib tus neeg yuav tsum tau muab cov khoom siv sib xws tso rau hauv txoj haujlwm raug. Siv tshuab mechatronics, nws tuaj yeem hloov kho raws li cov neeg siv khoom xav tau. Nws tuaj yeem nqa cov txiaj ntsig loj rau lub tuam txhab.

      Tsis Siv Neeg-Cartoning-Tshuab-rau-Pipette-Cov Lus Qhia

      Cov yam ntxwv ntawm khoom siv

      1. Tsim nyog rau kev tsim khoom theem nrab ntawm cov lus qhia hauv chaw sim

      2. Kev ua haujlwm tau zoo yog siab, thiab qhov ua tau zoo tuaj yeem ncav cuag 2 lub thawv hauv ib feeb.

      3. Kov npo kev ua haujlwm thiab PLC tswj qhov programmable

      4. Txhua ntu txais kev kho qhov chaw, zoo nkauj thiab dav;

      5. Qhov tseeb tuaj txawv tebchaw pneumatic Cheebtsam txais yuav West German FESTO thiab Japanese SMC, uas ruaj khov.

      6. Indexing phaj disc qauv, ntau qhov chaw nres tsheb, ua haujlwm tau zoo thiab ruaj khov.

      7. Lub tshuab muaj qib siab ntawm kev siv tshuab tsis siv neeg, kev teeb tsa lub tshuab lim tsis siv neeg, kev txheeb xyuas tsis siv neeg, thiab tshem tawm cov khoom tsis raug;

      8. Cov cuab yeej tuaj yeem txheeb xyuas-pom qhov muag-ntaus nrig-ntsaws-rov ntim khoom

      9. Haum rau kev sib sau ua ke thiab thau khoom lub lim lim ntawm 10ul, 100ul, 200ul, 300ul, 1000ul universal pipette cov lus qhia.

      10. Cov cuab yeej muaj lub luag haujlwm tsis zoo ntawm lub tswb ceeb toom thiab cov ntaub ntawv qhia sai, cov khoom nkag tau pom thiab tsis muaj cov khoom siv tam sim, ua ntej tus lej ntau lawm, thiab suav ua haujlwm

      11. Nruab nrog kev tiv thaiv kev nyab xeeb npog thiab lub zog nres xwm txheej ceev, raws li cov txheej txheem kev nyab xeeb kev lag luam thoob ntiaj teb.

      Kev Tsis

      hwj chim20KW
      voltageAC380V
      Tag nrho cov lojTxog 2t
      loj3.5m * 1.1m * 2m

      Working txojcai

      1. Cov cuab yeej tau nruab nrog txheej ua haujlwm, txheej pabcuam thiab khaws cia los ntawm saum toj mus rau hauv qab;

      2. Cov txheej txheem ua haujlwm tau nruab nrog phaj hauv qab thiab phaj kev co;

      3. Muaj cov cuab yeej thauj khoom ntawm phaj hauv qab;

      4. Lub phaj vibrating tau txuas nrog lub cuab yeej them nyiaj los ntawm cov cuab yeej pub mis tawm;

      5. Thauj khoom, suav nrog thauj khoom, X-axis pub khoom thiab Y-axis pub cov khoom uas koom tes nrog txhua lwm yam;

      6. Cov khoom ntim khoom tau tsau rau X-axis pub tivthaiv ntawm lub tshuab los ntawm cov phaj txav mus, kom thiaj li ua tiav kev sib dhos sai.

      Advantage

      ★ Eua tiav: Cov cuab yeej no tuaj yeem txhim kho kev sib tw ntaus nrig ntawm cov tuam txhab ua lag luam, txo kev rov ua haujlwm ntawm cov neeg ua haujlwm tsim khoom, txo kev tswj hwm kev lag luam thiab kev ua haujlwm, nce kev lag luam tseem ceeb kev sib tw, ua kom cov txheej txheem tsim khoom ntawm kev lag luam, thiab txhawb kev txhim kho ntawm kev lag luam tag nrho!

      ★ Kev txawj ntse: Nrog kev tswj hwm ntse, tsis siv neeg yees duab ntsuas, tsis siv neeg pub mis, kev teeb tsa yooj yim, tswj isometric, pub mis tsis muaj khoom siv, kev tswj tsis siv neeg nrawm thiab lwm yam haujlwm, nws tuaj yeem txhim kho qhov ua tau zoo ntawm kev npaj thiab ntaus nrig, txo tib neeg yuam kev, thiab zam kev hla kev sib kis . Kev sib tw nrawm ntawm lub lim lim thiab rab phom taub hau tshuab tuaj yeem ncav cuag 50-100 vib nas this/lub thawv.

       Material: Lub tshuab yog ua los ntawm cov hlau tsis muaj steel thiab qib qib aluminium alloy, tsis muaj kev sib txuas, thiab txheej txheej.

      Tu: Nws tuaj yeem nruab nrog lub teeb kom tsis muaj menyuam, thiab tag nrho lub tshuab tsim nyog rau ultraviolet thiab cawv kom tsis muaj menyuam. Cov cuab yeej ua tiav tuaj yeem siv tau hauv chav huv, nrog cov pa phem tsawg dua thiab lub neej ua haujlwm ntev ntawm lub tshuab, uas tuaj yeem ua tau raws li qhov xav tau ib puag ncig ntawm kev lag luam lom neeg.

      ★ Cov qauv tsis-customization: Nws tuaj yeem tsim kho thiab kho tus kheej raws li tus neeg siv khoom cov lus qhia ntxaws ntxaws thiab lim cov ntsiab lus tshwj xeeb.
      ★  Pipette taub hom: Hloov mus rau 10/100/200/500/1000ul cov lus qhia.
      ★  Tswv yim ntaus nrig & lim caij sau yog xaiv tau: rab phom ntaus nrig ntaus ntawv & lim caij sau, sau lub sijhawm tiag los tsim lub tshuab ua ke; cais cais ua ib qho cais kab sib dhos.

      Pdaim duab roduct

      Automated-Pipettes-Ntim
      Tsis Siv Neeg-Cartoning-Tshuab-rau-Pipette-Cov Lus Qhia
      Tsis siv neeg-taub hau-ntim-tshuab
      Tsis siv neeg-nqus-tshuab
      pipette-tip-Factory-cov khoom siv

      Bkev taw qhia Rand

      BALLYA yog cov kws tshaj lij uas tsis yog tus qauv tsim khoom siv tshuab ua ke ua ke R&D, tsim qauv, tsim khoom thiab muag. Nws tau tsom mus rau qhov tsis siv tus qauv siv tshuab tau ntau xyoo. Nws muaj cov kws tshaj lij uas tsis yog tus qauv siv tshuab tsim qauv tsim qauv, paub txog kev sib dhos cov kws tsim khoom thiab ua tiav qhov kev pabcuam tom qab muag. Lub tuam txhab tsom mus rau Kev tshawb fawb Automated, cov cuab yeej zoo nrog lub plawv, kev pabcuam zoo nrog lub siab, tshaj lij muab cov neeg siv khoom nrog cov khoom lag luam uas tsis yog-tus qauv siv tshuab kev daws teeb meem!

      Koj puas tuaj yeem siv terramycin rau tib neeg?

      Terramycin yog dab tsi?

      1. Lus txhais

      Terramycin yog lub ntsiav tshuaj daj daj lossis cov ntsiav tshuaj uas muaj suab thaj, uas yog tetracyclines, yooj yim soluble hauv dej thiab acidic. Nws yog qhov dav-spectrum ib nrab hluavtaws tshuaj tua kab mob uas yog tshuaj tua kab mob ntau dua li cov tshuaj tua kab mob.

      Terramycin yog tus neeg sawv cev dav dav rau cov kab mob bacteriostatic, thiab ntau tus rickettsia, mycoplasma, chlamydia, spirochetes, amoeba thiab qee cov plasmodium nkag siab oxytetracycline. Enterococcus tiv taus nws. Lwm yam xws li Actinomyces, Bacillus anthracis, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium, Nocardia, Vibrio, Brucella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, thiab lwm yam yog nkag siab oxytetracycline.

      Terramycin muaj qee yam tshuaj tua kab mob tiv thaiv Neisseria gonorrhoeae thiab meningococcus, tab sis penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae kuj tseem tiv taus oxytetracycline. Tau ntau xyoo, vim kev siv dav ntawm tetracyclines, cov kab mob sib kis tau zoo tiv taus oxytetracycline, suav nrog cov kab mob gram-positive xws li staphylococci thiab feem ntau gram-negative bacilli. Muaj kev tiv thaiv kab mob sib txawv ntawm ntau hom tshuaj tua kab mob tetracycline.

      Lub mechanism ntawm kev txiav txim ntawm oxytetracycline yog tias cov tshuaj muaj peev xwm tshwj xeeb khi rau Txoj Haujlwm ntawm 30S subunit ntawm cov kab mob ribosome txhawm rau txhawm rau txwv kev loj hlob ntawm peptide saw thiab cuam tshuam rau kev sib txuas ntawm cov kab mob protein.

      Nws yog siv rau mob plab, mob ntsws, kab mob sib kis, mob ntsws, mob otitis media, kab mob ntawm daim tawv nqaij, thiab lwm yam. Nws kuj tseem siv los kho amoebic enteritis thiab mob plab.

      2. Lub cev nqaij thiab tshuaj muaj zog

      Cov tshuaj hydrochloride ntsev ntawm terramycin yog lub teeb daj crystalline lossis amorphous hmoov, tsis muaj ntxhiab thiab tsaus rau hauv tshav ntuj, thiab yooj yim puas hauv alkaline daws. Nws yog me ntsis soluble hauv ethanol thiab dej, soluble hauv sodium hydroxide tov thiab dilute hydrochloric acid.

      3. lub hom phiaj

      Nws tuaj yeem siv los kho kev ua pa, lub qhov zis, tawv nqaij thiab cov nqaij mos kis hauv dev thiab miv, suav nrog brucellosis, kab mob rickettsial thiab chlamydia hauv cov dev, colibacillosis hauv cov dev thiab miv, thiab miv los ntawm rickettsiae Cov ntshav tsis txaus kuj tseem siv los tiv thaiv kab mob leptospirosis hauv dev.

      4. Cov teebmeem tshuaj

      Oxytetracycline muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob zoo rau cov kab mob me me, yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob sai, thiab muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob rau qee yam kab mob ntawm qhov siab. Cov txheej txheem ntawm kev ua yog tias cov tshuaj tuaj yeem cuam tshuam tshwj xeeb rau A txoj haujlwm ntawm 30S subunit ntawm ribosome txhawm rau tiv thaiv kev sib txuas ntawm aminoacyl-tRNA ntawm txoj haujlwm no, yog li cuam tshuam kev loj hlob ntawm peptide saw thiab cuam tshuam cov protein sib txuas ntawm cov kab mob lossis lwm yam pathogenic microorganisms.

      Oxytetracycline muaj zog tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, meningococcus, Escherichia coli, Aerobacter, Shigella, Yersinia, Listeria monocytogenes, thiab lwm yam; ntxiv rau, oxytetracycline kuj tseem muaj zog ua rau rickettsia, mycoplasma, chlamydia, actinomycetes, thiab lwm yam.

      5. Pharmacokinetics

      Qhov ncauj nqus ntawm oxytetracycline hydrochloride tsis tiav (kwv yees li 30% -58% tuaj yeem nqus tau), thiab qhov ntim ntawm kev faib tawm yog li 0.9-1.9L/kg. Cov ntshav siab tshaj plaws tom qab siv qhov ncauj ntawm 1 g yog txog 3.9 mg/L. Cov tshuaj tau nthuav dav tom qab nqus tau, thiab tuaj yeem nkag mus rau hauv lub plab pleural thiab lub plab, thiab tseem tuaj yeem nkag mus rau hauv cov ntshav menyuam hauv plab los ntawm txoj hlab ntaws hauv plab, tab sis nws tsis yooj yim rau nkag mus rau cov ntshav-cerebrospinal kua teeb meem, yog li cov ntsiab lus ntawm tshuaj nyob rau hauv cov kua dej hauv lub paj hlwb tsawg.

      Oxytetracycline kuj tseem tuaj yeem faib rau hauv daim siab, tus po, pob txha pob txha, pob txha, kho hniav thiab hniav txha hniav laus. Cov tshuaj no tseem tuaj yeem nce siab ntau hauv cov mis. Tus nqi khi ntawm cov protein oxytetracycline yog li 20%-35%. Ib nrab-lub neej ntawm cov neeg mob uas lub raum ua haujlwm zoo yog 6-10h, thiab ncua ib nrab-lub neej nrog lub raum tsis txaus.

      Nws tuaj yeem ncav cuag 47-66h rau cov neeg mob anuria. Cov tshuaj no feem ntau yog tso tawm los ntawm lub plab zom mov, thiab 70% ntawm cov tshuaj tuaj yeem tso tawm hauv 24 teev ntawm kev tswj hwm, thiab cov tshuaj me me raug tso tawm los ntawm cov quav ntawm cov kua tsib. Hemodialysis tuaj yeem tshem tawm 10% -15% ntawm cov tshuaj.

      Terramycin siv

      Terramycin-Siv
      Terramycin-Siv

      1. indications

      A. Oxytetracycline tuaj yeem siv ua lwm txoj kev kho rau cov kab mob hauv qab no:

      B. Oxytetracycline tuaj yeem siv los kho tus mob tetanus, roj av gangrene, yaws, mob syphilis, gonorrhea thiab leptospirosis ua xua rau tshuaj tua kab mob penicillin.

      C. Oxytetracycline kuj tseem tuaj yeem siv los kho kab mob ua pa, kab mob hauv lub cev, tso zis thiab tawv nqaij thiab cov nqaij mos mos kis los ntawm cov kab mob rhiab.

      D. Oxytetracycline kuj tseem tuaj yeem siv rau kev kho pob txuv.

      2. siv

      Vim li cas thiaj tsis txiav terramycin? Terramycin, tseem hu ua oxytetracycline, kuj tseem yog qhov sib xyaw nrog cov tub ntxhais polycyclic tetracenecarboxamide ntau. Nws belongs rau ib ntawm tetracyclines. Vim tias nws tus nqi qis, ntau tus neeg tau siv nws los kho cov kab mob ntses. Tam sim no nws siv aquaculture yog qhov txwv.

      Txawm hais tias nws yog tshuaj txwv, nws tsis txhais tau tias nws muaj txiaj ntsig zoo. Txawm hais tias nws yog tshuaj tua kab mob dav-dav, nws feem ntau yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob bacteriostatic. Nws tsuas tuaj yeem tua cov kab mob thaum lub siab ua haujlwm siab. Nws muaj qhov ua tsis tau zoo ntawm cov kab mob gram-positive Staphylococcus, Streptococcus hemolyticus, thiab Clostridium ntau dua penicillins thiab cephalosporins; nws rhiab heev rau E. coli, Salmonella, thiab Pasteurella hauv cov kab mob Gram-negative, tab sis nws tsis zoo li aminoglycosides thiab chloramphenicol.

      Txawm hais tias muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob thiab tua kab mob ntawm terramycin tsis zoo li lwm yam tshuaj tua kab mob, nws cov metabolism hauv lub cev qeeb, thiab nws tseem tuaj yeem nqa tawm hepato-hnyuv ncig zoo li doxycycline. Oxytetracycline yog me ntsis soluble hauv dej thiab yooj yim ua tsis tiav hauv kev daws teeb meem alkaline.

      Nws cov hydrochloride ntsev feem ntau siv. Nws muaj cov khoom ruaj khov thiab cov hmoov daj daj, tab sis nws tsis ruaj khov tom qab tau yaj hauv dej. Kev nqus ntawm terramycin tsis xwm yeem thiab tsis tiav. Nws feem ntau yog nqus rau sab saud ntawm txoj hnyuv me. Thaum muaj polyvalent hlau ions xws li txhuas, magnesium, calcium, hlau, thiab manganese hauv txoj hnyuv, lawv tuaj yeem tsim cov tshuaj tsis haum nrog chelates, yog li txo qhov ua tau zoo.

      Tom qab nqus tau, nws tau faib dav thiab yooj yim nkag mus rau hauv kab noj thoracic thiab plab kab noj hniav. Nws tau khaws cia hauv cov kua tsib, tus po, cov hniav thiab cov pob txha hauv lub cev. Nws tuaj yeem mob siab rau hauv daim siab thiab zais los ntawm cov kua tsib. Cov tshuaj ntau hauv cov kua tsib tuaj yeem ncav cuag ntau dua 10 npaug ntawm cov tshuaj concentration hauv cov ntshav. Ib feem ntawm cov tshuaj kho mob yuav raug tso tawm rau hauv cov hnyuv nrog rau cov kua tsib, nqus tau thiab rov siv dua, thiab nkag mus rau lub plab hepato-hnyuv.

      Thaum siv terramycin, nws yuav tsum tau sau tseg tias qhov ntau npaum li cas yog qhov loj heev, thiab qhov ntau npaum li cas yog 5-100 mg rau ib phaus ntawm lub cev hnyav. Yog tias qhov ntau npaum li cas, lossis sijhawm siv lub qhov ncauj ntev dhau, nws yuav ua rau muaj teeb meem hauv plab hnyuv, mob plab thiab kis tau ob npaug. Tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau lub raum tsis ua haujlwm ntawm lub cev, oxytetracycline feem ntau yog tso tawm los ntawm ob lub raum, uas yuav ua rau qeeb ntawm kev tso tawm, ua rau lub neej ib nrab, thiab ua rau lub siab ua rau lub siab. Zoo li doxycycline, nws tsis tsim nyog siv nyob rau hauv cov xwm txheej alkaline. Cov nyhuv ntawm kev noj tshuaj ntawm lub plab khoob yog qhov zoo dua.

      3. ntau npaum

      4. Veterinary Siv

      Oxytetracycline muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav dav. Nws kuj tseem muaj qee yam cuam tshuam rau cov kab mob rhiab xws li pneumococcus, streptococcus, qee yam staphylococci, Bacillus anthracis, tetanus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Chlamydia, thiab spirochetes.

      Muaj nuj nqi thiab taw qhia:

      ntau npaum:

      Cov teebmeem ntawm Terramycin

      Terramycin-Sab-Teeb Meem
      Terramycin-Sab-Teeb Meem

      1. Kev phiv tshuaj

      2. Kev sib tham ntawm Terramycin

      3. lus ceeb toom

      xaus

      Nyob rau tag nrho, cov nyhuv antibacterial ntawm terramycin tsis zoo li chloramphenicol, cephalosporins, penicillin thiab aminoglycosides, tab sis terramycin tau zom cov zom zaub mov qeeb thiab tuaj yeem tsim kev nkag mus rau hauv lub cev. Txawm li cas los xij, oxytetracycline muaj ntau cov kev phiv thiab nws siv ntau dhau hauv kev lag luam aquaculture tau ua rau terramycin raug txwv los ntawm kev lag luam aquaculture.

