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Aflatoxina

Dab tsi yog aflatoxin?

Muab lo rau  Lub yim hli ntuj 31, 2020, Kho los ntawm Jason, Qeb  
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  1. Dab tsi yog aflatoxin?
    1. Lus txhais
    2. Cov Cai Ntau Lawm
    3. faib
    4. Lub cev nqaij thiab tshuaj muaj zog
  2. Puas yog aflatoxin muaj teeb meem rau tib neeg?
    1. Aflatoxin lom
    2. Cov tsos mob ntawm kev lom
    3. Cov yam ntxwv mob qog noj ntshav
  3. Kev Tshawb Nrhiav Aflatoxin
dab tsi-yog-aflatoxin
dab tsi-yog-aflatoxin

Dab tsi yog aflatoxin?

1. Lus txhais

Aflatoxin (ib hom mycotoxin) yog ob lub nplhaib furan uas ua los ntawm Aspergillus flavus thiab Aspergillus parasiticus rau qee yam. Muaj kwv yees li 20 yam ntawm nws cov txiaj ntsig, npe aflatoxin b 1, aflatoxin b 2, aflatoxin g 1, aflatoxin g 2, aflatoxin m 1, m2, GM, P1, Q1, cawv lom thiab lwm yam. Ntawm lawv, aflatoxin b 1 yog cov tshuaj lom thiab feem ntau ua rau mob qog noj ntshav. Yog tias tsiaj noj zaub mov tsis zoo los ntawm aflatoxin, cov tshuaj lom me me tuaj yeem kuaj pom hauv daim siab, raum, leeg nqaij, ntshav, mis nyuj thiab qe. Aflatoxin thiab nws cov kab mob qub tau faib dav hauv qhov, thiab qee cov kab mob ua rau ntau dua ib hom aflatoxin. Kuj tseem muaj cov ntawv uas tsis tsim aflatoxin hauv Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxins tsuas yog ua paug qoob loo, roj thiab lawv cov khoom, thiab ntau yam nroj tsuag thiab tsiaj zaub mov kuj tuaj yeem kis tau.

Nyob rau hauv 1993, tshuaj aflatoxin tau muab cais ua classⅠcarcinogen los ntawm World Health Organization (WHO). Lub Koom Haum Tshawb Fawb Cancer. "National Food Safety Standard Food Toxin Limits" (GB2761-2011) tau tshaj tawm xyoo 2011 qhia tias qhov txwv ntawm aflatoxin b 1 hauv cov txiv laum huab xeeb thiab lawv cov khoom yog 20ppb.

2. Cov xwm txheej ntau lawm

Kev tsim khoom ntawm AFT xav tau qee yam xwm txheej, thiab lub peev xwm ntawm cov kab sib txawv los tsim cov co toxins sib txawv heev. Ntxiv rau cov substrate, kub, av noo, thiab huab cua yog txhua yam xwm txheej tsim nyog rau kev loj hlob thiab tsim khoom ntawm AFT, cov kws tshawb fawb pom tias AFT thiab Aspergillus parasiticus loj hlob zoo ntawm qhov xwm txheej no: 33-38 ° C, pH 5.0 thiab Aw (dej kev ua haujlwm) 0.99. Thaum qhov kub nyob nruab nrab ntawm 24 ° C thiab 28 ° C thiab cov txheeb ze cov av noo siab dua 80%. Aspergillus flavus tsim cov tshuaj lom ntau tshaj plaws. Yog li ntawd, cov neeg nyob rau sab qab teb thiab thaj chaw sov thiab ntub tau ua rau AFT lom nyob rau lub caij nplooj ntoo hlav thiab lub caij ntuj sov, thiab qee cov qoob loo tuaj yeem kis tau los ntawm AFT txawm tias ua ntej lossis thaum sau qoob.