      BALLYA muab a ballya-tetracyclines-xeem qhia rau koj yog tias muaj tetracyclines(suav nrog terramycin) seem hauv zib ntab, nqaij qaib thiab nqaij npuas.

      References

      Kev siv tetracycline rau ntses

      Tetracycline yog dab tsi?

      Tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob yog hydrogenated naphthacene ring derivatives tsim los ntawm Actinomycetes. Lawv yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav-dav uas feem ntau cuam tshuam cov kab mob protein synthesis. Lawv muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob thiab feem ntau suav nrog 6 hom, uas yog chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, thiab doxycycline, metacycline thiab minocycline. Nws muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav thiab siv los tiv thaiv lossis kho kab mob ntses ua liaj ua teb. Tam sim no nws yog hom siv dav tshaj plaws ntawm tshuaj tua kab mob. Cov tshuaj tua kab mob no suav nrog tetracycline rau ntses tsis tau nqus tag nrho los ntawm cov tsiaj raws li ib feem ntau ntawm lawv tau tso tawm rau tib neeg ib puag ncig hauv daim ntawv ntawm quav lossis cov zom zaub mov.

      Vim tias nws cov dej ua tau zoo thiab muaj biodegradability tsawg hauv ib puag ncig, nws tau dhau los ua chav kawm ntawm tshuaj tua kab mob uas yooj yim khaws thiab khaws cia hauv ib puag ncig kev nuv ntses. Raws li cov khoom siv tshuaj exogenous hauv ib puag ncig, tshuaj tua kab mob muaj qhov dav thiab muaj txiaj ntsig zoo rau kev nuv ntses ib puag ncig ib puag ncig thiab ecology, ua rau muaj kev tsim tshuaj tiv thaiv thiab muaj kuab paug tas mus li. Qhov no tsis tsuas yog cuam tshuam rau kev tsim khoom lag luam aquaculture, tab sis thaum kawg kuj tseem yuav cuam tshuam rau tib neeg kev noj qab haus huv thiab kev muaj sia nyob.

      BALLYA muab a tetracyclines xeem los qhia koj yog tias muaj tetracyclines seem hauv cov khoom siv mis uas koj noj txhua hnub.

      Kev siv tetracycline rau ntses

      Qhov-siv-ntawm-tetracycline-rau-ntses
      Qhov-siv-ntawm-tetracycline-rau-ntses

      Tetracycline rau ntses yog tshuaj tua kab mob. Nws tsis yog siv los kho kab mob hauv cov ntses xwb, tab sis kuj tseem kho cov kab mob hauv tib neeg. Thaum siv cov ntses, nws feem ntau suav tias yog kev kho mob rau cov kab mob ntawm daim tawv nqaij hauv cheeb tsam, xws li mob txhab lossis mob txhab. Tetracycline zoo tshaj ntxiv rau cov zaub mov ntses. Thaum cov ntses tau kis los ntawm cov kab mob, cov dej zoo hauv lub tank ntses yuav tsum tau tshuaj xyuas. Rau tib neeg, tetracycline tuaj yeem siv rau ntau yam kab mob, suav nrog tetracycline rau pob txuv, cov kab mob tso zis, thiab lwm yam kab mob sib kis.

      Tetracycline tau siv dav lossis txawm tias raug tsim txom hauv tsev kho mob tsiaj rau lub sijhawm ntev vim nws tus nqi qis thiab cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav. Dab tsi ntxiv, kev loj hlob-txhawb nqa cov tshuaj tua kab mob tau siv los ua khoom noj ntxiv hauv kev coj ua. Qhov no ua rau cov kab mob rhiab muaj ntau yam tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob. Muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hla vim tias cov qauv tshuaj lom neeg ntawm cov tshuaj no zoo ib yam, ua rau lub luag haujlwm ntawm tshuaj tua kab mob txo qis heev.

      Tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob yog ib chav kawm ntawm cov tshuaj tua kab mob spectrum tsim los ntawm actinomycetes, suav nrog chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline thiab Semi-synthetic derivatives ntawm methenoxytetracycline, doxycycline- Kuv methylaminotetracycline, thiab lwm yam, uas nws cov qauv tag nrho muaj lub cev pob txha naphthacene. Tetracycline tshuaj muaj npe vim tias muaj ntau yam hydrogenated tetraphenyl nplhaib hauv cov qauv txheej txheem. Lawv yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav-dav thiab muaj qhov cuam tshuam rau cov kab mob gram-positive, ramie-negative bacteria thiab spirochetes, rickettsiae, chlamydiamycoplasma thiab protozoa.

      Nws cov txheej txheem tua kab mob feem ntau yog txhawm rau tiv thaiv kab mob protein synthesis. Cov chav kawm ntawm cov tshuaj no tuaj yeem tsim cov ntsev nrog cov kua qaub lossis cov hauv paus. Tab sis nws tsis ruaj khov hauv cov kua dej alkaline, yog li nws feem ntau ua rau hauv hydrochloride. Cov ntawv thov hauv tsev suav nrog tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, metacycline thiab minocycline. Thawj peb yog cov khoom ntuj tsim; qhov kawg peb yog cov khoom lag luam ib nrab tiav, tseem hu ua tetracyclines tshiab.

      Kev qhia tshuaj: kho kab mob ua pa, mob chlamydia, spirochetes, rickettsiae, eperythrocytes (npua), tab sis tsis zoo rov los rau cov kab mob staphylococcal thiab streptococcal.

      Qhov sib ntxiv ntawm chlortetracycline hauv kev pub nce lub qe qe ntau ntxiv, qhov hnyav kwv yees ntawm lub qe thiab cov tuab ntawm lub qe qe ib feem, thiab qhov pub-rau-qe piv tau poob qis, tab sis nws tsis muaj qhov cuam tshuam pom tseeb ntawm kev noj kom tsawg thiab lwm yam qe zoo ntsuas. Soj ntsuam qhov ua tau zoo: minocycline yog qhov muaj zog tshaj, doxycycline, chlortetracycline, tetracycline, tom qab tetracycline, thiab oxytetracycline muaj qhov tsis zoo tshaj plaws.

      Cov tsos mob tshwm sim ntawm kev kis kab mob hauv cov ntses suav nrog qhov muag ntawm lub qhov muag lossis hauv plab, lossis cov kab liab liab lossis qhov me me ntawm tus tsiaj cov tawv nqaij. Tshwj xeeb, tetracycline rau ntses yog siv los kho kab mob sab nrauv. Nws raug nquahu kom kho tus kab mob ntawm qhov rot rot. Nws kuj tseem tuaj yeem siv los kho mob txhab rau ntawm daim tawv nqaij, ntau hom kev loj hlob lossis nodules, thiab kab txaij ntawm cov xim sib txawv ntawm daim tawv nqaij. Nws kuj tseem siv los kho tus kab mob herniation, tus kab mob ntawm cov ntses txawv txawv txawv los ntawm cov kab mob sib kis.

      Txawm tias tetracycline rau ntses tuaj yeem kho cov teeb meem kev noj qab haus huv ntses, nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb kom sim nrhiav lub hauv paus ntawm qhov teeb meem. Cov dej zoo, lub tshuab lim thiab lwm yam khoom txawv teb chaws hauv lub tank ntses yuav tsum tau tshuaj xyuas kom pom qhov ua rau muaj tus kab mob no los pab tiv thaiv cov ntses kom tsis txhob mob ntxiv rau yav tom ntej. Txhawm rau tiv thaiv teeb meem kev noj qab haus huv ntxiv, nws yuav tsum tau kho dej thiab ntxuav lub tank ntses. Thaum kho kab mob ntses, koj tuaj yeem ncaj qha ntxiv ntses tetracycline rau hauv lub tank ntses. Txawm hais tias qhov no tsis zoo tag nrho, nws yog qhov zoo tshaj kom ntseeg tau tias cov tsiaj tau txais txiaj ntsig zoo thaum cov kab mob ntses tau noj tshuaj tua kab mob. Tshuaj tua kab mob tuaj yeem ntxiv rau zaub mov. Nws tau pom zoo kom noj cov ntses thaum lawv tshaib plab txaus.

      Nyob rau hauv luv luv, tetracycline ntsiav tshuaj tuaj yeem siv tau, thiab tsis yog tsuas yog tetracycline, tab sis lwm yam tshuaj xws li oxytetracycline, gentamicin, penicillin, thiab lwm yam tuaj yeem siv rau ntses. Feem ntau ntawm lawv tau siv los kho tus kab mob sib kis, tus Tsov tus tw lwj, cov hniav lwj, kab mob hauv plab, thiab dej tuaj pwm. Hauv lwm lo lus, txhua tus kab mob ntses tuaj yeem kho tau, tab sis cov txiaj ntsig me me. Kab mob ntses tuaj yeem kho tau zoo nyob rau theem pib, tab sis kev kho mob tsis zoo nyob rau theem tom ntej.

      Tetracycline phiv los

      Tetracycline-sib cuam tshuam
      Tetracycline-sib cuam tshuam

      Qib tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv ntses tau pom los ntawm ELISA cov tshuaj tiv thaiv thiab kev ua haujlwm ntawm phagocytes tau ntsuas los ntawm kev tshuaj ntsuam chemiluminescence ua qhov ntsuas ntawm qhov tsis muaj kev tiv thaiv kab mob tshwj xeeb. Cov txiaj ntsig tau qhia tias oxytetracycline tuaj yeem cuam tshuam qhov qib ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob, thaum txo qis kev ua haujlwm ntawm phagocytes thiab cov lej ntawm lymphocytes, tab sis nws tsis muaj txiaj ntsig pom tseeb ntawm kev muaj sia nyob ntawm cov ntses. Oxytetracycline tuaj yeem tiv thaiv qhov siab ntawm cov carp qhov kev tso dag. Qhov kev txwv no tsuas yog ib ntus xwb.

      Raws li cov concentration ntawm oxytetracycline txo qis, kev ua haujlwm ntawm cov kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov carp kuj tseem ua tau zoo. Oxytetracycline tuaj yeem muaj cov genotoxicity muaj zog hauv cov txheej txheem ntau yam. Txoj kev tshawb nrhiav pom tias Tuyusu muaj teratogenic cuam tshuam rau carp embryos.

      Kev siv tshuaj tua kab mob ntau yam ua rau thaj chaw nuv ntses tsis yog tsuas yog cov peev txheej tiv thaiv cov noob, tab sis kuj yog qhov nruab nrab rau kev nthuav dav thiab hloov pauv ntawm cov noob tsis kam. Ntau thiab ntau qhov kev sim tau ua pov thawj tias kev nce ntxiv thiab sib kis ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob ib puag ncig yuav ua rau muaj kev phom sij rau tib neeg kev noj qab haus huv. Raws li qhov no, ntau tus neeg tau pib mob siab rau kev tshawb fawb txog kev siv tshuaj ntau ntxiv (PNEC) ntawm cov kab mob hauv ib puag ncig, uas tseem yog ib feem tseem ceeb ntawm kev tshuaj xyuas kev nyab xeeb ib puag ncig ntawm tshuaj tua kab mob thiab tshuaj tua kab mob sib kis.

      Ib qho ntxiv, kev tshawb fawb txog qhov cuam tshuam ntawm tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob ntawm cov kab mob me me thiab cov pejxeem tus qauv ntawm cov dej algae thiab kev sib raug zoo ntawm lawv, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog kev sib koom ua ke lom ntawm tetracycline thiab lwm yam kev ua qias tuaj ib puag ncig yog tsawg. Thiab cov kev tshawb fawb no yuav muaj txiaj ntsig ntau rau kev tshuaj xyuas kev nyab xeeb ntawm tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob hauv kev nuv ntses ecological ib puag ncig.

      Kev tsim txom cov tshuaj tua kab mob tsis yog tsuas yog ua rau cov kab mob tiv taus cov tshuaj, tab sis qee zaum cuam tshuam rau lwm tiam tom ntej, ua rau muaj qhov tshwm sim ntawm "cov menyuam tiv taus". Kev tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis ntau ntxiv rau cov tshuaj tua kab mob feem ntau tau dhau los ua teeb meem thoob ntiaj teb. Kev siv tshuaj tua kab mob ntau dua, kev xaiv tsawg dua. Yog tias tib neeg feem ntau noj zaub mov uas muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob, thiab kev tiv thaiv tshuaj yuav nce ntxiv yam tsis nco qab. Thaum lawv muaj mob, cov tshuaj tua kab mob no yuav tsis pab. Qhov xwm txheej hnyav dua yog tias qee qhov "super bacteria" tsis ntev los no tseem muaj feem cuam tshuam nrog kev siv tshuaj tua kab mob ntau dhau.

      Kev siv sijhawm ntev ntawm cov zaub mov tiv taus ntau yuav ua rau muaj kab mob ntau ntxiv ntawm cov tshuaj tua kab mob, thiab nws qhov kev phom sij tsis tuaj yeem tsis quav ntsej. Tshwj xeeb, kev sib qhia tshuaj tua kab mob sib kis ntawm tib neeg thiab tsiaj yuav ua rau kev txhim kho tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thiab thaum kawg ua rau tsis muaj tshuaj tua kab mob rau tib neeg. Piv txwv li, ciprofloxacin ua yog tshuaj tua kab mob sib kis los ntawm tib neeg thiab tsiaj. Ciprofloxacin tau siv dav los tiv thaiv kab mob ua pa hauv broilers thiab ntses, uas tuaj yeem yooj yim ua rau muaj tshuaj hnyav nyob hauv zaub mov. Muaj ntawv ceeb toom hauv tsev thiab txawv teb chaws tias tib neeg tsis nkag siab rau cov tshuaj ciprofloxacin ntxiv lawm. Qhov no tej zaum yuav cuam tshuam nrog kev noj zaub mov ntev uas muaj ciprofloxacin seem.

      Cov kev tshawb fawb tseem tau qhia tias kev tiv thaiv tshuaj rau menyuam mos liab tuaj yeem cuam tshuam nrog kev siv tshuaj tua kab mob los ntawm niam-rau-yuav thaum lub sijhawm thiab ua ntej cev xeeb tub, thiab tseem tuaj yeem cuam tshuam nrog lawv cov tshuaj tua kab mob mus sij hawm ntev. Ntau tus poj niam cev xeeb tub noj qe, nqaij ntses, kua zaub qaib, kua zaub trotters thiab mis nyuj txhua hnub, tab sis kev nyab xeeb ntawm cov khoom noj ntxiv no yog kev txhawj xeeb ntau ntxiv.

      xaus

      Hauv qhov pom ntawm lub tetracycline phiv los tias tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob tuaj yeem tsim tawm, siv tetracycline rau ntses yuav tsum tau ceev faj tshwj xeeb los tiv thaiv kev puas tsuaj rau ntses, tib neeg thiab ib puag ncig uas peb nyob.

      References

      Dab tsi yog tetracycline qhov muag pleev rau?

      Tshuaj pleev qhov muag tetracycline yog dab tsi?

      1. cheebtsam

      Cov khoom tseem ceeb ntawm tetracycline qhov muag tshuaj pleev is tshuaj tetracycline. Nws lub npe tshuaj yog: 6-methyl-4- (dimethylamino) -3,6,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-1,4,4a, 5,5a, 6,11,12a-Octahydro -2-tetrabenzamide. Cov mis mos molecular: C22H24N2O8. Molecular phaus: 444.44.

      BALLYA muab a tetracyclines xeem los qhia koj yog tias muaj tetracyclines seem hauv cov khoom siv mis uas koj noj txhua hnub.

      2. Nta

      Cov khoom no zoo li lub teeb daj lossis xim daj.

      3. Specifications

      PIB: 0.5%

      4. Cov Tshuaj thiab Toxicology

      Cov khoom no yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav-spectrum antibacterial, uas muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob ntawm qhov siab. Ntau tus rickettsia, mycoplasma, chlamydia thiab spirochetes nkag siab zoo rau cov khoom no. Enterococcus tiv taus nws.

      Cov khoom no muaj qee yam tshuaj tua kab mob tiv thaiv Neisseria gonorrhoeae, tab sis penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae kuj tseem tiv taus tshuaj tetracycline. Tau ntau xyoo, vim kev siv dav ntawm tetracyclines, cov kab mob sib kis tau tiv taus tetracycline, thiab cov kab mob gram-positive xws li staphylococci thiab feem ntau enterobacteriaceae kuj tseem tiv taus nws. Muaj kev tiv thaiv khaub thuas ntawm cov khoom no thiab ntau yam sib txawv ntawm tetracyclines. Cov tetracycline mechanism ntawm kev nqis tes ua ntawm cov khoom no yog tias cov tshuaj tuaj yeem tshwj xeeb khi rau Txoj Haujlwm ntawm 30S subunit ntawm cov kab mob ribosome txhawm rau txhawm rau txwv kev loj hlob ntawm peptide saw thiab cuam tshuam rau kev sib txuas ntawm cov kab mob protein.

      Tshuaj pleev tetracycline siv rau dab tsi?

      Dab tsi yog-tetracycline-ointment-siv-rau
      Dab tsi yog-tetracycline-ointment-siv-rau

      Tetracycline qhov muag tshuaj pleev yog qhov dav-spectrum tshuaj tua kab mob thiab tau siv dav hauv kev kho mob. Nws tuaj yeem tua cov kab mob Gram-positive thiab qee cov kab mob Gram-negative. Nws muaj qhov cuam tshuam tsis zoo rau kev kho mob Mycoplasma mob ntsws, Chlamydia, Rickettsia thiab Amoeba. Tetracycline ointment feem ntau yog siv hauv tsev kho mob rau kev kho kab mob sib kis, keratitis, blepharitis, trachoma, thiab lwm yam. Tetracycline tshuaj pleev kuj tseem tuaj yeem siv rau qee qhov tawv nqaij, ua rau daim nyias nyias thiab raug mob, uas muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv zoo.

      1. Kab mob vwm

      Cov kab mob sib kis tuaj yeem muab faib ua mob hnyav, subacute thiab mob ntev raws li qhov xwm txheej thiab chav kawm ntawm tus kab mob. Raws li qhov ua rau, lawv tuaj yeem faib ua cov kab mob, kis kab mob, mob chlamydial, kab mob thiab ua xua, thiab lwm yam. Raws li cov yam ntxwv ntawm kab mob sib kis, nws tuaj yeem faib ua cov kab mob sib kis hauv lub cev, mob sib txuas sib txuas ntev, daim nyias nyias thiab pseudomembranous conjunctivitis.

      A. Ua

      Etiology ntawm tus kab mob conjunctivitis tuaj yeem faib ua ob pawg: kis thiab tsis kis.