3. Kev xa Khoom

AFT feem ntau muaj nyob hauv av, tsiaj thiab nroj tsuag, ntau yam txiv ntoo, tshwj xeeb yog txiv laum huab xeeb thiab txiv ntseej. AFT kuj tseem muaj nyob hauv cov khoom lag luam xws li taum pauv, mov, pob kws, macaroni, qab zib, mis nyuj, Thiab siv roj. Hauv cheeb tsam chaw kub thiab muaj xyoob ntoo, qhov ntsuas pom ntawm tshuaj aflatoxin nyob rau hauv cov zaub mov yog tus siab. Kev faib tawm dav dav hauv Suav teb yog cov kab mob virulent feem ntau tshwm sim hauv nruab nrab Tuam Tshoj, Sab Qab Teb Tuam Tshoj, thiab Tuam Tshoj Sab Qaum Teb, thiab thaum muaj tsawg dua nyob rau thaj tsam Northeast thiab Northwest.

4. Lub cev nqaij thiab tshuaj muaj zog

Txawm hais tias muaj ntau yam Aspergillus flavus, lawv txhua tus muaj ob npaug furan nplhaib thiab oxaphthalone (tseem hu ua coumarin) hauv lawv cov qauv yooj yim. Qhov qub yog cov qauv tshuaj lom, thiab tom kawg tuaj yeem cuam tshuam nrog nws cov carcinogenesis.

AFT tsis yooj yim yaj hauv dej, hexane, ether thiab roj av ether, tab sis yooj yim soluble hauv cov kuab tshuaj organic xws li methanol, ethanol, chloroform, acetonitrile thiab dimethylformamide, nrog lub cev hnyav ntawm 312-346 thiab lub ntsiab lus yaj ntawm 200-300 ° C . AFT ruaj khov ntsib teeb pom kev, cua sov, thiab kua qaub, thiab tiv taus kub. Feem ntau, kev kho cua sov tsis tuaj yeem ua rau nws puas tsuaj, thiab tsuas yog decompose ntawm qhov chaw yaj.

Nws ruaj khov heev nyob rau hauv nruab nrab thiab tsis muaj zog acidic daws, me ntsis decomposed hauv acidic daws nrog pH 1 txog 3, thiab sai sai decomposed thiab puas hauv pH 9-10 daws. AFT tuaj yeem tawg sai sai thaum nws ntsib alkali. Thaum pH yog 9-10, nws yuav tawg sai sai rau yuav luag tsis muaj tshuaj lom ntsev, tab sis qhov tshuaj tiv thaiv no thim rov qab, uas yog hais, nws tuaj yeem thim rov qab raws li cov kua qaub. Yog li, qhov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob no tuaj yeem siv hauv kev tshem tawm cov zaub mov.

Cov tshuaj lom ntshiab tau ruaj khov ntawm cov qib siab, thiab cov tshuaj dawb huv ntawm cov ntsiab lus qis tau yooj yim decomposed los ntawm ultraviolet hluav taws xob. 5% sodium hypochlorite tov, Cl2, NH3, H2O2 thiab SO2 tuaj yeem ua tshuaj lom nrog AFT los rhuav tshem nws cov tshuaj lom. Hauv cov xwm txheej ntuj, AFT hauv zaub mov ruaj khov heev. Cov nplej muaj kab mob hnyav nrog AF-b1 tau khaws cia ib txwm nyob hauv chav sov ntau dua 20 xyoo, thiab cov tshuaj lom tau maj mam txo qis, tab sis aflatoxin b 1 tseem tuaj yeem kuaj pom.

Puas yog aflatoxin muaj teeb meem rau tib neeg?

1. Aflatoxin lom

Aflatoxin, 68 lub sij hawm muaj tshuaj lom ntau dua li arsenic, thib ob tsuas yog botulinum, tam sim no yog feem ntau pwm muaj pwm paub. Nws tau tshaj tawm tias kev phom sij ntawm aflatoxin nyob hauv nws qhov kev puas tsuaj rau tib neeg thiab tsiaj lub cev nqaij daim tawv. Hauv cov mob hnyav, nws tuaj yeem ua rau mob qog noj ntshav lossis tseem tuag taus. Aflatoxin b 1 yog qhov feem ntau tshwm sim hauv cov zaub mov tsis huv, thiab nws cov tshuaj lom thiab carcinogenicity kuj yog qhov muaj zog tshaj plaws.