      B. Cov tsos mob

      Qhov muag cuam tshuam muaj lub cev txawv teb chaws, hnov ​​mob, tawv muag hnyav, thiab tso zis ntau ntxiv. Thaum lub qhov muag raug cuam tshuam los ntawm tus kab mob, photophobia, kua muag, thiab qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov muag tsis pom kev tuaj yeem tshwm sim.

      C. Kev tiv thaiv

      Cov kab mob sib kis feem ntau kis tau los ntawm kev sib cuag, yog li yuav tsum tau ntxuav tes ntau zaus kom tsis txhob cuam tshuam qhov muag. Nws raug nquahu kom ntxuav koj lub ntsej muag nrog cov dej ntws, cais cov phuam da dej, phuam qhwv caj dab thiab lwm yam khoom los ntawm lwm tus, thiab ntxuav thiab tua lawv ntau zaus. Qee qhov kev ntsuas cais tawm yuav tsum tau ua rau cov neeg mob uas muaj tus kab mob sib kis, thiab tsis ua luam dej hauv thaj chaw ua luam dej tsis raug tso cai. Yog tias ib lub qhov muag raug tus kab mob sib kis, tus neeg mob yuav tsum raug hais kom tiv thaiv lub qhov muag kom zoo los ntawm kev kis kab mob. Cov neeg uas ua haujlwm hauv qhov cua daj cua dub, muaj plua plav thiab pa luam yeeb yuav tsum txhim kho ib puag ncig thiab looj tsom iav tiv thaiv kom tsis txhob muaj kab mob sib kis.

      Pharmacology-thiab-Toxicology
      Pharmacology-thiab-Toxicology

      2. Keratitis

      Kev mob ntawm lub pob muag uas tshwm sim los ntawm ntau yam sib xws yog hu ua keratitis. Nws yog ib qho ntawm cov kab mob tshwm sim hauv ophthalmology thiab ib ntawm cov kab mob dig muag tseem ceeb hauv Suav teb. Lub pob muag nyob ntawm qhov xub thawj ntawm lub qhov muag thiab tiv tauj ncaj qha nrog lub ntiaj teb sab nrauv. Nws raug rau kev puas tsuaj los ntawm cov kab mob me me, kev raug mob, thiab lub cev thiab tshuaj lom neeg. Clinically, nws muaj cov tsos mob tshwm sim xws li lub qhov muag tsis pom, qhov mob, photophobia thiab kua muag, thiab pom qhov muag tsis pom.

      Kev tshuaj xyuas kab mob ophthalmological qhia pom kev ploj ntawm lub qhov muag ci, txo qhov pom kev, thiab ua rau mob plab. Hauv cov xwm txheej hnyav, lub qhov muag tawg, kev nkag mus rau hauv lub qhov muag thiab txawm tias dig muag tuaj yeem tshwm sim. Tam sim no, keratitis tau muab faib ua kis kab mob, tiv thaiv kab mob, noj zaub mov tsis zoo, ua rau lub cev tuag tes tuag taw thiab raug raws li qhov ua rau muaj kab mob. Kev kis mob keratitis feem ntau tshwm sim hauv thaj chaw nruab nrab ntawm lub qhov muag, thaum tiv thaiv kab mob keratopathy yooj yim tshwm sim nyob rau ib sab ntawm lub qhov muag.

      A. Ua

      a. Tus mob

      Kev kis tus kab mob feem ntau yog ua rau keratitis. Cov kab mob me me muaj xws li cov kab mob (xws li pneumococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic streptococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gonococcus, thiab lwm yam), kab mob (herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, thiab lwm yam), Fungi, Acanthamoeba, Mycoplasma, Chlamidia, Treponema pallets kab mob feem ntau tshwm sim thaum cov hlab ntsha hauv lub qhov muag puas, poob, lossis lub cev tsis kam raug txo. Corneal epithelium yog qhov nquag kis mob tom qab raug mob.

      Yog li ntawd, lub cev txawv teb chaws ntawm lub qhov muag, qhov txhaws ntawm qhov muag, kev siv qhov muag tsis raug, qhov muag sib cuag nrog cov tshuaj muaj kab mob lossis cov dej hauv dej yog qhov ua rau muaj feem kis tau tus kab mob keratitis. Cov neeg mob ntshav qab zib, kev noj zaub mov tsis zoo, thiab kab mob nkeeg ntev kuj yuav raug kev txom nyem los ntawm keratitis.

      b. Sab hauv yam

      Nws hais txog cov kab mob endogenous los ntawm tag nrho lub cev, xws li qee cov kab mob autoimmune, lossis qee yam kab mob hauv lub cev (xws li tsis muaj vitamin A, trigeminal puas tsuaj rau lub paj hlwb) kis mus rau lub qhov muag.

      Lub qhov muag tsis muaj cov hlab ntshav, yog li cov kab mob sib kis tau yooj yim tsis tuaj yeem nkag rau hauv lub qhov muag. Txawm li cas los xij, cov ntaub so ntswg sib koom nrog kev tiv thaiv kab mob ntawm tag nrho lub cev. Txawm hais tias nws qhov kev tiv thaiv kab mob qis dua li ntawm lwm cov ntaub so ntswg, nws cov metabolism hauv qeeb dua, uas ua rau qhov kev tiv thaiv kab mob no hloov pauv mus ntev. Ua nyob rau hauv lub xeev uas nkag siab, yog li nws muaj peev xwm ua rau muaj kab mob ua xua, xws li vesicular keratitis.

      B. Cov tsos mob tshwm sim

      Tshwj tsis yog keratitis tuag tes tuag taw, feem ntau cov neeg mob keratitis muaj cov tsos mob hnyav, xws li mob, photophobia, los kua muag, thiab blepharospasm. Cov neeg mob keratitis tsis yog tsuas yog ciliary hyperemia tab sis kuj yog iris hyperemia. Hauv cov xwm txheej hnyav, tuaj yeem tshwm sim hauv lub qhov muag sib txuas thiab txawm tias daim tawv muag.

      Cov tsos mob ntawm keratitis tshwm sim los ntawm qhov ua rau sib txawv kuj txawv. Cov kab mob keratitis muaj qhov pib tshwm sim sai tshaj plaws thiab cov tsos mob hnyav tshaj plaws, nrog kev tso zis ntau ntxiv thiab khov. Kab mob keratitis yog qhov thib ob rau nws, nrog ob peb qhov zais zis, uas yog cov dej los yog hnoos zoo li; fungal Keratitis yog qhov me tshaj, thiab qee zaum kab mob hauv lub qhov muag twb hnyav lawm, tab sis cov neeg mob qhov kev xav tsis pom tseeb. Cov neeg mob herpes simplex keratitis tuaj yeem poob qhov muag pom.

      Cov tawv nqaij txhaws yuav cuam tshuam qhov pom kev mus rau qhov ntau dua lossis tsawg dua, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog thaum qhov mob nkag mus rau thaj chaw menyuam kawm ntawv. Cov caws pliav uas tsim tom qab lub qhov txhab zoo tsis yog tsuas yog tiv thaiv lub teeb nkag mus rau hauv lub qhov muag, tab sis tseem hloov pauv qhov nkhaus thiab lub zog rov qab los ntawm lub ntsej muag lub ntsej muag, yog li cov khoom tsis tuaj yeem tsom mus rau lub qhov muag kom pom cov duab meej, yog li txo qhov muag. Qib ntawm kev koom nrog pom kev yog nyob ntawm qhov chaw ntawm qhov caws pliav. Yog tias nws nyob hauv nruab nrab ntawm lub qhov muag, txawm tias qhov caws pliav me me, nws yuav cuam tshuam rau lub zeem muag.

      3. Kab mob Blepharitis

      Cov tawv nqaij nyob ze rau ntawm ntug qhov muag yog "daim tawv muag". Qhov mob ntawm cov plaub muag thiab ntug ntawm daim tawv muag los ntawm kev mob los yog kab mob kis tau hu ua "blepharitis", uas yog ib qho uas ua rau pom qhov muag sab nraud ntau heev. Cov neeg mob yuav hnov ​​mob, khaus, thiab khaus ntawm daim tawv muag. Qee tus neeg mob txawm tias muaj qhov txhab nyob ib ncig ntawm daim tawv muag thiab plaub muag poob.

      A. Cause

      Blepharitis feem ntau yog tshwm sim los ntawm seborrheic dermatitis (kab mob ntawm daim tawv nqaij uas ua rau khaus, khaus khaus, thiab mob o) lossis kis kab mob.

      B. Cov tsos mob

      C. Pawg neeg muaj kev pheej hmoo siab

      Cov tawv muag yog ib qho ntawm cov kabmob uas zais cov qog sebaceous. Cov qog qog ntawm daim tawv muag zais cov rog mus rau saum cov kua muag. Nws lub hom phiaj yog txhawm rau txo qis cov kua muag, tab sis kev tso dej ntau dhau ua rau ua rau mob blepharitis.

      Thaum lub caij ntuj sov kub hnyiab, hws thiab lub cev tso tawm ntau ntxiv. Yog li ntawd, cov neeg uas tsis muaj kev saib xyuas tus kheej qhov muag, tsis mloog zoo rau kev noj zaub mov, feem ntau noj kib, kib thiab lwm yam zaub mov, yuav tsum tau saib xyuas tshwj xeeb rau qhov tshwm sim ntawm blepharitis. Vim tias cov tsos mob thaum ntxov ntawm blepharitis zoo ib yam li ntawm txhua yam kab mob ntawm lub qhov muag, nws yog qhov yooj yim kom tsis txhob saib. Ntau tus neeg mob hauv chav kho mob sab nrauv tsis tau kho kom zoo, yog li tsis tsuas yog lawv feem ntau raug kev txom nyem los ntawm cov tsos mob ntawm blepharitis, tab sis cov tsos mob no txuas ntxiv zuj zus.

      Hauv cov xwm txheej hnyav, stye (liab thiab o ntawm cov qog roj, feem ntau hu ua pinholes) lossis chalazion (o ntawm cov qog qog tsis muaj liab) thiab txawm tias cellulitis feem ntau rov tshwm sim. Ib qho ntxiv, cov tsos mob ntawm blepharitis tuaj yeem kuaj pom tsis raug raws li xerophthalmia, uas ncua kev kho mob. Yog li, nws yog qhov yuav tsum tau siv lub teeb hlais kom pom qhov kev hloov pauv ntawm daim tawv muag kom tsim kev kuaj mob.

      4. Trachoma

      Trachoma yog kab mob sib kis mob sib kis los ntawm Chlamydia trachomatis. Nws yog hu ua trachoma vim nws qhov ntxhib thiab tsis zoo li lub ntsej muag ntawm daim tawv muag sib txuas. Nyob rau theem pib ntawm tus kab mob, muaj qhov nkag mus rau ntawm tus kab mob sib txuas, xws li lub txiv mis thiab lub hauv paus hyperplasia, thiab lub qhov muag daj. Nyob rau theem kawg, qhov cuam tshuam ntawm daim tawv muag sib txuas yog qhov caws pliav, ua rau lub qhov muag hloov pauv ntawm qhov muag, ua rau lub qhov muag puas ntxiv, thiab ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam tsis zoo thiab txawm tias ua rau dig muag. Lub sijhawm tsim tawm yog 5 txog 14 hnub.

      A. Cause

      Tus kab mob no yog kab mob sib kis los ntawm tus kab mob Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia trachomatis feem ntau cuam tshuam rau daim tawv muag sib txuas, uas tej zaum yuav muaj hyperemia thiab cov hlab ntshav plooj, lub txiv mis ua rau lub ntsej muag, ua rau lub ntsej muag hyperplasia, lub qhov muag pom, thiab thaum kawg xaus nrog qhov caws pliav.

      B. Cov tsos mob

      Cov tsos mob tshwm sim feem ntau yog mob hnyav. Tus neeg mob muaj lub cev txawv teb chaws hnov, photophobia, kua muag, thiab ntau cov hnoos qeev lossis cov kua paug tawm. Tom qab ob peb lub lis piam, cov tsos mob hnyav zuj zus thiab nkag mus rau theem mob. Lub sijhawm no, tsis muaj qhov tsis xis nyob lossis tsuas yog lub qhov muag ua kom yuag yuag. Yog tias nws tau kho lossis kho nws tus kheej nyob rau lub sijhawm no, yuav tsis muaj qhov cim tseg.

      Txawm li cas los xij, nyob rau lub sijhawm muaj tus kab mob mus ntev, kev rov kis mob feem ntau tshwm sim hauv thaj chaw muaj kab mob, thiab qhov mob hnyav zuj zus tuaj. Thaum muaj qhov ua kom nquag plias ntawm lub qhov muag, qhov ua rau khaus ntau dua thiab pom kev yuav poob. Hauv theem kawg, cov tsos mob pom tseeb dua, uas cuam tshuam loj heev rau kev pom kev thiab txawm tias qhov muag tsis pom vim tshwm sim tom ntej, xws li entropion, trichiasis, qhov txhab ntawm lub qhov muag thiab qhov muag qhuav.

      C. Kev tiv thaiv

      Chlamydia trachomatis feem ntau txuas nrog qhov zais ntawm qhov muag ntawm cov neeg mob. Ib qho kev sib cuag nrog qhov tso zis no tuaj yeem ua rau mob ntsws. Yog li ntawd, kev tshaj tawm thiab kev kawm yuav tsum tau ntxiv dag zog rau kev coj noj coj ua zoo. Tsis txhob txhuam koj lub qhov muag nrog koj txhais tes, thiab ntxuav thiab so koj cov phuam da dej thiab phuam qhwv caj dab tas li.

      xaus

      Tetracycline qhov muag tshuaj pleev muaj cov txiaj ntsig zoo ntawm qhov muag o. Thiab hauv lub neej txhua hnub, peb yuav tsum ua tib zoo saib lub qhov muag huv thiab huv ntawm daim tawv nqaij, thiab koom nrog kis las ntau zaus txhawm rau ntxiv dag zog rau kev tiv thaiv.

      References

      Cov hniav tetracycline ua li cas?

      tetracycline hniav yog dab tsi?

      Tetracycline yog ib hom tshuaj siv los kho cov kab mob. Nws muaj cov nyhuv staining rau menyuam yaus cov hniav. Yav dhau los, kev kho mob tsis tau saib xyuas cov nyhuv staining ntawm tetracycline cov hniav. Tam sim no cov tshuaj no tsis siv rau hauv cov menyuam yaus thiab cov poj niam cev xeeb tub lawm, tab sis qee cov niam txiv tsis muaj kev nkag siab zoo hauv cheeb tsam no. Thaum tus me nyuam mob, lawv blindly thov tetracycline tshuaj. Yog li ntawd tetracycline cov hniav tseem tuaj yeem pom hauv menyuam yaus.

      Txawm hais tias tus kab mob no hu ua tetracycline hniav, nws yog tiag tiag tsis tsuas yog tshwm sim los ntawm tetracycline, tab sis kuj tshuaj nyiam oxytetracycline, norchlortetracycline, thiab lwm yam. Vim tias cov qauv ntawm cov tshuaj no zoo ib yam li tetracycline. Cov saum toj no yog cov tshuaj tetracycline tsev neeg. Ntawm lawv, tetracycline thiab norchlortetracycline muaj qhov muaj zog tshaj plaws ntawm kev hloov xim. Lawv puas cov hniav thaum lub sij hawm mineralization ntawm cov hniav.

      Lub sijhawm no, cov tshuaj tetracycline uas nkag mus rau tib neeg lub cev ua ke nrog cov calcium hauv cov hniav los tsim cov khoom ruaj khov, uas cuam tshuam rau calcification ntawm cov nqaij tawv tawv ntawm cov hniav thiab ua rau hypoplasia ntawm cov hniav enamel.

      Thaum tus me nyuam tseem tsis tau yug los los yog tseem nyob rau hauv me nyuam mos sai tom qab yug me nyuam, txawm los ntawm 1 mus rau 7, 8 xyoo, cov hniav nyob rau hauv lub sij hawm no yog nyob rau hauv lub mineralization lub sij hawm, thiab kev siv ntawm cov hniav. tetracycline tshuaj tuaj yeem ua tau yooj yim cov hniav discoloration. Tsis tas li ntawd, tetracycline yog rhiab heev rau lub teeb, yog li lub hnub ci thiab ultraviolet rays tuaj yeem ua rau nws hloov xim, thiab xim yuav maj mam zuj zus mus rau lub sijhawm.

      Tej zaum koj yuav xav tias tej zaum yuav tsis muaj teeb meem nrog kev siv tetracycline ib zaug? Qhov tseeb, qhov txaus ntawm tetracycline ib zaug tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev tu siab rau lub neej. Tetracycline cov hniav tsis muaj xim tsis sib xws, uas tsis sib xws ntawm cov hniav. Nws feem ntau stains lub dentin. Cov xim hloov hauv lub teeb daj, tsaus daj, daj xim av, lub teeb grey, grey thiab dub. Qhov no muaj feem xyuam rau qhov loj thiab hom tshuaj. Qee qhov hnyav tetracycline cov hniav tuaj yeem tsim cov enamel hypoplasia, ua rau cov hniav tawv nqaij tsis xws luag. Raws li kev txheeb cais, ze li ntawm 1.3 feem pua ​​​​ntawm cov tub ntxhais kawm muaj tetracycline cov hniav.

      BALLYA muab a tetracyclines xeem los qhia koj yog tias muaj tetracyclines seem hauv cov khoom siv mis uas koj noj txhua hnub.

      Mob Ntshav (Pathogenesis)

      Mob Ntshav (Pathogenesis)
      Mob Ntshav (Pathogenesis)

      Thaum lub sij hawm ntawm kev loj hlob ntawm cov hniav thiab mineralization, tetracycline tsev neeg cov tshuaj noj tuaj yeem nqus tau rau hauv cov ntaub so ntswg kom stain cov hniav.

      Cov nyhuv tseem ceeb ntawm tetracycline ntawm cov hniav yog staining, thiab nws tuaj yeem ua rau enamel hypoplasia. Kev cuam tshuam ntawm tetracycline ntawm cov hniav staining thiab enamel hypoplasia muaj feem xyuam rau cov hauv qab no:

      Soj Ntsuam Nta

      1. Nws qhia tau hais tias ci daj fluorescence nyob rau hauv tshav ntuj, thiab maj mam hloov ntawm daj mus rau xim av los yog tsaus grey. Qhov kev hloov pauv no qeeb thiab tuaj yeem txhawb nqa los ntawm tshav ntuj, thiab daim di ncauj ntawm incisors yog thawj zaug hloov xim.
      2. Cov hniav anterior yog xim ntau dua li cov hniav tom qab. Cov hniav deciduous yog stains ntau dua li cov hniav mus tas li. Vim tias cov enamel ntawm cov hniav deciduous yog nyias thiab pob tshab, nws tsis yooj yim los npog cov xim ntawm tetracycline conjugates hauv cov hniav.
      3. Qib ntawm cov hniav staining muaj feem xyuam rau hom, ntau npaum li cas thiab kev tswj hwm zaus ntawm tetracycline. Nws feem ntau ntseeg tias cov xim uas tshwm sim los ntawm tetracycline, norchlortetracycline, thiab tetracycline hydrochloride yog pom tseeb tshaj qhov uas oxytetracycline thiab chlortetracycline. Tus naj npawb ntawm cov kev kho mob ntawm tetracycline yog ncaj qha proportional rau lub degree ntawm staining thaum nws los txog rau cov hniav mus tas li, tab sis ib tug loj koob tshuaj nyob rau hauv ib tug luv luv lub sij hawm ntawm lub sij hawm muaj ib tug ntau dua cov nyhuv ntawm ib tug sib npaug zos koob tshuaj nyob rau hauv ib tug ntev lub sij hawm.
      4. Tetracycline ua rau cov hniav staining thiab enamel hypoplasia, uas tsuas yog tshwm sim thaum lub sij hawm txhim kho hniav. Yog tias nws tau noj tom qab 6 mus rau 7 xyoo, nws yuav tsis ua rau pom cov hniav discoloration.

      tetracycline cov hniav puas tuaj yeem ntxuav tau?

      Can-tetracycline-teeth-be-whiteened
      Can-tetracycline-teeth-be-whiteened

      1. Tshiab resin kho kom zoo nkauj

      Nws yog qhov tsim nyog rau cov neeg mob uas tsis kam tshem cov hniav ntau dhau thiab xav tau cov nqi kho mob tsawg thiab ua kom dawb ceev.

      Standard:

      Resin kho kom zoo nkauj zoo li yog cov txheej txheem yooj yim, tab sis nyob rau hauv lub tsev kho mob, muaj ntau qhov ua tsis tiav tau pom. Yog vim li cas yog tias tsis muaj kev nkag siab tob txog niaj hnub ntau yam khoom siv cob thiab kev sib txuas lus. Nyob rau hauv cov txheej txheem kho mob, nws yog ib qho tsim nyog yuav tsum tau ua tib zoo sib piv cov xim, nruj me ntsis txwv tsis pub ya raws, tshem tawm cov caries, tiv thaiv cov tawv nqaij, txheej filling, ntse shading, txaus solidification, cwm pwm shaping, ceev faj blending, siab polishing, thiab ntug sealing. Txhua kauj ruam yuav tsum tau ua tib zoo saib xyuas, thiab txhua qhov kev tsis saib xyuas yuav ua rau poob qis ntawm kev ua tiav ntawm kev kho kom zoo nkauj. Tsuav nws tau ua tib zoo kho, qhov kev kho kom zoo tuaj yeem tau txais.

      2. Cov plooj (veneer)

      Kev kho mob tshiab kawg rau qhov hnyav tetracycline cov hniav Kev kho mob yog tsim rau cov neeg mob uas muaj tetracycline cov hniav uas tsis kam tshem tawm cov hniav ntau.

      Cov Porcelain veneers pib hauv Tebchaws Meskas thaum xyoo 1980s. Vim hais tias cov hniav ntuj raug tshem tawm tsawg dua, thiab cov xim, cov duab, kev teeb tsa, thiab qhov loj ntawm cov hniav tuaj yeem hloov pauv kom ua tiav cov txiaj ntsig zoo nkauj thiab kav ntev, yog li nws dhau los ua txoj kev kho kom zoo nkauj nrov tshaj plaws hauv Tebchaws Europe thiab Asmeskas.

      Cov Porcelain veneers yog cov pobzeb zoo li cov pobzeb uas tau nplaum rau ntawm cov hniav. Cov khoom siv feem ntau siv rau plooj (veneers) veneers yog feldspar porcelain thiab tshiab IPS EMPREE cam khwb cia ceramics. EMPRESS yog ib hom leucite-txhim kho nrog tsawg casting shrinkage thiab siab kho qhov tseeb. Porcelain veneer yog translucent, zoo ib yam li cov hniav enamel. Porcelain veneers siv cov enamel txheej ntawm cov hniav thiab cia siab rau lub zog siab resin bonding los muab kev tuav txaus.

      zoo

      A. Kev Nyab Xeeb

      Muaj cov ntaub so ntswg tsawg uas tsim los ntawm kev sib tsoo, uas tuaj yeem txuag tau ntau cov ntaub so ntswg yam tsis tau tua cov hlab ntsha, tswj cov sequelae ntawm kev ua tiav cov yas rov qab zoo li cov tawv nqaij o thiab necrosis tom qab phais, thiab tuaj yeem tswj xyuas cov hniav mus ntev. .

      B. Zoo nkauj

      Zoo pob tshab thiab shading, nrog cov yam ntxwv kho qhov muag tib yam li cov ntaub so ntswg ntuj, tsis muaj cov khoom siv hlau, uas qhia qhov zoo nkauj zoo nkauj, thiab yuav tsis muaj cov kab dub ntau hauv cov hniav porcelain. Muaj tsib xim sib txawv ntawm cov plooj (porcelain blocks) xaiv los ntawm thaum ua cov plooj (veneer) cam khwb cia. Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, dyeing sab nraud tuaj yeem siv los kho cov xim zoo nkauj. Muaj tsib qhov sib txawv ntawm cov nplaum nplaum thiab cov neeg ua haujlwm dawb opaque rau kev soj ntsuam kev sib raug zoo uas tuaj yeem siv los pab kho cov xim ntawm cov plooj (veneer) kom ua tiav cov txiaj ntsig kev zoo nkauj tag nrho. Thiab lub siab hnav tsis kam thiab tsis muaj xim ntawm cov plooj (porcelain) nws tus kheej tuaj yeem ua tiav cov nyhuv whitening mus tas li.

      C. Health

      Porcelain veneer muaj lub teeb xa tawm zoo heev, thiab cov pos hniav tuaj yeem ua kom tiaj tus thaum npaj cov hniav, uas yog qhov zoo rau kev xav thiab kev sib txuas. Qhov chaw uas txuas nrog cov pos hniav kuj tsuas yog nyob rau sab labial, uas ua rau cov pos hniav tsawg dua. Yuav tsis muaj qhov hloov pauv ntawm cov pos hniav tshwm sim los ntawm cov hlau ions ntawm cov hniav hlau porcelain. Lub hardness ntawm cov plooj (porcelain crown) yog ntau dua li cov hniav enamel, uas tuaj yeem ua rau hnav ntawm cov hniav ntawm lub puab tsaig. Lub hardness ntawm IPS Empress cam khwb cia porcelain yog qis dua enamel, uas tuaj yeem tiv thaiv lub puab tsaig sab nraud.

      D. Xis

      Kev kho kom zoo nkauj tag nrho yuav tsum tau zom cov hniav ntuj ntawm sab lingual, thiab cov hniav ntawm sab lingual feem ntau noj qab nyob zoo, thiab nyob rau hauv lub xeev feem ntau sib koom tes nrog tus nplaig thiab cov hniav antagonist. Qhov zoo tshaj plaws plooj (porcelain crown) tsis tuaj yeem rov qab los rau cov xwm txheej dhau los. Porcelain veneer restoration khaws cia feem ntau lossis txawm tias tag nrho cov duab zoo nkauj, tiv thaiv lub puab tsaig sab nraud.

      tsis zoo

      3. Ultra-precision porcelain crown kho dua tshiab

      Nws yog qhov tsim nyog rau tetracycline hnyav cov hniav nrog kev kho hniav hypoplasia lossis cov hniav tsis muaj zog, cov hniav rov tetracycline, thiab lwm yam.

      Tetracyclic bisque plooj (porcelain crown restoration) tuaj yeem tau txais cov txiaj ntsig zoo nkauj zoo tshaj plaws, tab sis kev zoo nkauj tsis yog qhov teeb meem tseem ceeb tshaj plaws rau tetracyclic bisque porcelain crown kho dua tshiab. Txawm tias tus kws kho hniav nruab nrab feem ntau tuaj yeem ua rau lub plooj (porcelain crown) nrog cov xim sib txawv kiag li ntawm qhov qub.

      Qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws yog kom tau txais cov txiaj ntsig zoo nkauj zoo tshaj plaws thaum tswj kev noj qab haus huv ntawm cov hniav mus ntev, vim tias muaj hnub nyoog ntawm cov neeg mob hnyav. tetracycline cov hniav yog nyob nruab nrab ntawm 30 thiab 40 xyoo, thiab lub hnub nyoog nruab nrab ntawm lub neej yog 80, uas txhais tau hais tias cov hniav no yuav tsum kav ntev li 40 xyoo.

      Porcelain crown restoration yuav tsum muaj qee yam ntawm cov hniav kom tau abraded, yog li muaj qee qhov kev puas tsuaj rau cov hniav. Yuav ua li cas kom tau txais cov txiaj ntsig zoo nkauj zoo tshaj plaws nrog tus nqi tsawg kawg nkaus ntawm lub cev thiab cov txiaj ntsig zoo rau lub sijhawm ntev? Nws xav kom cov kws kho mob kom muaj lub luag haujlwm siab, kev hlub, kev ua haujlwm zoo thiab lub hauv paus zoo theoretical.

      xaus

      Tetracycline cov hniav feem ntau tshwm sim los ntawm kev nqus ntawm tshuaj tetracycline los ntawm cov placenta los yog pub mis thaum lub sij hawm tus me nyuam txoj kev loj hlob ntawm cov hniav. Tetracycline cov hniav tuaj yeem ua rau cov menyuam yaus muaj kev ntseeg tus kheej thiab kev ntseeg tus kheej. Txawm hais tias muaj ntau txoj hauv kev rau kev kho mob tom qab, nws nyuaj thiab siv sijhawm. Yog li txoj kev zoo tshaj yog tiv thaiv nws ntxov.

      References

      Tetracycline yog dab tsi?

      Tetracycline yog dab tsi?

      1. Lus txhais

      Tetracycline yog cov organic sib xyaw nrog cov qauv molecular C₂₂H₂₄N₂O₈. Nws thiab nws cov ntsev yog daj lossis lub teeb daj muaju. Lawv ruaj khov heev hauv lub xeev qhuav. Tsuas yog chlortetracycline, cov kua dej ntawm lwm yam tetracyclines yog qhov ruaj khov. Tetracyclines yog soluble hauv dilute acids, alkalis, thiab lwm yam, me ntsis soluble hauv dej thiab qis cawv, tab sis tsis yaj hauv ether thiab roj av ether.

      BALLYA muab a tetracyclines xeem los qhia koj yog tias muaj tetracyclines seem hauv cov khoom siv mis uas koj noj txhua hnub.

      2. Tetracycline Hoob

      Tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob feem ntau suav nrog tshuaj aureomycin, terramycin, doxycycline thiab tetracycline. Tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob muaj cov tshuaj sib xyaw ua niam txiv. Chlortetracycline thiab oxytetracycline yog ob qho tib si ntawm tetracycline. Tus qub yog chloretracyelin thiab tom kawg yog oxyeracyein. Tsev neeg tetracycline yog txhua yam kua qaub-puag amphoteric sib txuas.

      3. Lub cev nqaij thiab tshuaj muaj zog

      Tetracycline muaj cov qauv tshuaj molecular ntawm C22H24N2O8 thiab lub cev hnyav ntawm 444.45. Nws yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav dav. Nws yog cov xim daj uas muaj qhov iab iab thiab cov ntsiab lus melting 170 ~ 175 ℃ (decomposition). Nws yog me ntsis soluble hauv dej, soluble hauv ethanol thiab acetone, ruaj khov hauv huab cua, tab sis yooj yim nqus dej, hloov xim los ntawm tshav ntuj muaj zog.

      4. Dab tsi yog tetracycline siv rau?

      Tetracycline hydrochloride hmoov yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav dav. Nws muaj qhov cuam tshuam rau feem ntau cov kab mob gram-positive thiab gram-negative. Qhov siab siab muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob, thiab tuaj yeem tiv thaiv rickettsia, kab mob trachoma, thiab lwm yam, thiab muaj cov txiaj ntsig zoo dua ntawm gram-negative bacilli. Nws cov txheej txheem ntawm kev ua yog feem ntau los tiv thaiv kev sib xyaw ntawm aminoacyl thiab ribonucleoprotein lub cev, tiv thaiv kev loj hlob ntawm peptide saw thiab protein synthesis, yog li inhibiting kev loj hlob ntawm cov kab mob. Nws kuj muaj cov kab mob bactericidal ntawm qhov siab.

      Muaj kev tiv thaiv khaub thuas ntawm tetracycline thiab oxytetracycline. Clinically, nws feem ntau yog siv rau cov kab mob dysentery, trachoma, tus mob hnoos qeev, mob ntsws, mob ntsws ua paug, kab mob ntawm daim tawv nqaij, otitis media, thiab lwm yam.

      Tetracycline feem ntau yog muab rho tawm los ntawm kab lis kev cai broth ntawm Streptomyces viridans lossis dechlorinated los ntawm chlortetracycline. Nws tsis yog tshuaj lom heev. Tab sis tetracycline pob txuv feem ntau tshwm sim, xws li xeev siab, ntuav, tsis qab los, kis ob zaug, cuam tshuam rau pob txha thiab cov hniav loj hlob, thiab lwm yam.

      5. Keeb kwm

      Muaj peb tiam ntawm tshuaj tua kab mob tetracycline. Thawj cov khoom tsim tawm: chlortetracycline, tetracycline thiab oxytetracycline yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob ntuj, uas tau siv dav vim lawv qhov dav, siv tau yooj yim, thiab cov yam ntxwv kev lag luam.

      Tom qab ntawd, nws tau pom tias cov qauv tshuaj lom neeg ntawm cov tshuaj tua kab mob no tsis ruaj khov txaus, thiab lawv pheej muaj tshuaj tiv thaiv. Kev tiv thaiv kab mob hnyav tau coj mus rau qhov xav tau nrawm los tsim cov tshuaj tua kab mob tetracycline tshiab. Los ntawm kev hloov kho cov txheej txheem dav dav, lub cim thib ob ib nrab hluavtaws tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob sawv cev los ntawm doxycycline thiab minocycline. Cov tshuaj tua kab mob zoo li no yog lipophilic ntau dua thiab muaj txiaj ntsig zoo rau kev nqus ntawm tes. Txawm li cas los xij, nyob rau xyoo tsis ntev los no, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob kuj tau tshwm sim tas li, uas txwv nws txoj kev siv tshuaj kho mob.

      Xyoo 2005, Asmeskas Khoom Noj thiab Tshuaj Yeeb Tshuaj (FDA) tau pom zoo ua lag luam ntawm tigecycline, uas muaj qhov cuam tshuam loj rau kev siv tshuaj ntau-resistant Staphylococcus aureus thiab vancomycin tshuaj-cov kab mob tiv taus. Qhov tshwm sim ntawm cov tshuaj tua kab mob glycylcycline sawv cev los ntawm nws tau cim lub hnub yug ntawm tiam thib peb ntawm tetracycline.

      Vim tias cov tshuaj tsim nyog rau kev ua haujlwm tetracycline thib peb tiv thaiv cov kab mob tsis haum tshuaj yog kom muaj ntau yam kev hloov pauv ntawm D ntiv nplhaib, xws li glycyl, dimethylamino, fluoro thiab lwm yam, nws nyuaj heev los tsim cov qauv no siv yav dhau los ib nrab hluavtaws txoj kev. Nws yog qhov tsim nyog los tsim kho tshiab thiab muaj txiaj ntsig tag nrho cov txheej txheem los tsim D-ring ntau qhov hloov pauv tetracycline pob txha. Qhov no tseem yog qhov kev tshawb fawb ntawm tetracycline los ntawm kev sib xyaw ib nrab mus rau lub sijhawm tshiab ntawm kev sib xyaw tag nrho.

      Antibacterial mechanism thiab tiv thaiv mechanism

      Antibacterial-mechanism-thiab-tsis kam-mechanism
      Antibacterial-mechanism-thiab-tsis kam-mechanism

      1. Tetracycline mechanism ntawm kev nqis tes ua

      Cov txheej txheem tua kab mob ntawm ntau cov tshuaj tua kab mob yog cuam tshuam nrog cov txheej txheem ntawm kev faib cov cell sab hauv lossis sab nraum cov kab mob. Tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob tsim kev thim rov qab ua ke nrog 30S subunit ntawm cov kab mob ribosome txhawm rau tiv thaiv cov protein sib sau thiab muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob. Thaum cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob qis, qhov kev sib tw thim rov qab sib tw no tseem yuav plam nws cov txiaj ntsig, thiab cov kab mob sib txuas ua ke cov protein yuav txuas ntxiv mus.

      Tetracycline tseem tuaj yeem cuam tshuam cov synthesis ntawm mitochondrial protein los ntawm kev khi rau mitochondrial 70S subunit. Tetracycline muaj qhov sib zog ua kom muaj peev xwm rau 80S subunit ntawm eukaryotic ribosomes, yog li lub peev xwm los tiv thaiv cov protein sib sau hauv cov hlwb eukaryotic kuj tseem qaug zog. Qhov no yuav yog qhov laj thawj vim li cas tetracycline muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob muaj zog tab sis muaj kev phiv me me rau tib neeg.

      2. Kuj mechanism

      Vim tias tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob tau siv dav rau kev kho kab mob hauv tib neeg thiab tsiaj txhu tau ntev, cov tshuaj tiv taus kab mob tshwm sim nyob rau xyoo tas los no. Muaj peb lub tswv yim tseem ceeb ntawm kev tiv thaiv tshuaj: ua kom muaj txiaj ntsig zoo ntawm tetracycline los ntawm lub tshuab nqus dej (xws li protein tet A); kev tiv thaiv kab mob ribosome (xws li protein tet M) kom cais tawm tetracycline los ntawm 30S subunit; Enzymatic hydrolysis.

      Vim yog siv tetracycline mus ntev, tau pom cov kab mob tetracycline-resistant. Qhov tsis kam ntawm cov kab mob mus rau tetracyclines feem ntau yog tshwm sim los ntawm kev tiv thaiv. Tom qab thawj qhov kev raug mob tau txais cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob, cov kab mob tiv taus yuav tsim, thiab cov tshuaj tiv thaiv no muaj nyob hauv plasmid lossis hloov chaw.

      3. Tetracycline tiv taus noob

      Cov txheej txheem ntawm kev ua: Tetracycline tuaj yeem khi rau cov protein ntawm 30S subunit ntawm ribosome, yog li ua rau cuam tshuam cov txheej txheem hloov pauv ntawm ribosome. Nws suav cov protein-membrane sib cais ua los ntawm 399 amino acids, uas tiv thaiv tetracycline nkag mus rau hauv cov cell.