"B1 yog cov phom sij txaus ntshai tshaj plaws. Nws feem ntau kuaj pom hauv pob kws, txiv laum huab xeeb, noob paj rwb, thiab qee cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo qhuav, ntawm cov txiv laum huab xeeb thiab pob kws yog cov kab mob ntau tshaj plaws. Cov khoom ua tsev fermented tuaj yeem kuaj pom aflatoxins, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog thaum kub. Cov kev tshawb nrhiav aflatoxin tus nqi ntawm cov nplej, roj thiab cov khoom lag luam hauv thaj chaw ntub dej ntau dua. " Ib tus neeg txheeb ze tau hais.

Feem ntau, qhov kub ua noj tsis tuaj yeem rhuav tshem nws, thiab qhov kub pyrolysis yog 280 ℃. Tsawg solubility hauv dej, soluble hauv roj thiab qee cov organic solvents, xws li chloroform thiab methanol, tab sis tsis yaj hauv ether, roj av ether thiab ethane.

2. Cov tsos mob ntawm kev lom

Cov kab mob loj hauv cov zaub mov yog aflatoxin b 1, thiab nws cov tshuaj lom feem ntau suav tias yog muaj peb tus yam ntxwv kho mob: mob hnyav, lom ntev thiab ua rau mob qog noj ntshav:

  • Tshuaj lom lom:
    Nws cov tshuaj lom tshwm sim tag nrho qhia hauv kev hloov pauv ntawm daim siab, tsis hais txog tsiaj twg, qhia pom tus kab mob siab, mob hemorrhagic necrosis, hepatocyte steatosis thiab bile duct hyperplasia. Tus po thiab tus txiav kuj tseem muaj qhov txhab me me.
  • Tshuaj lom ntev:
    Kev siv sij hawm ntev ntawm cov koob tshuaj me me tshuaj aflatoxin tuaj yeem ua rau mob hnyav. Qhov kev hloov pauv tseem ceeb yog ua rau daim siab puas tsuaj, xws li daim siab parenchymal cell degeneration thiab daim siab ua haujlwm. Muaj cov tsos mob tshwm sim xws li kev loj hlob qeeb ntawm cov tsiaj, poob phaus, muaj menyuam tsis taus lossis tsawg dua cov nyom.
  • Carcinogenicity:
    AFT tam sim no yog cov tshuaj lom carcinogenic tshaj plaws paub.

3. Cov yam ntxwv mob qog noj ntshav

  1. Nws muaj ntau yam carcinogenesis, uas tuaj yeem ua rau carcinogenesis hauv ntses, nqaij qaib, ntau yam kev sim tsiaj, tsiaj hauv tsev thiab tsiaj txhu;
  2. Cov kab mob carcinogenicity muaj zog, thiab nws lub peev xwm carcinogenic yog 10,000 npaug ntau dua li ntawm hexachlorocyclohexane;
  3. Nws tuaj yeem ntxias ntau yam aflatoxin mob cancer. AFT feem ntau ua rau mob qog noj ntshav, ntxiv rau mob qog noj ntshav, mob qog noj ntshav, mob qog noj ntshav, mob qog noj ntshav, mob qog noj ntshav, mob qog noj ntshav, mob qog noj ntshav ntawm zes qe menyuam thiab hauv plab, thiab teratogenesis.