      Tetracycline phiv los

      Tetracycline yog cov tshuaj sawv cev ntawm cov tshuaj tua kab mob tetracycline, nrog rau cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav, thiab pom tau tias muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob zoo rau feem ntau cov kab mob Gram-positive thiab tsis zoo.

      1. Cov tsos mob ntawm txoj hnyuv

      Nov yog ib qho tshwm sim tshwm sim ntawm kev noj tshuaj tetracycline ntsiav tshuaj. Qee tus neeg mob yuav muaj kev txawv txav ntawm xeev siab, ntuav, raws plab, tsis xis nyob hauv plab thiab lwm yam tsos mob tom qab noj tetracycline ntsiav tshuaj. Nws tau pom zoo tias koj yuav tsum ua lub cev qoj ib ce tom qab noj tshuaj thiab tsis txhob pw hauv txaj tam sim ntawd txhawm rau txo qhov khaus ntawm tetracycline mus rau txoj hnyuv.

      2. Siab toxicity

      Cov neeg mob noj tetracycline ntsiav tshuaj, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau lub sijhawm ntev, muaj qhov tshwm sim siab ntawm cov rog rog ua kom lub cev tsis zoo thiab hepatotoxicity, thiab tetracycline ntsiav tshuaj tseem tuaj yeem ua rau mob pancreatitis. Kuv vam tias txhua tus yuav ua tib zoo mloog.

      3. Kev Ntsuas

      Noj cov tshuaj tetracycline, cov neeg mob yuav ntsib pob khaus maculopapular thiab erythema, thiab qee tus neeg mob yuav pom cov tsos mob ntawm urticaria lossis ua xua purpura, lossis ua rau pom cov tsos mob ntawm daim tawv nqaij qub. Thiab ob peb tus neeg mob yuav muaj qhov pom kev zoo thaum noj tshuaj tetracycline. Nws tau pom zoo tias cov neeg mob noj tshuaj tetracycline kom tsis txhob kis lub cev.

      4. Ntshav System

      Tom qab noj cov tshuaj tetracycline yuav ua rau pom cov tsos mob xws li thrombocytopenia thiab leukopenia, thiab qee tus neeg mob yuav muaj cov tsos mob ntawm hemolytic anemia. Nws tau pom zoo tias kev txheeb xyuas kev tshuaj xyuas yuav tsum tau ua tas li tom qab noj cov tshuaj tetracycline.

      5. Kev Nruab Nruab Nruab Nrab

      Tom qab noj cov tshuaj tetracycline, qee cov neeg mob yuav muaj kev nce siab hauv lub cev xws li mob taub hau, ntuav, thiab lwm yam. Cov neeg mob yuav tsum tso tseg cov tshuaj tam sim yog tias cov tsos mob tshwm sim.

      6. Nephrotoxicity

      Qee cov neeg mob noj tshuaj tetracycline yuav muaj cov tsos mob xws li hyperphosphatemia thiab acidosis, thiab qee cov neeg mob yuav ua rau pom cov tsos mob qub ntawm cov kab mob hauv lub raum.

      7. Kab mob sib kis

      Kev siv cov tshuaj tetracycline mus sij hawm ntev tuaj yeem ua rau cov tshuaj tsis haum thiab ua rau mob hnyav ntxiv ntawm txoj hnyuv, tso zis, thiab ua pa ua pa.

      8. Cov pob txha

      Tetracycline muaj kev cuam tshuam rau kev loj hlob thiab kev loj hlob ntawm cov pob txha thiab cov hniav, thiab tseem tuaj yeem ua rau tetracycline cov hniav. Yog li ntawd, poj niam cev xeeb tub, cov hluas thiab cov poj niam pub niam mis raug txwv tsis pub siv cov tshuaj no.

      Kev Tshawb Nrhiav

      Nrhiav-Txoj Kev
      Nrhiav-Txoj Kev

      Txoj kev txiav txim siab ntawm tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob feem ntau suav nrog txoj hauv kev tiv thaiv kab mob microbial, ntxim nyiam microbial receptor txoj kev ntsuas, enzyme-txuas immunoassay, spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis chromatography, txheej txheej chromatography, ua tau zoo chromatography, kua chromatography-huab hwm coj spectrometry thiab lwm yam.

      Tom qab cov qauv raug rho tawm thiab ua kom huv, cov tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob tuaj yeem sib cais los ntawm cov txheej txheej nyias nyias chromatography lossis cov kua chromatography, thiab tom qab ntawd txiav txim siab ntau los ntawm spectrophotometric, fluorescence lossis huab hwm coj spectrometry nrhiav pom.

      1. Txoj kev microbiological

      Txoj kev microbiological yog ib qho kev tshuaj xyuas ib txwm rau kev txiav txim siab ntawm tetracyclines thiab lwm yam tshuaj tua kab mob. Cov kab mob me me feem ntau muaj qhov ua rau nkag siab tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob. Nws yog qhov tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau qee yam tetracyclines, yog li txoj kev tiv thaiv kab mob microbial tseem siv tau. Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 yog cov kab mob me me uas siv los tshuaj xyuas tetracyclines. Nws qhov rhiab heev rau chlortetracycline yog 0.005 mg/L, thiab 0.025mg/L rau tetracycline thiab oxytetracycline, 0.001 ~ 0.002 mg/L rau minocycline.

      Piv nrog rau lwm txoj hauv kev ntsuas, kev tiv thaiv kab mob microbial yog yooj yim rau kev khiav lag luam, tus nqi qis, thiab tsis xav tau cov cuab yeej siv ntse thiab cov txheej txheem ua piv txwv nyuaj ua ntej, yog li nws haum rau kev tshuaj xyuas ntau qhov qauv. Qhov tsis zoo tshaj plaws ntawm txoj kev tiv thaiv kab mob microbial yog tias nws tsis tuaj yeem paub qhov txawv ntawm hom tetracyclines tshwj xeeb, yog li nws nyuaj rau kev ua kom muaj nuj nqis ntau dua.

      2. Indirect enzyme-txuas immunosorbent assay

      Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob ncaj qha tuaj yeem siv los tshuaj xyuas tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob hauv mis. Tetracycline bovine serum albumin conjugate yog siv rau kev npaj tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob, homologous tetracycline-casein conjugate tau siv los ua cov tshuaj reagent, thiab tshis tiv thaiv kab laum IgG-horseradish peroxidase yog siv ua tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thib ob.

      Cov qauv mis nyuj tau muab centrifuged rau defatted, diluted nrog phosphate buffer ntawm qhov sib piv tsawg kawg 1:30, thiab tom qab ntawd txiav txim ncaj qha los ntawm enzyme immunoassay. Qhov ntsuas pom tuaj yeem ncav cuag 5 ng/g. Vim tias cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob siv hauv txoj kev no muaj feem cuam tshuam nrog chlortetracycline Yog li ntawd, txawm hais tias txoj kev no tsis siv los tshuaj xyuas tetracyclines, qhov txwv tsis pub tshaj rau chlortetracycline yog qis li 5 ng/g. Vim tias muaj kev hla dhau cov tshuaj tiv thaiv thiab cov txiaj ntsig tsis raug siab ntau, kev siv tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob feem ntau yog siv thawj txoj hauv kev tshuaj xyuas rau kev kuaj pom tetracyclines.

      xaus

      Tetracycline yog dab tsi? Thaum ntxov thaum tsim tetracycline, nws yog txoj moo zoo ntawm noob neej. Nws daws tau ntau yam kab mob nyuaj nyuaj hauv lub sijhawm ntawd. Tshuaj tua kab mob tau tsim txom thiab tsim cov tshuaj tiv thaiv vim qhov no "cov txiaj ntsig ua kom zoo" Thiab tam sim no, yuav daws qhov teeb meem ntawm tetracycline tsis kam yuav yog teeb meem rau noob neej li cas.

      References

      Cov kev mob tshwm sim doxycycline feem ntau yog dab tsi?

      Doxycycline yog dab tsi?

      1. Lus txhais

      Doxycycline yog ib hom ntawm tetracyclines, uas tuaj yeem kho tus mob Mycoplasma chlamydia. Nws yog daj ntseg daj lossis daj crystalline hmoov, tsw ntxhiab thiab iab. Nws yooj yim soluble hauv dej thiab methanol, me ntsis soluble hauv ethanol thiab acetone, thiab tsis yaj hauv chloroform.

      Doxycycline yog hom tshuaj tua kab mob tshwj xeeb uas tuaj yeem tua tau ntau yam kab mob hauv lub cev uas nyuaj rau tua los ntawm lwm cov tshuaj tua kab mob, suav nrog cov kab mob thiab kab mob parasites. Parasites tuaj yeem tswj hwm cov cell ua cov kab mob hauv lub cev ntev, yog li nws nyuaj rau tua los ntawm ntau yam tshuaj tua kab mob. Tab sis doxycycline cov kev mob tshwm sim tsis yog yam uas peb yuav tsum saib xyuas.

      Tsis zoo li lwm hom tshuaj tua kab mob, doxycycline tuaj yeem nkag mus rau hauv cov ntaub so ntswg thiab thaum kawg nkag mus rau cov cell, qhov twg cov tshuaj tua kab mob tuaj yeem tua cov kab mob. Ntau yam kab mob hauv lub cev uas nkag siab rau doxycycline suav nrog ntau yam kab mob uas ua rau muaj kab mob zoonotic, chlamydia, legionella, thiab plasmodium. Lwm yam kab mob me me muaj xws li spirochetes thiab kab mob ua rau pob txuv, Bacillus anthracis, thiab Vibrio cholerae.

      2. muaj nuj nqi

      Nws cov kab mob tua kab mob yog ib puag ncig zoo ib yam li ntawm tshuaj tetracycline thiab oxytetracycline, thiab lub zog tiv thaiv kab mob hauv vivo thiab hauv vitro muaj zog dua li ntawm tetracycline. Cov kab mob me me muaj kev tiv thaiv kev hla mus rau doxycycline, tetracycline thiab oxytetracycline.

      Nws feem ntau yog siv rau kab mob ua pa sab saud, tonsillitis, kab mob hauv lub cev, mob lymphadenitis, cellulitis, mob ntsws ntev, thiab lwm yam tshwm sim los ntawm cov kab mob gram-positive thiab bacilli gram-negative. Nws kuj tseem siv los kho tus mob typhus, Tsutsugamushi, mycoplasma pneumonia, thiab lwm yam. Nws tseem tuaj yeem siv los kho tus mob raws plab, thiab tiv thaiv kab mob falciparum malaria thiab Leptospira.

      3. Nta

      Doxycycline hydrochloride feem ntau siv, uas yog lub teeb daj lossis daj crystalline hmoov; ntxhiab thiab iab. Nws yooj yim soluble hauv dej thiab methanol, me ntsis soluble hauv ethanol thiab acetone, thiab tsis yaj hauv chloroform. Qee cov tshuaj siv hluavtaws uas muaj doxycycline muaj feem cuam tshuam nrog cov tshuaj ions hlau hauv dej, tsim cov tshuaj liab thiab txo qhov ua tau zoo.

      4. Mechanism ntawm Action

      Doxycycline tuaj yeem cuam tshuam nrog kev muaj peev xwm ntawm cov kab mob microbial los tsim cov protein. Cov protein yog lub hauv paus tseem ceeb ntawm lub neej. Kev tsim cov protein hauv cov hlwb feem ntau ua tiav hauv ribosomes, thiab cov txheej txheem no yog qhov tsim nyog rau kev muaj sia nyob ntawm txhua lub cev. Doxycycline tua cov kab mob thiab cab, tab sis tsis muaj kev cuam tshuam rau peb tus kheej lub hlwb. Qhov laj thawj yog tias tib neeg lub cev muaj cov qauv ribosomal sib txawv ntawm cov kab mob yooj yim.

      Doxycycline Siv

      Doxycycline-Siv
      Doxycycline-Siv

      1. indications

      Nws feem ntau yog siv los kho kev ua pa, tso zis thiab tso pa tawm los ntawm cov kab mob rhiab. Cov kab mob tua kab mob yog ib yam tib yam li tetracycline thiab oxytetracycline, thiab lub zog tua kab mob muaj zog dua li tetracycline. Cov kab mob me me muaj kev tiv thaiv ze rau doxycycline, tetracycline thiab oxytetracycline. Nws kuj tseem siv rau kev kho tus mob typhus, Qiang trypanosomiasis, mycoplasma pneumonia, thiab lwm yam.

      Hauv kev kho mob mus sij hawm ntev, nws tau pom tias doxycycline yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob zoo. Nws yog qhov ua yeeb yam ntev thiab dav-spectrum semi-hluavtaws tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob ua los ntawm oxytetracycline. Qhov laj thawj yog vim li cas doxycycline siv los kho mob ntsws ntev ua haujlwm zoo yog:

      2. siv

      Vim tias doxycycline tuaj yeem tua kab mob ntau yam uas cuam tshuam rau kev ua pa ntawm lub cev, nws feem ntau yog siv los kho mob ntsws thiab mob ntsws. Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, cov tshuaj tua kab mob no tseem siv dav los kho pob txuv doxycycline thiab cov kab mob urogenital. Doxycycline feem ntau muab ua tshuaj ntsiav lossis ntsiav tshuaj ntawm qhov ncauj, tab sis qee zaum nws kuj tau muab los ntawm txhaj tshuaj. Tom qab noj tshuaj doxycycline, nws yuav ua rau muaj txiaj ntsig rau qee lub sijhawm, uas txhais tau hais tias cov tshuaj tuaj yeem siv tsis tau tsuas yog kho, tab sis kuj yog kev tiv thaiv kev kho mob rau lub cev.

      Tam sim no, doxycycline tau siv dav los ntawm cov neeg ncig tebchaws lossis cov tub rog ua haujlwm rau cov tebchaws nyob rau thaj chaw sov los tiv thaiv qee yam kab mob, xws li tiv thaiv tib neeg los ntawm kev kis tus kab mob npaws npaws. Doxycycline kuj tseem tuaj yeem tiv thaiv kab mob ntau yam uas ua rau raws plab. Txhawm rau tiv thaiv kev kis mob tau zoo, thaum cov neeg mob muaj kev pheej hmoo kis mob, lawv yuav tsum siv tshuaj txhua hnub.

      Doxycycline muaj peev xwm tawm tsam cov npe kab mob uas siv hauv kev ua tsov rog, suav nrog Bacillus anthracis. Yog li cov tshuaj no tuaj yeem siv ua txoj hauv kev tiv thaiv kom muaj txiaj ntsig los tiv thaiv tib neeg los ntawm kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev ua tsov rog los ntawm cov kab mob lossis qhov txaus ntshai los ntawm cov neeg phem tawm bacillus anthracis.

      3. Siv tsiaj kho tsiaj

      4. txoj kev loj hlob

      Kev txhim kho ntawm doxycycline yog ua raws cov kws tshawb fawb tshawb pom tshuaj penicillin, uas yog cov khoom ib txwm ua los ntawm cov pwm tshwj xeeb. Ntau lub tuam txhab kws tshuaj tau pib tshawb xyuas cov txheej txheem thiab cov khoom ntawm ntau lub ntuj sib txuas los tua cov kab mob, xws li cov uas tsim los ntawm lwm cov kab mob thiab nroj tsuag. Cov txheej txheem no hu ua bio-discovery. Cov khoom sib xyaw ntuj no tuaj yeem nqa qee yam tshuaj tua kab mob, thiab tom qab hloov cov khoom sib xyaw ua ke tuaj yeem txhim kho cov tshuaj sib xyaw tam sim no.

      Zoo li ntau yam tshuaj tua kab mob, doxycycline yog rhiab heev rau cov tshuaj tua kab mob uas tiv taus cov tshuaj tua kab mob, thiab muaj pov thawj pom tias qhov kev raug mob no tau pib tshwm sim hauv ntau yam kab mob uas doxycycline tau siv dav, xws li kev kho pob txuv. Qhov no txhais tau tias kev siv doxycycline yuav tsum raug txo lossis qee qhov hloov los ntawm qee yam tshuaj siv. Tau kawg, cov kws tshawb fawb yuav tsum tau tshawb fawb ntau ntxiv thiab tshawb fawb nyob rau theem tom ntej txhawm rau nrhiav lwm txoj hauv kev tshiab.

      Cov kev mob tshwm sim ntawm Doxycycline

      Doxycycline-kev mob tshwm sim
      Doxycycline-kev mob tshwm sim

      1. Kev phiv tshuaj

      2. Sab los

      Qhov feem ntau tau tshaj tawm cov kev mob tshwm sim ntawm doxycycline yog mob plab lossis kub cev, uas feem ntau tsis zoo rau cov neeg mob, tab sis cov neeg mob tuaj yeem tiv thaiv kev phiv tshwm sim los ntawm doxycycline los ntawm kev haus dej ntau. Nees nkaum feem pua ​​ntawm cov neeg uas siv cov tshuaj feem ntau muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob, uas yog qhov tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau cov neeg taug kev uas siv tshuaj rau kev tiv thaiv kab mob npaws hauv cov tebchaws sov.

      Doxycycline yuav tsum tsis txhob siv rau menyuam yaus thiab poj niam cev xeeb tub, nws yuav ua rau cov xim siv tas mus li, thiab nws tseem yuav muaj lwm yam kev tsis zoo rau kev txhim kho pob txha ntawm tus menyuam hauv plab. Doxycycline kuj tseem tuaj yeem ua rau muaj tshuaj lom ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob-methotrexate.

      3. Yuav ua li cas zam kev phiv los ntawm doxycycline?

      Kev txhim kho yav tom ntej ntawm doxycycline

      Tsis ntev los no, thaum cov kws tshawb fawb tau sib cav txog cov kev phiv los ntawm kev siv tshuaj tua kab mob malarial Mefloquine siv hauv kev tiv thaiv cov tub rog thiab cov neeg tawg rog, lawv hais txog lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb doxycycline ua si hauv kev hloov tshuaj Mefloquine. Yog lawm, tam sim no feem ntau ntseeg tias mefloquine yuav tsum yog cov tshuaj muaj txiaj ntsig zoo los tiv thaiv tus mob npaws, tab sis qhov txaus siab dua, cov txiaj ntsig ntawm kev tshawb fawb yav dhau los tau qhia tias muaj coob tus neeg nyiam siv mefloquine rau doxycycline. Qhov no yuav cuam tshuam txog kev phiv tshuaj doxycycline, thiab vim tias doxycycline xav tau noj txhua hnub, nws yuav ua rau muaj kev tsis txaus ntseeg ntau rau cov neeg mob.

      Cov kev tshawb fawb tsis ntev los no tau pom tias doxycycline tuaj yeem cuam tshuam rau cov txheej txheem tshwj xeeb hauv tib neeg lub hlwb, tshwj xeeb yog chav kawm ntawm cov enzymes uas tseem ceeb heev rau lub cev ua rau cov lus teb. Cov yam ntxwv no yuav muaj txiaj ntsig zoo, thiab nws tuaj yeem pab tshawb fawb txhim kho kev kho mob rau ntau yam kab mob, kho tshiab rau kab mob sib kis, suav nrog mob qog noj ntshav (tshwj xeeb yog mob qog noj ntshav nrog pob txha), kab mob autoimmune (suav nrog mob rheumatoid mob caj dab thiab ntau yam sclerosis), kab mob atherosclerotic (plaques uas ua rau mob plawv). Txawm li cas los xij, kev thov cov kev kho mob tshiab tam sim no tsuas yog nyob hauv theem sim. Cov kws tshawb fawb tau hais tias lawv yuav tshawb nrhiav txuas ntxiv mus.

      xaus

      Doxycycline yog tshuaj tua kab mob tetracycline uas ua haujlwm tau zoo rau kev kis kab mob ua pa thiab tseem tuaj yeem coj mus rau cov teb chaws sov uas yog kev tiv thaiv kev tiv thaiv txhawm rau tiv thaiv qee yam kab mob cuam tshuam. Cov kev mob tshwm sim ntawm Doxycycline muaj tseeb tiag, tab sis nws tseem tseem ceeb heev rau tib neeg kev noj qab haus huv. Yav tom ntej ntawm doxycycline yog kev cia siab.

      BALLYA muab a ballya-tetracyclines-xeem qhia rau koj yog tias muaj tetracyclines seem hauv zib ntab, nqaij qaib thiab nqaij npuas.

      References

      Dab tsi yog aureomycin siv los kho?

      Aureomycin yog dab tsi?

      1. Lus txhais

      Cov tshuaj Aureomycin (chlortetracycline) tshuaj formula yog C22H23ClN2O8. Nws yog xim daj daj crystalline hmoov uas tsim los ntawm kev fermentation ntawm Streptomyces aureofacieus. Cov kua txiv fermentation yog acidified thiab lim kom tau cov nag, uas yog yaj hauv ethanol. Cov khoom nyoos yog tau los ntawm cov kua qaub nag, thiab hydrochloride siv lead ua tau los ntawm kev sib xyaw thiab tsim ntsev.

      Nws cov txiaj ntsig thiab cov kab mob tua kab mob zoo ib yam li cov tshuaj tetracycline, tab sis qhov tsis zoo tshwm sim yog qhov loj tshaj ntawm tetracyclines (chlortetracycline>terramycin> tetracycline). Vim tias nws cov kua dej tsis ruaj khov thiab yooj yim puas hauv nruab nrab lossis alkaline daws, ntsiav tshuaj, hmoov qab zib, granules, thiab txhaj tshuaj raug tshem tawm hauv xyoo 1982, thiab tam sim no aureomycin siv los ua raw khoom rau kev npaj sab nrauv, xws li tshuaj pleev qhov muag.

      Aureomycin, tseem hu ua chlortetracycline, yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob pom nyob hauv kab lis kev cai nruab nrab ntawm actinomycete Streptomyces aureofaciens. Nws cov hydrochloride yog yaj hauv dej, thiab cov hauv paus dawb, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov ntsev ntsev, tsis yooj yim yaj hauv dej. Lub ntsiab lus decomposition ntawm cov hauv paus dawb yog 168-169 ° C. Hauv 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, qhov nqus siab tshaj yog 230, 262.5, 367.5 nanometers. Nws tuaj yeem tiv thaiv txhua yam kab mob, rickettsia, thiab chlamydiae. Nws muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob sab heev thiab siv rau hauv kev kho mob. Chlortetracycline kuj tseem yog tus neeg sawv cev tsis sib haum.

      Cov kab mob tua kab mob ntawm aureomycin zoo ib yam li tetracycline, thiab nws muaj txiaj ntsig tiv thaiv Gram-positive cocci, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog Staphylococcus thiab pneumococcus. Vim tias nws muaj cov kev mob tshwm sim zoo, tam sim no nws tsuas yog siv rau sab nrauv siv los kho kab mob sib kis thiab mob ntsws.

      2. muaj nuj nqi

      Chlortetracycline muaj qhov cuam tshuam rau ob qho kab mob gram-positive thiab gram-negative, thiab tuaj yeem kho tus kab mob typhoid thiab rub hauv cov tsiaj txhu thiab nqaij qaib. Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, nws tseem tuaj yeem siv los ua tus txhawb nqa kev loj hlob. Rau broiler pub qis dua 10 lub lim tiam ntawm hnub nyoog, qhov ntau npaum yog 20-50g/t, nrog rau ncua sijhawm 7 hnub; rau npua pub hnub nyoog qis dua 2 hlis, qhov ntau npaum yog 25-75g/t, nrog rau ncua sijhawm 7 hnub.

      3. Keeb kwm

      Dr. Dager pom tias txawm hais tias tshuaj penicillin thiab tshuaj streptomycin tau siv dav hauv kev kho mob ntawm cov kab mob, feem ntau kab mob thiab kab mob tseem tiv taus lawv. Dr. Dager txiav txim siab kawm "av" txhawm rau nrhiav cov lus teb hauv cov kab ke ua neej nyob no.

      Tom qab qhov ua tsis tiav ntawm 3,500 pwm teeb tsa hauv nws qhov kev tshawb fawb, Dr. Dager thaum kawg pom cov khoom kub nrog cov tshuaj tua kab mob hauv University of Missouri xyoo 1945. Tom qab 3 xyoos ntawm kev tshawb fawb tob tob thiab kuaj, Dr. Dager pom tias nws tuaj yeem nquag thiab ua tau zoo kho 90% ntawm kev kis kab mob, thiab lub npe hu ua "Aureomycin". Lub Latin "Aureus" sawv rau kub thiab Greek "Mykes" sawv rau cov kab mob hu ua fungus. Lub npe tam sim no yog "Chlortetracycline".

      Hauv kev sim ua kom muaj txiaj ntsig ntawm kev loj hlob ntawm nqaij qaib, chlortetracycline muaj qhov pom kev loj hlob-txhawb kev muaj peev xwm. Xyoo 1954, Dr. Zeibei pom tias cov tshuaj chlortetracycline qis tuaj yeem txhawb nqa kev loj hlob ntawm nqaij qaib, npua, thiab nyuj, thiab nyob rau qhov xwm txheej siab, nws tuaj yeem tswj cov kab mob ua pa mus ntev hauv tsiaj. Xyoo 1990, thaum kev lag luam tsiaj noj qab haus huv thoob ntiaj teb tau nce zuj zus, chlortetracycline tau pib ntxiv rau tsiaj noj. Kev sib xyaw ntawm chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, thiab penicillin ib zaug dhau los ua lub hauv paus tseem ceeb rau ntau yam kab mob swine thiab tau dhau los ua kev lag luam zoo tshaj plaws tshuaj ntxiv.

      Nrog rau kev nce ntawm cov pej xeem, kev txhim kho sai ntawm kev lag luam tsiaj txhu, nce kev lag luam tsiaj txhu thoob ntiaj teb, Chlortetracycline, uas yog keeb kwm tseem ceeb, tiv thaiv kev noj qab haus huv ntawm ntau txhiab tsiaj.

      Chlortetracycline yog thawj cov tshuaj tua kab mob hauv tib neeg keeb kwm. Nws muaj ntau yam tshuaj tua kab mob tiv thaiv feem ntau ntawm cov kab mob Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, Mycoplasma, Spirochetes, thiab lwm yam. Tebchaws Asmeskas kev lag luam yog 100,000 tons. Tuam Tshoj yog lub ntiaj teb thib ob loj tshaj plaws chlortetracycline kev lag luam, nrog rau kev noj txhua xyoo txog 36,000 tons.

      4. Cov teebmeem tshuaj

      Aureomycin yog tshuaj tua kab mob tetracycline, thiab ntau yam rickettsia, mycoplasma, chlamydia, atypical mycobacteria, thiab spirochetes nkag siab chlortetracycline. Enterococcus tiv taus nws. Tau ntau xyoo, vim kev siv dav ntawm tetracyclines, cov kab mob sib kis tau zoo tiv taus chlortetracycline, cov kab mob gram-positive xws li staphylococci thiab feem ntau enterobacteriaceae tiv taus. Muaj kev tiv thaiv khaub thuas ntawm ntau hom sib txawv ntawm chlortetracycline thiab tetracycline. Cov txheej txheem ntawm kev ua ntawm chlortetracycline yog tias cov tshuaj tuaj yeem tshwj xeeb khi rau Txoj Haujlwm ntawm 30S subunit ntawm cov kab mob ribosome txhawm rau tiv thaiv kev loj hlob ntawm peptide saw thiab cuam tshuam rau kev sib txuas ntawm cov kab mob protein.

      Cov kev tshawb fawb tau qhia tias chlortetracycline tseem tuaj yeem tiv thaiv prostaglandin synthesis, inhibit leukocyte chemotaxis, thiab txo qis kev ua haujlwm ntawm mammalian collagenase thiab lwm yam metalloproteinases.

      5. Ntsiab Cai Ntsuam Xyuas

      Chlortetracycline yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob ua kom muaj txiaj ntsig zoo uas muaj zog tiv thaiv kab mob ntau yam thiab feem ntau siv los kho ntau yam kab mob sib kis tsiaj. Txawm li cas los xij, nws cov khoom seem hauv tsiaj tsiaj, mis nyuj, qe thiab lwm yam zaub mov ua rau tib neeg muaj mob hnyav, thiab tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kab mob xws li aplastic anemia thiab leukopenia me me. Cov tshuaj qis qis tseem tuaj yeem ua rau cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis. Ntau lub tebchaws xws li European Union thiab Tebchaws Meskas tau txwv tsis pub siv CAP hauv kev tsim khoom noj los ntawm tsiaj thiab tau tsim cov qauv txwv nruj.

      Tom qab koom nrog WTO, cov khoom siv ua liaj ua teb thiab tsiaj txhu tau nce zuj zus los ua cov teeb meem kev lag luam rau cov tebchaws tsim los txwv kev xa tawm Suav cov khoom ua liaj ua teb thiab cov khoom lag luam. Thaum Lub Ib Hlis 30, 2002, European Commission tau tshaj tawm tsab ntawv pom zoo 2002/69/EC vim tias chlortetracycline tau kuaj pom hauv cov cw txawv teb chaws los ntawm Tuam Tshoj, txwv tsis pub ntshuam Tuam Tshoj cov khoom noj los ntawm tsiaj, ncaj qha ua rau Tuam Tshoj cov khoom lag luam dej xa tawm ntau dua $ 600 lab nyiaj txiag poob.

      Aureomycin Siv

      Aureomycin-Siv
      Aureomycin-Siv

      1. indications

      2. siv

      Aureomycin yog cov tshuaj uas yuav tom khw hauv dermatology. Nws tsis tuaj yeem siv los ntawm cov neeg mob ua xua. Nws yog cov tshuaj pleev thiab feem ntau yog siv rau thaj chaw me me ntawm tawv taub hau thiab hlawv. Nws kuj tseem tuaj yeem kho kab mob ntawm daim tawv nqaij xws li mob txhab thiab mob plab. Tsis tshua muaj tshwm sim tsis zoo xws li tawv nqaij ua pob liab liab thiab o tuaj tsawg. Cov poj niam uas pub niam mis lossis thaum cev xeeb tub yuav tsum siv tshuaj nrog ceev faj.

      Cov chav kawm ntawm cov tshuaj no yog cov tshuaj ua kom sai sai rau cov kab mob bacteriostatic. Tom qab nkag mus rau hauv cov kab mob hauv lub cev, nws thim rov qab khi rau tus txais ntawm 30S subunit ntawm cov kab mob ribosome, cuam tshuam nrog kev khi ntawm tRNA thiab tus txais ntawm mRNA-ribosome complex, tiv thaiv peptide saw txuas ntxiv thiab txwv tsis pub cov protein sib txuas, yog li tiv thaiv kev loj hlob ntawm cov kab mob. .

      Muaj ob txoj hauv kev rau chlortetracycline nkag mus rau hauv cov cell: ib qho yog kis tsis dhau los ntawm cov pab pawg hydrophilic ntawm txheej txheej sab nrauv; lwm qhov yog nquag thauj los ntawm cov hlwb sab hauv.

      Chlortetracycline tshuaj pleev thiab tshuaj pleev qhov muag chlortetracycline zoo ib yam. Lawv ob leeg kho tus kab mob protoplasma lossis mycoplasma, tab sis muaj qhov sib txawv tseem ceeb. Piv txwv li, muaj pes tsawg leeg thiab kev siv sib txawv, thiab tshuaj pleev chlortetracycline yog tshuaj pleev. Chlortetracycline tshuaj pleev qhov muag yog tshuaj pleev qhov muag. Chlortetracycline pleev qhov muag tuaj yeem siv rau ntawm daim tawv nqaij tag nrho, tab sis chlortetracycline tshuaj pleev tsis tuaj yeem siv rau ntawm lub qhov muag.

      A. Chlortetracycline hydrochloride tshuaj pleev

      Chlortetracycline ointment yog siv rau cov kab mob ntawm daim tawv nqaij xws li mob plab, mob me me kub hnyiab thiab mob txhab. Chlortetracycline ointment yog tsim rau cov kab mob ntawm daim tawv nqaij uas tshwm sim los ntawm cov kab mob gram-positive xws li Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae thiab cov kab mob gram-negative.

      B. Chlortetracycline qhov muag tshuaj pleev

      Chlortetracycline qhov muag pleev tau siv rau kev kho mob ntawm qhov muag tsis pom kev tshwm sim los ntawm cov kab mob gram-positive xws li Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes thiab Streptococcus pneumoniae thiab kab mob gram-negative xws li Haemophilus influenzae; nws kuj tseem tuaj yeem siv rau kev kho mob ntawm qhov muag tsis pom kev thiab qhov muag pom los ntawm tus mob chlamydia trachomatis.

      3. ntau npaum

      Aureomycin rau Kev Siv Veterinary

      Chlortetracycline muaj qhov cuam tshuam rau ob qho kab mob gram-positive thiab gram-negative, thiab tuaj yeem kho tus kab mob typhoid thiab rub hauv cov tsiaj txhu thiab nqaij qaib. Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, nws kuj tseem tuaj yeem siv ua kev txhawb nqa kev loj hlob rau npua pub. Rau broiler pub qis dua 10 lub lim tiam ntawm hnub nyoog, qhov ntau npaum yog 20-50g/t, nrog rau ncua sijhawm 7 hnub; rau npua pub hnub nyoog qis dua 2 hlis, qhov ntau npaum yog 25-75g/t, nrog rau ncua sijhawm 7 hnub.

      1. indications

      2. Aureomycin siv ua khoom noj ntxiv

      Aureomycin Side Effects

      Aureomycin-Sab-Teeb Meem
      Aureomycin-Sab-Teeb Meem

      1. Kev phiv tshuaj

      2. Aureomycin kev sib cuam tshuam

      Kev tswj qhov ncauj ntawm cov tshuaj uas muaj calcium, magnesium, thiab hlau ions ua ke nrog chlortetracycline yuav txo qis kev nqus thiab ua kom cov concentration ntawm chlortetracycline. Hom kev ua yuav yog tias chlortetracycline tau chelated los ntawm cov hlau ions los ua ib qho nyuaj nrog qis solubility, uas tsis yooj yim rau nkag mus rau hauv plab hnyuv me me.

      3. Teeb meem xav tau mloog

      xaus

      Aureomycin belongs rau lub tshuaj tetracycline tshuaj tua kab mob, tab sis kev phiv los ntawm aureomycin yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws ntawm tetracyclines, yog li thov tam sim no ntawm aureomycin feem ntau yog siv sab nraud: xws li chlortetracycline qhov muag tshuaj pleev.

      BALLYA muab a ballya-tetracyclines-xeem qhia rau koj yog tias muaj tetracyclines(xws li tshuaj aureomycin) seem hauv zib ntab, nqaij qaib thiab nqaij npuas.

      References

      Puas yog ceftiofur yog cephalosporin?

      Ceftiofur yog dab tsi?

      1. Lus txhais

      Ceftiofur yog dawb rau lub teeb daj hmoov. Nws yog insoluble hauv dej, me ntsis soluble hauv acetone, thiab yuav luag tsis yaj hauv ethanol. Ceftiofur yog ib nrab hluavtaws thib peb tiam tsiaj tshwj xeeb cephalosporin.

      Cephalosporin tshuaj tua kab mob yog cov tshuaj muaj txiaj ntsig zoo rau kev kho tsiaj, thiab tam sim no lawv tau siv ntau thiab dav dua hauv kev lag luam tsiaj txhu thiab nqaij qaib. Los ntawm qhov pom ntawm cov qauv tshuaj yeeb tshuaj, txhua yam tshuaj cephalosporin muaj cov qauv ntawm cephem, yog li lawv koom nrog beta lawm tshuaj tua kab mob, uas yog 7-aminocephalosporan acid (7-ACA) hauv beta lawm tshuaj tua kab mob, yog li lawv muaj cov txheej txheem kom tsis muaj menyuam zoo ib yam.

      Los ntawm kev xav ntawm cov txheej txheem tua kab mob tua kab mob, hom tshuaj tua kab mob no tuaj yeem rhuav tshem cov phab ntsa ntawm cov kab mob thiab qhia pom cov kab mob muaj zog tshaj plaws nyob rau lub sijhawm rov tsim dua. Nws muaj zog xaiv cov nyhuv ntawm cov kab mob, tab sis yuav luag tsis muaj tshuaj lom rau tsiaj lub cev; thiab muaj qhov zoo ntawm cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav, muaj zog tiv thaiv kab mob, tiv taus penicillinase, thiab tsis tshua muaj kev fab tshuaj ntau dua li penicillins. Yog li ntawd, lawv yog hom tshuaj tua kab mob tseem ceeb nrog kev ua haujlwm siab, tsis muaj tshuaj lom thiab siv dav hauv chaw kho mob.

      2. Pharmacodynamics

      Nws yog tiam thib peb cephalosporins rau cov tsiaj uas muaj zog tiv thaiv kab mob, nthuav dav cov kab mob tua kab mob. Nws muaj zog tiv thaiv kab mob Gram-negative xws li Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Pasteurella multocida, thiab Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, thiab lwm yam; cov nyhuv tiv thaiv kab mob gram-positive tsis muaj zog dua li ntawm thawj tiam.