Kev xeem Aflatoxin

1. Kev Ntsuas Txheej Nyuaj (TLC)

Txoj kev TLC yog txoj hauv kev zoo tshaj plaws rau kev tshawb nrhiav aflatoxin, thiab nws tseem yog txoj kev siv ntau tshaj plaws ua ntej. Nws tseem siv los ntawm qee lub tsev ntsuas thiab tseem yog txoj hauv kev txheej txheem hauv tebchaws. Lub hauv paus yog rho tawm tshuaj aflatoxin los ntawm cov qauv nrog qhov tsim nyog rho tawm hnyav rau cov qauv sib txawv, ntxuav nws los ntawm kem chromatography, thiab tom qab ntawd nthuav tawm nws ntawm cov phaj nyias rau kev sib cais. Siv cov yam ntxwv fluorescence ntawm tshuaj aflatoxin, txiav txim siab nws cov ntsiab lus raws li qhov siv ntawm qhov chaw fluorescent piv nrog tus qauv. Rau qee qhov piv txwv nrog cov khoom siv nyuaj, lawv yuav tsum nthuav dav hauv ob qho kev qhia kom tau txais kev nkag siab zoo dua.

TLC txoj kev xav tau cov cuab yeej yooj yim thiab tus nqi qis nrhiav pom, tab sis kev ua haujlwm yog qhov nyuaj thiab siv sijhawm ntau, kev rho tawm thiab kev ua kom huv tsis zoo tag nrho, kev nkag siab tsis zoo, thiab muaj kev phom sij ntau dua rau kev noj qab haus huv ntawm tus neeg teb xov tooj.

2. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

Txoj kev HPLC yog txoj hauv kev tshawb nrhiav tau tsim nyob rau xyoo tas los no. Lub hauv paus ntsiab lus yog ntxiv ib kem ntawm qhov ua tau zoo ua kua chromatography txhawm rau cais cov txheej txheem derivatization, thiab tom qab ntawd siv lub tshuab ntsuas fluorescence los ntsuas. Kev txhawb nqa tom qab-kab kev sib txuas ua ke suav nrog cov txheej txheem iodine derivatization, bromine derivatization method thiab ntau dua electrochemical derivatization method thiab photochemical derivatization method. Tam sim no, txoj hauv kev no feem ntau siv kab lus tiv thaiv kab mob kom huv thiab cais tawm, thiab nws cov txiaj ntsig kev ua kom huv yog qhov zoo heev.

Txoj hauv kev no tuaj yeem cais qhov sib txawv ntawm aflatoxins (piv txwv li: AFT-b1, AFT-b2, AFT-G1 thiab AFT-m1, thiab lwm yam), nrog kev kuaj pom sai, muaj txiaj ntsig zoo thiab muaj txiaj ntsig zoo, thiab txwv tsis pub muaj kev txwv ntau. Nws tuaj yeem siv los ua txoj kev txiav txim plaub ntug, tab sis cov cuab yeej siv yog kim, txoj kev ua ntej ua haujlwm yog qhov nyuaj. Yog tias siv kab lus immunoaffinity, nws yuav nce tus nqi ntawm kev kuaj pom, thiab tseem muaj qee yam phom sij rau kev noj qab haus huv ntawm tus neeg teb xov tooj.

3. Enzyme txuas Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

Txoj kev ELISA kuj yog ib txoj hauv kev tshiab uas tau tsim nyob rau xyoo tas los no. Lub hauv paus yog ua raws qhov tshwj xeeb kev tiv thaiv kab mob ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thiab cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob, thiab thaum kawg txoj hauv kev ntsuas kev ua haujlwm enzyme tau siv los txhawm rau txhawm rau txhawm rau ntsuas qhov ntsuas.

Txoj hauv kev no muaj kev kuaj pom sai, ua rau tib neeg lub cev tsis zoo, tab sis kev tsim khoom tsis zoo, lub neej luv, tsis muaj qhov kub cia, qhov tsis zoo qhov tshwm sim zoo, tshwj xeeb microplate nyeem ntawv, thiab ua tiav ntxiv thaum ua qee cov qauv nplua nuj hauv ntsev thiab rog.

4. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) kuj tseem yog txoj hauv kev tshiab los tshuaj xyuas aflatoxin. Txoj hauv kev no tuaj yeem siv ua ke nrog lub tshuab ua kom lub zog tsis muaj zog fluorescence detector (LIF) txhawm rau txhim kho kev nkag siab. Txawm li cas los xij, tus nqi ntawm CE txoj hauv kev yog tus nqi siab, thiab kev ua haujlwm nyuaj, thiab nws tsis haum rau daim ntawv thov dav hauv kev kuaj pom.

5. Fluorophotometry (IA C/S FB)

Txoj hauv kev IA C/SFB kuj tseem siv thoob ntiaj teb tus qauv txheej txheem. Lub hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm txoj hauv kev no yog siv lub ntsuas hluav taws xob txhawm rau txiav txim siab cov ntsiab lus ntawm aflatoxin hauv tus qauv siv qhov sib txawv ntawm cov yam ntxwv fluorescence ntawm ntau yam aflatoxins.

Txoj hauv kev tsis muaj kev phom sij rau kev noj qab haus huv ntawm cov kws tshuaj ntsuam, nrog kev kuaj pom sai, muaj kev nkag siab zoo, tsim nyog rau kev kuaj pom ntau qhov kev kuaj, thiab yog qhov muaj txiaj ntsig zoo, tab sis kev txheeb xyuas tus nqi siab, cov cuab yeej tshwj xeeb xav tau, thiab cov tshuaj lom ib leeg tsis tuaj yeem ua raug kuaj pom.

6. Daim ntawv lo daim ntawv ntsuas kub

Daim ntawv lo daim ntawv lo ntsuas kub yog qhov ua tau zoo-theem tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob. Lub hauv paus yog siv qhov tshwj xeeb khi cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob thiab antigen txhawm rau txheeb xyuas aflatoxin hauv ib qib. Txoj kev no tuaj yeem ua tiav qhov kev txiav txim siab tsim nyog ntawm tshuaj aflatoxin hauv cov qauv hauv 5-10 feeb. Nws yog qhov yooj yim thiab nrawm, thiab tsis xav tau kev koom tes ntawm lwm yam twj paj nruag thiab khoom siv. Nws tuaj yeem kuaj hauv chav kuaj lossis ntawm qhov chaw, tab sis qhov tseeb thiab qhov tseeb ntawm nws qhov kev kuaj pom yuav tsum tau kawm ntxiv.

7. Txoj kev biosensor

Lub tshuab biosensor yog lub cuab yeej siv siv thev naus laus zis thev naus laus zis los ua ke tshuaj lom neeg lub cev nrog lub peev xwm lees paub lub cev nrog lub cev hloov pauv lub cev, uas tuaj yeem siv los tshuaj xyuas cov tshuaj ib puag ncig hauv lossis tawm ntawm cov kab mob lossis tshwj xeeb cuam tshuam nrog lawv los tsim cov lus teb. Ntawm lawv, kev sib raug zoo biosensor npaj los ntawm kev tshwj xeeb ntawm cov molecules yog qhov chaw tiv thaiv kab mob. Raws li qhov sib txawv ntawm lub cev lossis tshuaj qhia los ntawm lub zog hloov pauv, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob suav nrog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv hluav taws xob, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob, piezoelectric siv tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob, thiab lwm yam. -cov chaw tshawb nrhiav, cov kws tshawb fawb tshawb fawb los ntawm ntau lub tebchaws tab tom tshawb nrhiav qhov kev txhim kho tshiab ntawm biosensors rau kev kuaj pom ntawm aflatoxin.

xaus

Aflatoxin tau nthuav dav thiab feem ntau pom hauv peb lub neej niaj hnub. Nws yog tshuaj lom heev thiab nyuaj rau rhuav tshem. Txoj hauv kev zoo tshaj ntawm kev khaws koj thiab koj tsev neeg los ntawm kev ua phem ntawm aflatoxin yog noj ntau yam kev tiv thaiv kev ntsuas thaum ntxov: khaws cov khoom noj kom zoo, thiab pov cov zaub mov tuaj pwm.

References

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