      Cov khoom no tsis nqus los ntawm kev tswj qhov ncauj. Nws tau nqus sai los ntawm kev txhaj tshuaj intramuscular thiab subcutaneous, thiab tau nthuav dav dav. Cov ntshav muaj txiaj ntsig zoo tau khaws cia ntev. Nws thawj zaug metabolized rau hauv deoxyfuroyl ceftiofur, thiab tom qab ntawd hloov mus ua cov khoom lag luam mis tsis muaj sia. Feem ntau ntawm lawv raug tshem tawm los ntawm cov zis thiab quav hauv 24 teev tom qab txhaj tshuaj intramuscular.

      Piv nrog ob tiam dhau los, tiam thib peb cephalosporins tau txo qis kev tawm tsam G+ cocci, txhim kho kev ruaj ntseg rau G-bacillus lactamase, thiab muaj txiaj ntsig zoo tiv thaiv G-bacillus, uas yog qhov zoo dua li thawj thiab tiam thib ob; cov kab mob tua kab mob tau nthuav dav, thiab cov tshuaj tua kab mob ntawm cov kab mob anaerobic thiab Pseudomonas aeruginosa tau nce ntxiv. Cephalosporins-tiam thib peb tuaj yeem ncav cuag cov ntaub so ntswg sib txawv, kab noj hniav synovial thiab lub cev ua kua, thiab tuaj yeem ncaj qha mus rau cov kua dej hauv lub paj hlwb ntawm cov neeg mob meningeal o; tsis muaj nephrotoxicity. Cov sawv cev tshuaj feem ntau suav nrog ceftiofur.

      Cephalosporins tiam thib peb yog cephalosporins siv dav tshaj plaws hauv tsev kho mob. Lawv tau muab faib ua ob pawg raws li lawv tus yam ntxwv ntawm kev tua gram-negative bacilli. Ib hom feem ntau tua cov kab mob Enterobacteriaceae xws li Escherichia coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, thiab tseem muaj cov nyhuv tua cov kab mob Gram-positive. Feem ntau siv yog ceftriaxone thiab ceftiofur, thiab lwm yam; lwm qhov feem ntau yog tua Pseudomonas aeruginosa, thiab tseem suav nrog lwm yam gram-negative bacilli.

      3. Pharmacokinetics

      Cov khoom no tau nqus sai tom qab txhaj tshuaj thiab txhaj tshuaj subcutaneous, nrog cov tshuaj siab hauv cov ntshav thiab cov ntaub so ntswg, thiab cov tshuaj ntshav muaj txiaj ntsig zoo tau khaws cia ntev, tshem tawm qeeb, thiab ib nrab ntawm lub neej yog ntev. Tom qab txhaj tshuaj intramuscular rau nyuj thiab npua, nws tau nqus sai sai hauv 15 feeb thiab tsim thawj qib metabolite Desfuroyl ceftiofur (DFC) hauv cov ntshav. Txij li lub nplhaib lactam tsis puas, nws cov tshuaj tua kab mob ua tau zoo ib yam ntawm Ceftiofur. DFC tuaj yeem txuas ntxiv ua cov tsis ua haujlwm DFC cysteine ​​difluid hauv cov nqaij. Pom tseeb ntim ntawm kev faib khoom ntawm cov khoom no: 1L/KG. Npua, yaj, thiab nyuj muaj qhov siab tshaj plaws hauv lub raum tom qab txhaj tshuaj ntau ntxiv, ua raws li lub ntsws, daim siab, rog thiab nqaij, uas feem ntau tuaj yeem tswj tau qhov siab tshaj MIC.

      Piv txwv li, npua raug txhaj intramuscularly ntawm 3 mg/kg ib hnub ib zaug rau 3 hnub. Cov ntaub so ntswg muaj: plasma 3.25, ua pa 0.60, tawv nqaij 0.57, ntsws 0.49, tonsil 0.30, thiab sib koom ua kua 0.29. Nyuj tau txhaj tshuaj intramuscularly ntawm 1 mg/kg, ib hnub ib zaug rau 5 hnub, thiab lawv cov ntaub so ntswg tau ntshav 1.0 (7.5H tom qab txhaj tshuaj), sib koom ua ke 0.65 (2.5H tom qab txhaj tshuaj), ntsws 0.36, thiab jejunum 0.34. Nws feem ntau tshwm sim hauv kev tsim cov tsis ua haujlwm dawb metabolite-DFC cysteine ​​disulfide hauv mis. Cefoxifur tau tso tawm qeeb, thiab nws ib nrab-lub neej ntawm cov tsiaj yog qhov sib txawv (T1/2 rau nees, nyuj, yaj, npua, dev, qaib, thiab qaib ntxhw) yog 3.15, 7.12, 2.83, 14.5, 4.12, 6.77 thiab 7.45H . Tab sis feem ntau ntawm lawv tuaj yeem tso tawm hauv cov zis thiab quav hauv 24 teev tom qab txhaj tshuaj. DFC tau hloov pauv sai sai rau cov tshuaj tsis ua haujlwm hauv cov quav nyuj, npua thiab qaib.

      Ceftiofur siv

      Ceftiofur-Siv
      Ceftiofur-Siv

      1. indications

      Nws yog siv rau tsiaj ua pa thiab cov kab mob tso zis los ntawm cov kab mob rhiab, xws li mob npaws tsheb thauj mus los thiab mob ntsws, mob raws plab, ua rau daj daj, actinobacillus haemophilus ua rau porcine pleuropneumonia, kab mob ua pa kab mob ua rau los ntawm streptococcus, Escherichia coli thiab Proteus mirabilis cov kab mob tso zis tso zis los ntawm kab mob E. coli hauv qaib.

      2. siv

      Nws muaj cov peev xwm ua kom tsis muaj menyuam ntau. Nws muaj txiaj ntsig zoo tiv thaiv kab mob gram-positive thiab blue-negative. Cov tshuaj tua kab mob muaj zog dua li tshuaj ampicillin, thiab kev tawm tsam tiv thaiv streptococcus zoo dua li ntawm quinolones. Cov khoom no tau nqus sai tom qab txhaj tshuaj, thiab feem ntau yog siv rau cov kab mob ua pa (ua npaws, mob ntsws) los ntawm Pasteurella hemolyticus, Pasteurella multocida thiab Haemophilus saccharum. Nws kuj tseem muaj txiaj ntsig zoo rau kev kis kab mob ua pa xws li Corynebacterium pyogenes. Nws kuj tseem tuaj yeem kho tus kab mob ko taw los ntawm Fusobacterium necrosis thiab Bacteroides niger.

      3. ntau npaum

      Kev txhaj tshuaj intramuscular: Ib koob tshuaj rau 1kg lub cev hnyav, nyuj 1.1 ~ 2.2mg, nees 2.2 ~ 4.4mg, ib hnub ib zaug rau 3 hnub.

      Kev txhaj tshuaj subcutaneous: ib zaug rau 1 kg lub cev hnyav Dog 2.2 mg ib hnub ib hnub, siv tas li rau 5 txog 14 hnub

      Ib hnub qub qaib 0.08 ~ 0.20mg ib noog (hauv qab daim tawv nqaij)

      Kev npaj thiab kev qhia tshwj xeeb: Ceftiofur Hydrochloride Suspension Txhaj 100ml: 5g

      Ceftiofur phiv los

      Ceftiofur-sab-teebmeem
      Ceftiofur-sab-teebmeem

      1. Kev phiv tshuaj

      2. Kev tsis sib haum xeeb

      Cephalosporins tau siv dav rau tib neeg thiab tsiaj siv tsiaj, thiab muaj ntau yam sib txawv, tab sis thaum peb siv lawv, peb yuav tsum xyuam xim rau lawv qhov sib xws. Nws yog qhov zoo tshaj los ua raws tus kws kho mob cov lus qhia rau kev siv tshuaj, thiab tsis txhob siv lawv ib leeg, txwv tsis pub qhov poob yog qhov loj! Ntawm lawv, ceftiofur tsis tuaj yeem sib xyaw nrog dexamethasone, hydrocortisone thiab lwm yam tshuaj.

      Ceftiofur yog cephalosporin thib peb tiam uas muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob dav.

      Dexamethasone yog cov tshuaj ua kom ntev ntev, tiv thaiv cov tshuaj lom, thiab tiv thaiv kev ua xua adrenal glucocorticoid tshuaj. Ceftiofur yog oxidizing (muaj ntau pawg imino thiab amide pawg), thiab dexamethasone yog txo qis (muaj ob daim ntawv cog lus ethylenic). Yog tias ob qho sib xyaw ua ke, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv redox lossis cov tshuaj tiv thaiv polymerization yuav tshwm sim.

      Ob yam tshuaj no tau siv dav hauv chaw kho tsiaj. Tshwj xeeb tshaj yog thaum kis mob nrog kub cev, yuav tsum tau saib xyuas ntau dua.

      3. lus ceeb toom

      xaus

      Ceftiofur yog thawj tsiaj tshwj xeeb thib peb tiam cephalosporin tshuaj tua kab mob. Nws muaj cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav thiab muaj zog tiv thaiv kab mob. Tom qab kev tswj hwm, nws tau nqus sai, nrog kev ua kom muaj txiaj ntsig zoo, ntev ib nrab ntawm lub neej thiab ua haujlwm tau zoo nyob ntev. Xyoo tsis ntev los no, ceftiofur tau siv dav hauv thaj chaw kho tsiaj.

      Ceftiofur belongs rau beta lactam cov. thiab BALLYA muab a betalactam xeem los qhia koj yog tias muaj cov beta lactams seem hauv cov khoom siv mis uas koj noj txhua hnub.

      References

      Dab tsi yog cov cim sib txawv ntawm cephalosporins?

      Cephalosporins yog dab tsi?

      Cephalosporins yog ib chav kawm ntawm cov tshuaj tua kab mob siv dav hauv tsev kho mob. Zoo li penicillin, lawv txhua tus beta lawm tshuaj tua kab mob.

      Tib neeg feem ntau faib cov kab mob me rau hauv 8 pawg: kab mob, kab mob, fungi, actinomycetes, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, chlamydia, thiab spirochetes. Cov kab mob me me no tuaj yeem ua rau peb mob nyob rau qee qhov xwm txheej, tab sis "cephalosporin" tsuas yog muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob thiab tsis muaj txiaj ntsig zoo rau lwm 7 kab mob.

      Cov kab mob tau muab faib ua ntau dua 40 hom. Txhua tus kab mob sib kis tuaj yeem tshwm sim los ntawm ib lossis ntau hom kab mob; muaj ntau dua 50 hom "cephalosporins" uas tuaj yeem siv tam sim no, thiab txhua hom kab mob muaj kev nkag siab sib txawv rau "cephalosporins". Qhov no ua rau nws yuav luag tsis tuaj yeem xaiv qhov "cephalosporin" tsim nyog los kho kab mob, yog li yuav tsum "cephalosporins" xaiv li cas?

      Los ntawm kev sim, nws tau pom tias yuav luag txhua cov kab mob tuaj yeem faib ua ob pawg loj los ntawm "Gram stain", uas yog, cov kab mob Gram-positive (G+) thiab Gram-negative bacteria (G-). Cov kab mob gram-positive thiab cov kab mob gram-negative sib txawv heev hauv cov qauv ntawm cov phab ntsa ntawm tes thiab ntxiv rau, yog li qhov ua rau cov tshuaj tua kab mob sib txawv sib txawv. Piv txwv li, feem ntau cov kab mob gram-positive yog rhiab rau tshuaj penicillin, thaum cov kab mob gram-negative tsis nkag siab rau penicillin, tab sis tshuaj streptomycin thiab chloramphenicol.

      Yog li tib neeg faib "cephalosporins" ua tsib tiam raws li lawv cov kab mob tua kab mob thiab ua haujlwm tua kab mob. Ua li no, thaum xaiv tshuaj, kws kho mob tuaj yeem xaiv qhov zoo raws li cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov kab mob thiab cov yam ntxwv ua ntawm cov tshuaj.

      Cephalosporin kev faib tawm

      Lub npe raug cai ntawm "cephalosporin" yog cephalosporin tshuaj tua kab mob. Nws yog cov tshuaj tua kab mob ib nrab uas tau txais los ntawm kev hloov pauv ntawm cephalosporin C cais los ntawm kab lis kev cai kua zaub ze rau Penicillium. Lub mechanism ntawm kev txiav txim yog tib yam li ntawm penicillins, txwv tsis pub tsim cov phab ntsa ntawm tes kom ua tiav lub hom phiaj kom tsis muaj menyuam.

      Nws yog tshuaj tua kab mob. Piv nrog penicillins, nws qhov zoo muaj xws li: ntau yam kab mob tua kab mob ntau dua; me me lossis tsis muaj kev fab tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob nrog penicillin, thiab qis kev tsis haum tshuaj tshwm sim los ntawm penicillins; beta lactamase cov ua los ntawm cov kua qaub thiab ntau yam kab mob (Ib yam khoom uas rhuav tshem penicillin thiab cephalosporin) ruaj khov dua. Vim nws qhov tsis zoo tshwm sim thiab tshuaj lom tshwm sim los, nws tau tsim tawm sai sai txij li nws thawj daim ntawv thov tshuaj nyob rau xyoo 1960, thiab ntau yam tau tsim. Cephalosporins tau tsim los rau tsib tiam neeg. Coob leej neeg ntseeg tias ntau dua tiam neeg, kim dua thiab ua kom zoo dua qub. Qhov tseeb, qhov no yog kev nkag siab yuam kev. Cephalosporins feem ntau tau muab faib ua ntau tiam neeg raws li lawv txoj kev txhim kho ib puag ncig, cov kab mob tua kab mob, ruaj khov rau beta lactamase cov, thiab lom rau lub raum.

      Cephalosporin-kev faib tawm
      Cephalosporin-kev faib tawm

      1. Thawj tiam cephalosporin

      A. Cov neeg sawv cev tshuaj

      Cefalotin sodium, cephalexincefadroxil, cefazolin uacefradine, cefathiamidine, cefaclor tshuaj, ceftazidime, Cephaloglycin, cefacetonitrile, cefpirin, cefotiazole.

      B. Taw qhia

      cov thawj tiam cephalosporin tau tsim tawm thaum xyoo 1960s. Hais txog kev ua haujlwm tua kab mob, cov kab mob nkag mus rau thawj tiam ntawm cephalosporins feem ntau suav nrog β-hemolytic streptococcus thiab lwm yam streptococci, suav nrog Streptococcus pneumonia (tab sis enterococcus resistant), Staphylococcus (suav nrog tsim cov kab mob enzyme) Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsi Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella, Shigella, thiab lwm yam. Piv txwv li, cephalothin muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob zoo dua ntawm cov kab mob gram-positive, thaum cefazolin muaj qhov cuam tshuam rau qee cov kab mob gram-negative. Txawm li cas los xij, thawj tiam cephalosporins tsis muaj zog tiv taus beta lactamase cov ntawm cov kab mob gram-negative. Yog li ntawd, cov kab mob gram-negative tiv taus cov tshuaj tua kab mob ntau dua ntawm cov neeg tiam no.

      Thawj tiam cephalosporins tsis muaj txiaj ntsig zoo tiv thaiv indole-positive Proteus, Citrobacter, Aerobacter, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Bacteroides, Streptococcus faecalis (tshwj tsis yog Cefathiamidine) thiab lwm yam kab mob.

      Feem ntau siv ntau yam tshuaj tua kab mob ntawm cov neeg tiam no suav nrog cefazolin, cephalexin, cefradine, cefadroxil thiab lwm yam. Ntawm lawv, cefazolin tsuas tuaj yeem siv rau kev txhaj tshuaj, lwm tus tuaj yeem siv rau kev tswj hwm qhov ncauj. Cefalotin, cefotaxime, cefacetonitrile, cefpirin, thiab lwm yam tau siv tsawg dua lossis tsis yog.

      2. Cephalosporin tiam thib ob

      A. Cov neeg sawv cev tshuaj

      Cefuroxime sodium, cefuroxime axetil, cefmendol, cefaclor, cefotiam, cefmetazole, cefprozil, cefonisi, cefradit.

      B. Taw qhia     

      Cov tshuaj tua kab mob ua tau zoo ntawm lub cim thib ob cephalosporin tiv thaiv cov kab mob gram-positive zoo ib yam li lossis qis dua li ntawm cephalosporins thawj tiam, thaum muaj cov kab mob gram-negative zoo heev.

      3. 3rd tiam cephalosporin

      A. Cov neeg sawv cev tshuaj

      Cefotaxime sodium, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime, cefmenoxime, cefpiramide, cefotetan, cefixime, cefpodoxime proxetil, ceftimeproxil, cefodizime, cephalosporin Titium, Cefdince, Ceftephine, Ceftephine

      B. Introduction

      Kev ua haujlwm tiv thaiv kab mob ntawm peb tiam cephalosporin tiv thaiv cov kab mob gram-positive feem ntau qis dua li ntawm thawj tiam (qee qhov sib txawv zoo ib yam), thaum cov txiaj ntsig ntawm cov kab mob gram-negative zoo dua li ntawm cephalosporins-tiam thib ob.

      4. 4th tiam cephalosporin

      A. Cov neeg sawv cev tshuaj

      Cefapime, Cefpirome, Cefazuran.

      B. Introduction

      Cephalosporins tiam thib peb muaj qhov cuam tshuam tsis zoo rau cov kab mob Gram-positive thiab siv tsis tau los tswj tus kab mob Staphylococcus aureus. Xyoo tsis ntev los no, qee yam tshiab, xws li Cefpirome, tau tshawb pom tias tsis tsuas yog muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob ntawm peb tiam cephalosporins thib peb, tab sis kuj muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob rau staphylococci. Lawv raug hu ua plaub tiam cephalosporins.

      5. 5th tiam cephalosporin

      A. Cov neeg sawv cev tshuaj

      Ceftaroline, cefepime, thiab lwm yam.

      B. Introduction

      Cephalosporins tiam thib tsib muaj kev cuam tshuam zoo rau cov kab mob Gram-positive ntau dua plaub tiam dhau los, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumonia thiab qee yam kab mob Cov txiaj ntsig ntawm Gram-negative cov kab mob zoo ib yam li cephalosporin plaub tiam.

      Nws ruaj khov rau feem ntau β-lactamases, tab sis tuaj yeem hydrolyzed los ntawm cov hlau feem ntau beta lactamases thiab ncua-spectrum beta lactamases. Nws lub hom phiaj ntawm kev ua yog PBP2a, uas feem ntau yog siv rau cov tawv nqaij nyoos thiab cov nqaij mos mos mob, mob ntshav qab zib kis tau los ntawm cov kab mob gram-tsis zoo, zej zog tau txais kev mob ntsws, thiab tsev kho mob tau mob ntsws.

      Feem ntau cephalosporins

      Common-cephalosporins
      Common-cephalosporins

      1. Cephalexin

      Cephalexin yog cov khoom siv hluavtaws thawj ib nrab ntawm qhov ncauj cephalosporin tshuaj uas tuaj yeem tiv thaiv kev sib txuas ntawm cov phab ntsa ntawm tes, ua rau cov ntsiab lus ntawm tes o tuaj, tawg thiab tawg, thiab tua cov kab mob.

      Cov khoom no yog ib nrab hluavtaws ua ntej-tiam qhov ncauj cephalosporin. Nws cov kab mob tua kab mob yog qhov zoo ib yam li ntawm cefalotin thiab ceftazidime, thiab nws cov tshuaj tua kab mob tsis muaj zog dua li ob qho. Txawm li cas los xij, cov khoom lag luam tshwj xeeb los ntawm cov kua qaub tsis kam thiab qhov ncauj nqus tau zoo. Nws muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob zoo tiv taus Staphylococcus aureus.

      Cephalexin siv: Nws yog siv feem ntau rau Gram-positive thiab tsis zoo cov kab mob, xws li: mob khaub thuas, hemorrhagic sepsis, kab mob streptococcal, swine erysipelas, anthrax, emphysema gangrene, mob hnyav, actinomycosis, necrotic bacillosis, leptospirosis Septic kub cev (41-43 °) C) lossis qhov kub tsis tu ncua (qis dua 37 ° C) tshwm sim los ntawm spirochetes, plab zom mov, haus dej txias, tsis muaj zog, tsis pom kev, taug kev, pob ntseg xiav, kua muag, thiab lwm yam. mob ntsws ntsws, atrophic rhinitis, mob pob ntseg xiav, mob qog noj ntshav, mob qog noj ntshav, mob stomatitis, urethritis, thiab lwm yam.

      2. Cefaclor

      Cefixime ib tiam thib peb cephalosporin tshuaj tua kab mob rau siv qhov ncauj. Nws yog qhov tsim nyog rau kev kho kab mob ua pa, tso zis thiab tso zis los ntawm cov kab mob rhiab. Cefixime yog qhov ruaj khov rau beta lactamase cov ua los ntawm gram-negative bacilli. Nws cov kab mob tua kab mob ntawm gram-negative bacilli muaj zog dua li ntawm thawj thiab thib ob tiam cephalosporins, thiab nws cov tshuaj tua kab mob rau ntawm gram-positive cocci tsis zoo li ntawm thawj thiab thib ob tiam cephalosporins. Tam sim no, cov tshuaj cefixime tau pom zoo los ntawm Lub Xeev Khoom Noj thiab Tshuaj Yeeb Tshuaj tuaj hauv ntau hom tshuaj xws li ntsiav tshuaj, tsiav tshuaj, ntsiav tshuaj sib faib, qhuav ncua thiab cov granules, txhua yam uas yog cov tshuaj yuav tshuaj.

      Cefixime yog siv los kho cov kab mob hauv qab no los ntawm cov kab mob rhiab: kab mob ua pa, xws li mob ntsws, mob ntsws, thiab lwm yam; cov kab mob tso zis, xws li pyelonephritis, cystitis, urethritis, thiab lwm yam; kab mob hauv lub plab, xws li mob cholecystitis, cholangitis; Otitis media, sinusitis, kub cev liab, thiab lwm yam.

      3. Ceftobiprole

      MRSA yog ib qho ntawm cov kab mob sib kis tau pom zoo, thiab feem ntau ntawm cephalosporins uas tau ua lag luam tsis muaj txiaj ntsig. Lub ntiaj teb thawj zaug tshuaj tiv thaiv MRSA cephalosporin tshuaj Ceftobiprole tsim los ntawm Basilea Pharmaceutica, Switzerland, tau pom zoo rau kev lag luam hauv Canada thaum Lub Rau Hli 30, 2008.

      Ceftobiprole yog tshuaj pyrrolidone cephalosporin. Nws muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria thiab anaerobic bacteria. Nws yog thawj cov tshuaj cephalosporin muaj txiaj ntsig zoo tiv thaiv MRSA thiab VRSA, thiab nws qhov kev cia siab thov yog dav, suav tias yog tus tswv cuab ntawm cov tshuaj cephalosporin thib tsib tiam. Piv nrog cefepime, Ceftobiprole muaj cov kab mob dav dav rau cov kab mob gram-positive, thaum muaj cov kab mob zoo sib xws ntawm cov kab mob gram-negative rau cefepime.

      xaus

      Cephalosporin tau dhau los ua kev txhim kho zoo txij li nws tau mus rau tom khw. Rau ntau hom kab mob sib txawv, los ntawm thawj tiam cephalosporin mus rau cephalosporin tiam thib tsib, lawv cov kab mob tua kab mob thiab kev nyab xeeb sib txawv.

      BALLYA muab a Betalactam cephalexin combo test kit los qhia koj yog tias muaj cov beta lactams seem thiab cephalosporin seem hauv cov khoom siv mis uas koj noj txhua hnub.

      References

      Cefdinir siv los kho dab tsi?

      Cefdinir yog dab tsi?

      1. Kev Txhais Tau

      CefdinirCov mis mos molecular yog C14H13N5O5S2, thiab lub npe tshuaj yog ([6R- [6α, 7β (Z)]]]-7-[[(2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-(oximino) acetyl] Amino] -3- vinyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo [4.2.0] oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, hauv 0.1mol/L phosphate buffer [0.1 Me ntsis soluble hauv mol/L disodium hydrogen phosphate tov-0.1 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate tov (2: 1)], tab sis tsis yaj hauv dej, ethanol lossis ether.

      Cefdinir belongs rau 3rd tiam cephalosporin, uas tuaj yeem tiv thaiv kev sib txuas ntawm cov kab mob phab ntsa cell. Nws muaj cov kab mob tua kab mob zoo rau ob qho kab mob gram-positive thiab gram-negative, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau cov txiv hmab daj daj thiab streptococci ntawm cov kab mob gram-positive.

      Cefdinir tsis tsuas yog yuav tsis ua kom puas los ntawm lactamase tsim los ntawm cov kab mob, tab sis kuj tseem muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob zoo tshaj tiv thaiv cov kab mob tsim los ntawm lactamase. Clinically, nws tuaj yeem siv los kho kev ua pa, tso zis, pob ntseg thiab qhov ntswg tshwm sim los ntawm Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pneumococcus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae, thiab lwm yam Mob caj pas thiab tawv nqaij.

      Dab tsi yuav tsum tau ceeb toom yog tias cov neeg mob uas ua xua rau tshuaj penicillin yuav tsum tsis txhob siv cephalosporin tshuaj tua kab mob. Yog tias koj cov tawv nqaij ua xua rau nws, nws tuaj yeem hloov nrog tshuaj tshwj xeeb tshuaj tua kab mob xws li roxithromycin.

      2. Cov teebmeem tshuaj

      Nws muaj ntau yam ntawm cov kab mob tua kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob Gram-positive thiab Gram-negative bacteria, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog tiv thaiv Staphylococcus thiab Streptococcus ntawm cov kab mob Gram-positive. Nws muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob muaj zog ntau dua li qhov ncauj yav dhau los cephalosporins. Hom kev ua yog bactericidal.

      Nws ruaj khov rau beta lactamase tsim los ntawm ntau cov kab mob thiab muaj cov tshuaj tua kab mob zoo tiv thaiv beta lactamase ua cov kab mob. Lub tswv yim ntawm kev nqis tes yog tias nws yuav tiv thaiv kev sib txuas ntawm cov kab mob ntawm cov kab mob ntawm tes. Nws muaj kev sib raug zoo rau tshuaj penicillin khi cov protein (PBP) 1 (1a, 1bs), 2, 3, tab sis muaj cov chaw sib txawv sib txawv rau cov kab mob sib txawv.

      Cov khoom no muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob dav dav tiv thaiv kab mob gram-positive thiab negative aerobes thiab anaerobes. Sib piv nrog lwm qhov ncauj uas twb muaj lawm cephalosporin tshuaj tua kab mob, cov tshuaj tua kab mob ntawm cov khoom no muaj zog tiv thaiv Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Propionibacteriu. Ib qho kev sim tshuaj ntawm 1433 tus neeg mob (100 mg txhua lub sijhawm, 3 zaug hauv ib hnub) qhia pom tias qhov txiaj ntsig zoo ntawm cov khoom no tiv thaiv ntau yam kev kis mob: cov kab mob ua paug 89.2%, phais mob 90%, mob ua pa hnyav 82.8%, mob ua pa ntev mus 63.1 %, kab mob tso zis 82.8%, kab mob gynecological 88.4%, kab mob kev kho mob 94.3%, thiab kab mob otolaryngology 75%. Kev tshem tawm cov kab mob bacteriological ntawm cov kab mob gram-positive yog 91.9%, thiab kev tshem tawm cov kab mob ntawm cov kab mob gram-negative yog 91.4%.

      Cefdinir Siv

      Cefdinir-Siv
      Cefdinir-Siv

      Txawm hais tias kev siv tshuaj tua kab mob hauv Suav teb loj heev, nws tseem txheeb xyuas qhov muaj zog ntawm cov tshuaj tua kab mob los ntawm lwm qhov. Raws li cov ntaub ntawv cuam tshuam thiab cov ntaub ntawv, qhov nruab nrab kev siv tshuaj tua kab mob hauv Suav teb yog 138 grams, uas yog kaum npaug ntawm Tebchaws Askiv, yog qeb thib ib hauv ntiaj teb. Ib qho ntxiv, kev siv tshuaj tua kab mob hauv cov neeg mob hauv tsev kho mob hauv Suav tau txog 80%, thiab kev siv cov tshuaj tua kab mob dav dav thiab cov ntawv thov sib koom ua ke tau mus txog 58%, deb tshaj li thoob ntiaj teb qib ntawm 30%.

      Cefdinir yog ib ntawm cephalosporins, uas feem ntau ua los tua cov kab mob los ntawm inhibiting synthesis ntawm kab mob cell phab ntsa. Nws cov kab mob tua kab mob yog qhov dav, suav nrog qee cov kab mob gram-positive, nrog rau cov kab mob gram-negative. Yog li ntawd, cefdinir tuaj yeem siv hauv tsev kho mob los kho kab mob ntawm ntau qhov chaw tshwm sim los ntawm cov kab mob rhiab.

      Cov kab mob no tshwm sim hauv cov pa ua pa sab saud thiab pom tau tias yog pharyngitis, laryngitis, thiab tonsillitis. Nws kuj tuaj yeem tshwm sim hauv txoj hlab ntsws qis, xws li mob ntsws thiab mob ntsws. Nws kuj tseem tuaj yeem tshwm sim hauv cov zis, xws li cystitis, urethritis, thiab pyelonephritis. Nws kuj tseem tuaj yeem tshwm sim hauv cov txheej txheem kev ua me nyuam, xws li cov khoom siv ntxiv thiab prostatitis. Nws kuj tuaj yeem tshwm sim rau ntawm daim tawv nqaij thiab cov nqaij mos, ua rau pom raws li cov hauv paus hniav, tawv nqaij tawv nqaij, erysipelas, cellulitis, thiab lwm yam.

      Tus nqi tseem ceeb ntawm Cefdinir Capsules tuaj yeem xav txog ntau qhov chaw. Ua ntej tshaj plaws, Cefdinir Capsules yog ib txwm muaj. Nws muaj cov txiaj ntsig muaj zog tiv thaiv ntau yam kab mob hauv kev kho mob. Nws tuaj yeem kho ntau yam kab mob tib lub sijhawm nrog cov txiaj ntsig zoo ntawm kev siv tshuaj. Nws muaj txiaj ntsig kho tau zoo hauv kev kho mob gonococcal urethritis, mob ntsws adnexal thiab kab mob hauv lub tsev menyuam, nrog rau mob mastitis thiab perianal liab, thiab tiv thaiv kev kis mob tom qab ua haujlwm thiab ntau yam kab mob loj, tab sis tsawg tus neeg tuaj yeem ntsib plab zom mov, tsis xis nyob hauv plab, tawv nqaij tawv nqaij, thiab tsis muaj ntshav tom qab noj nws.

      Cefdinir tuaj yeem kho tus kab mob hauv qab no los ntawm Proteus mirabilis, Providencia, Haemophilus influenzae thiab lwm yam kab mob Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pneumococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Propionibacterium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli thiab Klebsiella uas nkag siab rau cefdinir:

      1. Pharyngitis, tonsillitis, mob ntsws ntev, mob ntsws;
      2. otitis media, sinusitis;
      3. Pyelonephritis, cystitis, gonococcal urethritis;
      4. Annexitis, intrauterine kab mob, bartholinitis;
      5. Kev kis tus kab mob thib ob ntawm mastitis, ua paug ncig lub qhov quav, raug mob lossis phais qhov txhab;
      6. Folliculitis, furuncle, boils, carbuncle, kis tus kab mob, erysipelas, cellulitis, lymphangitis, paronychia, subcutaneous abscess, mob pob txuv, mob ntev pyoderma;
      7. Blepharitis, sty, meibomitis.

      Cefdinir Side Effects

      1. Cefdinir Dosge

      Tom qab sib faib nrog dej, hais qhov ncauj lossis nqos nws ncaj qha. Cov koob tshuaj niaj hnub rau cov neeg laus yog 100 mg ib zaug, peb zaug ib hnub. Qhov koob tshuaj ib txwm rau menyuam yaus yog 9-18 mg/kg ib hnub twg hauv peb qhov kev faib faib. Qhov ntau npaum li cas tuaj yeem nce lossis txo kom tsim nyog raws li hnub nyoog thiab cov tsos mob, lossis raws li qhia los ntawm kws kho mob.

      2. Sab los

      Ceev faj

      Cefdinir-Ceev faj
      Cefdinir-Ceev faj

      Raws li kev coj ua, tom qab txiav txim siab nkag siab ntawm cov kab mob me me rau cov khoom no, chav kawm ntawm kev kho cov khoom no yuav tsum raug txwv rau lub sijhawm luv tshaj uas yuav tsum tau kho tus neeg mob kom tiv thaiv kev tsim cov kab mob tiv taus.

      Nws raug nquahu kom zam kev sib xyaw nrog kev npaj hlau. Yog tias kev siv ua ke tsis tuaj yeem zam tau, kev npaj hlau yuav tsum siv 3 teev tom qab noj cov khoom no.

      Vim tias muaj peev xwm ua rau poob siab thiab lwm yam kev tsis haum tshuaj, yuav tsum tau qhia ntxaws txog keeb kwm kev ua xua.

      Cov neeg mob hauv qab no yuav tsum siv nws nrog ceev faj:

      1. Cov uas muaj keeb kwm ua xua rau penicillin tshuaj tua kab mob;
      2. Cov neeg uas nquag ua rau mob hawb pob, ua pob ua xua, urticaria thiab lwm yam tsos mob rau lawv tus kheej lossis lawv cov txheeb ze;
      3. Cov neeg mob uas lub raum tsis ua haujlwm hnyav: Txij li thaum cefdinir tau nyob hauv cov ntshav ntawm cov neeg mob uas muaj lub raum tsis ua haujlwm ntev, qhov koob tshuaj yuav tsum raug txo thiab lub sijhawm nruab nrab ntawm kev tswj hwm yuav tsum tau txuas ntxiv raws li qhov mob hnyav ntawm lub raum tsis ua haujlwm. Rau cov neeg mob uas mob hemodialysis, koob tshuaj pom zoo yog 100 mg ib hnub ib zaug;
      4. Cov neeg mob uas muaj mob hnyav, tsis tuaj yeem noj zaub mov zoo lossis tsis noj zaub mov zoo, cov neeg laus, cachexia, thiab lwm yam (Vim tias tsis muaj vitamin K tuaj yeem tshwm sim, yuav tsum tau soj ntsuam kev soj ntsuam tas li).
      5. Thaum ua ke nrog cov khoom ntxiv hlau (xws li hmoov mis lossis khoom noj khoom haus nkag mus), quav liab thiab tso zis liab tuaj yeem tshwm sim.
      6. Hais txog kev siv tshuaj thaum cev xeeb tub, nws txoj kev nyab xeeb tseem tsis tau paub meej. Rau cov poj niam cev xeeb tub lossis poj niam uas xav tias yuav xeeb tub, qhov zoo thiab qhov tsis zoo ntawm cov tshuaj yuav tsum raug ntsuas, thiab nws tuaj yeem siv tau tsuas yog thaum cov kws tshaj lij ua rau raug mob.
      7. Qhov zoo thiab qhov tsis zoo ntawm kev siv tshuaj yuav tsum raug ntsuas los ntawm cov poj niam uas pub niam mis, thiab yuav tsum siv tsuas yog thaum cov kws tshaj li qhov tsis zoo.
      8. Kev nyab xeeb ntawm kev siv tshuaj rau menyuam mos ntxov thiab cov menyuam yug tshiab uas tsis muaj lub cev hnyav tsis tau lav.
      9. Vim tias kev ua haujlwm tsis zoo ntawm lub cev, cov neeg mob laus laus tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev phiv tshuaj.
      10. Vim tsis muaj vitamin K tsis txaus, cov neeg mob laus tuaj yeem muaj ntshav ntws.

      Tsis tas li ntawd, qhov cuam tshuam ntawm kev siv tshuaj ntau dhau cefdinir cov tseem tsis tau kawm. Hauv txoj kev tshawb fawb ntawm mob hnyav, mob hnyav, thiab mob txhab, ib qhov ncauj ntawm 5600 mg/kg tsis ua rau muaj kev phiv. Lwm yam beta lawm tshuaj tua kab mob tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev phiv hauv qab no thaum lawv siv ntau dhau: xeev siab, ntuav, raws plab thiab ntuav. Ntshav lim ntshav tuaj yeem tshem tawm cefdinir cov los ntawm tib neeg lub cev. Hemodialysis muaj txiaj ntsig zoo rau cov neeg mob uas muaj tshuaj lom lom tshwm sim los ntawm kev noj tshuaj ntau dhau, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog rau cov neeg mob uas lub raum tsis txaus.

      xaus

      Cefdinir belongs rau 3rd tiam cephalosporin. Txawm hais tias rau nws cov kab mob tua kab mob lossis ua haujlwm tua kab mob, nws tau zoo dua qub piv nrog ob tiam dhau los ntawm cephalosporins. Tab sis nws kuj muaj qee qhov tshwj xeeb tshwm sim, xws li quav liab thiab tso zis liab, uas xav tau peb saib xyuas.

      BALLYA muab a Betalactam cephalexin combo test kit qhia rau koj yog tias muaj beta lactam cov cov seem thiab cephalosporin seem hauv cov khoom siv mis uas koj noj txhua hnub.

      References